Tribology Convention 1969

Tribology Convention 1969

but praise for the organising committee and for the secretarial staffs of the three bodies. They did a first class job and must feel well rewarded to ...

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but praise for the organising committee and for the secretarial staffs of the three bodies. They did a first class job and must feel well rewarded to see such a successful result for their efforts. E. 1’. Jagger


Film cavitation observations in face seals, Nau, B. S. (British Hydromechanics Research Association, UK)


Load support and leakage from microasperity-lubricated face seals, Anno, J. N., Walowit, J. A., Allen, C. M. (Battelle Memorial Institute) An investigation of the operation and failure of mechanical seals, Orcutt, F. K. (Mechanical Technology Incorporated)

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The development of elastohydrodynamic conditions in a reciprocating seal, Dowson, D., Swales, P. D. (University of Leeds, UK) Dynamic behaviour of flexible seals for reciprocating motion, Hirano, F., Kaneta, M. (Kyushu University, Japan) MetaIlic and composite seals for jack rods, Walsh, R. H., Westcott, M. J., and Lydiard, W. G. (Royal Aircraft Establishment, UK) Seals for hydraulic equipment with fire-resistant fluids, Hopp, H., Martin Merkel K. G. Hertzian contact and adhesion of elastomers, Drutowski, R. C. (General Motors Research Laboratories) A novel type of bidirectional helix seal, the R-L seal, Scholten, G. J. (Philips Research Laboratories) The sealing force of rubber seals and its measurement, Aston, M. W. (Lucas Gas Turbine Equipment Limited, Rubber & Plastics Research Association, UK) Temperature of sealing lips, Upper, G. (Firma Carl Freudenberg, West Germany) The perforated V-ring, a new oil seal, Johansson, R., and Malmstrom, S. E. (Forsheda Gummifabrik AB, Sweden)


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Prediction of the penetration pressure in bolted flanged joints, Quansah, W. A. (University of Kumasi, Ghana) 11 Evaporative cooling applied to mechanical seals, Hershey, L. E. (Durametallic Corporation) 12 Temperature gradients in seal rings: a method of analysis, Robinson, R. P., Burton, H. (Flexibox Limited, UK) 13 The relationship between ringing heat transfer and sealing condition, Hirabayashi, H., Oka, K., Ishiwata, H. (Nippon Oil Seal Ind Co Ltd Japan)


14 Thermohydrodynamics in mechanical seals, Mayer, E. (West Germany) 15 The misaligned eccentric face seal, Sneck, H. J. (Renssaeler Polytechnic Institute) 16 The elastohydrodynamic lubrication of high pressure face seals, Hooke, C. J., O’Donoghue, J. P. (University of Birmingham, UK) 17 A theoretical and experimental investigation of a mechanical seal, Balakrishnan, K., Kar, S. (College of Engineering, India) 18 Theory of the mechanism of sealing in face seals, Kuzma, D. C. (General Motors Research Laboratories) 19 Leakage in the mechanical face seal including the effects of inward pumping and gas cavities, Findlay, J. A. (Generai Electric Company)


Golhenburg. Sweden 28th-30th May 1969 TRIBOLOGY CONVENTION 1969 The Institution of Mechanical Engineers Three topics received special emphasis at this conference; surface chemistry, the related topic of running in and the perennial problem of how piston rings work. All these provoked a lot of discussion and the first two had the happy effect of probing the chemists to the fore, not before time, in what has until now been a subject dominated by mechanical 190


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Face seal wear of metal lubricant composites, larich, J. J. (University of Virginia) Helium face seals in a cryogenic environment, W. J. (Pesco Products Division, Borg-Warner tion)

KauzCieslik, Corpora-

An engineering approach to the selection and application of mechanical seals, Lymer, A. (Flexibox Limited, UK) Design and test of an unloading gas barrier face seal, Greiner, H. F. (Seal01 Corporation) Shaft face seal with self acting lift augmentation for advanced gas turbine engines, Ludwig, L. P., Johnson, R. L. (NASA, Lewis Research Center) Aircraft gas turbine mainshaft face seals-problems and promises, McKibbin, A., Parks, A. (Pratt & Whitney Aircraft) Glossary of seal terms and their definitions, Brown Jr., P. F., et al (for ASLE/ASME and BHRA) Review of dynamic seal literature, Koenig, T. H., et al (for ASLE) Numerical solutions of the flow and pressure field in an idealized suiral grooved Dumping seal, Zuk, J., Renkel, H. (NASA, Lewis-Research Centre) An experimental study of the viscoseal, Fisher, C. F., Professor Stair, W. K. (University of Tennessee) Analysis of the turbulent screw seal, Vohr, J., Chow, C. Y.. (Mechanical Technology Incorporated) Preliminary experiments with the viscoseal pump concept in turbulence, Taylor, E. R. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory) Visco-type gas sealing, Hodgson, J. W., Milligan, M. W. (University of Tennessee) The development of three stage screw type labyrinth seal, Golubiev, A. I. (USSR Research Institute, USSR) Combined hydrostatic & hydrodynamic principles applied to non-contacting face seals, Gardner, J. F. (Crane Packing Company) Externally pressurized barrier shaft seals, Muller, H. K. (Institute for Machine Elements, West Germany) Design Optimization of self energized hydrostatic shaft seals, Adams, M. L., Colsher, R. J. (The Franklin Institute) Further experiments on the hydrodynamic disc seal, Thew, M. T. (University of Southampton, UK) Low leakage clearance seals for 600°F potassium--theoretical and experimental, Schnetzer, E., et aI (General Electric Company)

engineers. The deliberate widening of membership of the Tribology group is beginning to show results. Chlorinated extreme pressure (ep) additives have been supposed to work by forming a low-shear-strength ferrous chloride layer at temperatures above 200°C. Dr A E Jemmett cast doubt on this and proposed that carbonyl groups were formed which bonded themselves to the metal surface. His previous measurements of infra-red spectra of siloxanes had shown a peak caused by carbonyl groups bonded to a metal surface spectra taken with a similar multiple-bounce

technique exhibited similar peaks, Dr Jemmett said, showing that the additives broke down into hydrogen chloride and another fragment. Beyond this his present techniques (infrared photometry and differential scanning calorimetry) could not at present penetrate. Dr A R Lansdown praised Dr Jemmett’s techniques but doubted his results. The peaks in the spectra were too small to be taken as definite evidence and the energies used throughout the work were extremely low. Would Dr Jemmett please refine his techniques and continue his valuable work. An additive introduced for its ep and anti-wear (awl properties is likely to be suitable for one but much less suitable for the other. Messrs Allum and Forbes placed a number of metal dialkyl dithiophosphates in order of effectiveness as ep and aw agents. The metal atom was the major but not the only factor determining both ep and aw activity: the alkyl group took a minor role. Using a four-ball machine, Allum and Forbes deduced the folIowing order of decreasing ep activity in metal alkyl dithiophosphates: bismuth; silver and lead; antimony and tin; cadmium. iron, nickel and zinc. Decreasing aw activity came out as: zinc, cadmium and nickel; iron: silver; lead: antimony and tin; bismuth. No explanation of ep or aw activity was forthcoming however. As if to rub in the fact that the chemists were present, the invited lecture at a special evening session was given by Mr G D Galvin on surface chemistry; and most entertaining it was. Mr Galvin set out to instruct and succeeded in doing so. He explained surface tension, interfacial energy, surface activity, adsorption and why a liquid does or does not spread over a solid. Clean metal surfaces such as appear in cutting or in fatique cracks were so active that they could completely decompose a hydrocarbon. He also covered solid/solid and liquid/solid interfaces, dispersive agents, boundary lubrication and the chemical aspects of the effects of temperature on friction. In the final discussion session several speakers put forward theories to account for the taper of piston rings; wear, tilting and thermal distortion have all to be taken into account. Present theories should provide a means of calculating the flow of lubricant past a ring but the existence of piston slap indicated that pistons move in an orbit rather than a straight line. Running-in appeared in one paper only, that by Ostvik and Christensen, but recurred repeatedly in discussion. Ostvik and Christensen used a disc machine to show that correct running-in made larger loads or, alternatively, thinner films possible and that the statistical distribution of asperity heights changes during the running-in period. Beyond that few definite ideas were advanced. In spite of its learned appearance the content of this annual tribology conference was noticeably more practical than last year, especially in the version of practical reports. Conference papers 1 Lloyd, T., McCallion, H. ‘Journal bearings without circumferential symmetry under dynamic loading’ 2 Allum, K. G., Forbes, E. S. ‘The load-carrying properties of metal dialkyl dithiophosphates: the effect of chemical structure’


Brighton, D. K., Hooke, C. J., O’Donoghue, J. P. ‘Distortion of a squeeze film bearing’ 4 Hobbs, I&A., Mullet& G. W. ‘Effects of some hydraulic fluid lubricants on the fatigue lives of bearings’ 5 Lloyd, T. ‘The hydrodynamic lubrication of piston rings’ 6 Forbes, E. S., Allurn, K. G., Silver, H. B. ‘Load-carrying properties of metal dialkyl dithiophosphates: application of electron probe microanalysis’ 7

Jakobsen, K., Christensen, H. ‘Non-linear transient vibrations in journal bearings’ 6 Ostvik, R., Christensen, H. ‘Changes in surface topography with running-in’ 9 Jakobsen, K., Christensen, H. ‘Performance of oscillating bearings’ 10 11 12 13




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Lloyd, K. A., Wilson, R. W. ‘Formation of tin oxides on whitemetal bearings’ Dyson, A., Wilson, A. R. ‘Film thicknesses in elastohydrodynamic lubrication at high slide/roll ratios’ Lancaster, J. K. ‘Relationships between the wear of polymers and their mechanical properties’ Patrick, J. K., Chen, N. N. S. ‘Performance of a short multi-grooved capillary compensated hydrostatic journal bearing’ El Refaie, M., Hall&, J. ‘An experimental study of the apparent area of contact under nominally Hertzian contact of rough surfaces’ Vaessen, G. H. G., Commissaris, C. P. L., de Gee, A. W. J. ‘Fretting corrosion of Cu-Ni-Al against plain carbon steel’ Quinn, T. F. J. ‘An experimental study of the thermal aspects of sliding contacts and their relation to the unlubricated wear of steel’ Snidle, R. W., Archard, J. F. ‘Lubrication at elliptical contacts. ’ Fernlund, L. M. I., Kellstrom, E, M. ‘Optimum design of a sprial groove bearing.’

Practical reports 1 O’Donoghue, J. P., Hooke, C. J. ‘Design of inherently stable hydrostatic bearings’ 2 Jemmett, A. E. ‘The chemical behaviour of chlorinated additivks under medium range temperature conditions’ 3 Morris, N. R. W. ‘Application of dualine lubrication systems to hydro-electric turbines’ 4 Powell, D. G. ‘A study of the low-speed oscillating sliding of unlubricated En 1A steel surfaces’ 5 Scott, D., Blackwell, J. ‘Factors affecting laboratory accelerated testing of materials for rolling elements’ Hadley, J. W. ‘Heavy-duty hydraulic oils: experience with 6 the Vickers-Detroit test’ 7 Groszek, A. J. ‘The role of oleophilic surface in lubrication’


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