Longman Scientific & Technical

Longman Scientific & Technical

PUBLICATIONS IN REVIEW 289 Villamil, Josd 1976 Tourism in the Carribean. Paper presented to the Joint UNESCO-World Bank Seminar, Washington DC. Revi...

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Villamil, Josd 1976 Tourism in the Carribean. Paper presented to the Joint UNESCO-World Bank Seminar, Washington DC. Review assigned 26 March 1987 Submitted 18 May 1987 Revised version submitted 18 August 1987 Accepted 10 September 1987 Tourism


A Geographical


Douglas Pearce. Longman Scientific & Technical (Longman House, Burnt Mill, Harlow, Essex CM20 2JE, United Kingdom). Co-published in the United States with John Wiley & Sons, Inc. (605 Third Avenue, New York, NY 10158, U.S.A.). ISBN 0-470-20682-9, 1987, xv+229 pp (tables, figures, plates, references), $17.21 (paper). Frederick M. Helleiner Trent University, Canada Because tourism is a phenomenon that occurs in diverse and widely separated areas and that involves travel over even greater areas, it is not surprising that geographers have long taken an interest in it. W h a t is surprising is that no one has hitherto attempted to pull together into one volume the many geographical aspects of tourism. As noted in the opening sentence of this book, "The geography of tourism is not yet underpinned by a strong conceptual and theoretical base." Douglas Pearce has made a real effort to identify and present studies which might contribute to such an underpinning. Tourism Today: A Geographical Analvsis is not so much an analytical study in itself, as it is a compendium of several hundred other studies which, in one way or another, can be integrated into a conceptual framework. It reads like the obligatory literature survey with which any doctoral dissertation must begin. The book is well organized into spheres of study, and each one is presented as a collection of bibliographic entries whose relevance to the topic is carefully outlined. Therein lies the originality of Pearce's work, rather than in any new findings or primary research. At the beginning and at the end (Chapters 1 and 11), the conceptual framework around which the book is built is carefully explained, and further connecting links are used to introduce and conclude each chapter. While such a device may be necessary for continuity, it becomes somewhat repetitive if one sets out to read the book from cover to cover. In selecting the series of topics to be dealt with, the author adopts a refreshing departure from the conventional supply-and-demand (or source area and destination area) dichotomy into which tourism is usually classified. The artificiality of such a distinction becomes clear when one considers that every act of tourism (every tourism "event") simultaneously involves both a source and a destination. Instead, after touching in Chapter 2 on motivations and demand, the author deals sequentially with various scales of tourism traffic: international, intranational (by foreigners), and domestic. He then focuses on the particular attributes of island tourism, coastal resorts, and tourism in urban areas. Throughout the book, there is a particular emphasis on d a t a sources and analytical methods. In fact, an entire chapter is devoted to measuring spatial variations in tourism. This is the bias of an academic researcher. The appeal of the book is strong for those geographers with an academic bent, and Pearce successfully whets their appetites by constantly pointing out needs and opportunities for further research. For day-to-day operators in the business of tourism,



however, the book is of limited value unless one has the rare ability to translate the research findings into practical strategies. The concluding chapter makes only a halfhearted stab in this direction. The book certainly points the way for utilitarian purposes, but does so in a suggestive way rather than by offering explicit directives. North American researchers in the field of tourism have become accustomed to thinking of parks and wilderness issues as important ones to consider. Such concerns are scarcely addressed. The geographic traditions of spatial interaction and areal differentiation appear in this book to have largely elbowed aside the equally strong tradition of m a n - l a n d interaction. Moreover, the whole question of negative tourism impacts, whether ecological or sociological, appears to be given only minimal attention. This is but one more illustration of the somewhat divergent paths that tourism geographers (or recreation geographers) in North America and those in much of the rest of the world appear to have taken in recent decades. Most of the literature summarized by Pearce is from European sources and, understandably, Australasian ones, since his own base is in New Zealand. For that reason, it can be instructive for North Americans to use this book as a way of immersing themselves vicariously in the literature that is generally thought to be central to the geography of tourism. [] [] Review assigned 1 July 1987 Submitted 5 August 1987 Accepted 25 August 1987 Wildland


Ecology and Management

William E. Hammitt and David N. Cole. Wiley-Interscience (605 Third Avenue, New York NY, USA) ISBN 0-471-87291-1, 1987, ix + 341 pp (photographs, index) $37.50 (cloth). Ecology, Recreation

and Tourism

John M. Edington and M. Ann Edington. Cambridge University Press (32 East 57th Street, New York NY 10022, USA) ISBN 0-521-31409-7, 1986, viii + 200 pp (photographs, references, index) $33.00 (paper). Geoffrey Wall University of Waterloo, Canada Research on the impacts of recreation dates back to the 1930s when Bates (1935, 1938) produced his pioneering papers on the impacts of trampling upon vegetation. Since that time, and particularly in the 1960s and early 1970s, there has been a proliferation of studies of the impacts of recreation on various components of the environment. Particular attention was paid to the impacts of feet and vehicles on soils and vegetation, often associated with hiking and camping in relatively wild settings, although implications for wildlife and water quality also received some attention. Much of this literature, either implicitly or explicitly, was concerned with the carrying capacity of recreation areas. Carrying capacity may be defined as the ability of an area to sustain use without an unacceptable decline in the quality of the environment or the experiences of visitors. Although the majority of work was undertaken in wilderness settings, to the extent that wilderness users are a particular type of tourist and parks are tourist facilities, the research is relevant to tourism researchers and the managers of tourist sites. By the early 1970s, the research was sufficiently voluminous that monographs appeared which synthesized the literature. The first of these was written by