Free Communication (Oral) Presentations

Free Communication (Oral) Presentations

International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics 131, Suppl. 5 (2015) E72–E313 Free Communication (Oral) Presentations FCS01. Medical Education FCS...

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International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics 131, Suppl. 5 (2015) E72–E313

Free Communication (Oral) Presentations FCS01. Medical Education FCS01.1 TEACHING THE LAPAROSCOPIC APPROACH TO COLPO-SUSPENSION FOR GENUINE STRESS INCONTINENCE J. Mamo, A. Micallef Fava, I. Knyazev, D. Chetcuti. Mater Dei University Hospital, Msida, Malta Objectives: Training in the laparoscopic approach to Burch Colposuspension under the guidance of a mentor at the Minimally Invasive Gynaecology Unit. Method: Women presenting at the Gynaecological Clinic complaining of stress incontinence are assessed and management strategies were analysed, including urodynamic investigations. The results of conservative and medical therapies are explained to the patient as are the operative management options. The laparoscopic aspect for the gold standard operation is explained.Under the guidance of a mentor, doctors and specialists are trained to perform the laparoscopic approach to Burch Colposuspension. They are first trained on the virtual trainer in laparoscopic technique and observe several operations prior to being allowed to perform part and later all the operation under the guidance of the mentor. Results: Four trainees who are well versed in doing the laparotomy approach to Burch Colposuspension are given guidance and mentorship in the laparoscopic approach to the management of genuine stress incontinence. Twenty two patients have undergone the Burch colposuspension via the laparoscopic route compared with twenty open Colposuspensions. There was no significant increase in the duration of the laparoscopic operation compared with the open approach to the operation. No complications were encountered. The hospital stay was shorter then the laparotomy patients. Conclusions: It is important that the trainees have prior experience both in laparoscopic techniques and in the performance of the open approach to the Burch Colposuspension. The guidance of a mentor when learning the laparoscopic approach to Burch Colposuspension is considered essential at our Minimally Invasive Gynaecology Unit. FCS01.2 ENSURING COMPETENCY IN FAMILY PLANNING (FP) PROVISION USING THE HUMANISTIC APPROACH; FROM TRAINING TO PRACTICE H. Mukaddas 1 , E. Otolorin 2 . 1 National Obstetric Fistula Center Ningi, Bauchi State, Nigeria; 2 Jhpiego Corporation Nigeria, Abuja, Nigeria Objectives: To demonstrate use of a humanistic approach in competency based family planning training. Method: The intervention focused on 90 educators and preceptors engaged in the 10 different Health related institutions of Bauchi and Sokoto state, Nigeria who were assessed on Infection prevention in FP, Balanced Counseling Strategy and provision of long acting reversible contraception (LARC) before and after the in-service train-

ing intervention. Knowledge assessments were done on infection prevention and specific LARC methods. Skill assessments were conducted using Objective Structured Clinical Examinations (OSCE). During post training supervision after 3 months, participants’ coaching and demonstration skills were assessed during training of students in their respective schools. Results: The pre-intervention indicated paucity in the FP knowledge and skills of tutors that trained these human resources for health especially in the area of provision of long term methods of family planning. Average scores for the pretest were 48.4%. At post-test, all the 90 educators and preceptors scored more than 85% (post-training average mean score was 89%) in knowledge assessment and demonstrated satisfactorily the conduct of IUD and Jadelle insertion and removal. At 3 months post-training supervision, all the Educators and Preceptors satisfactorily demonstrated same skill and can couch students in the provision of IUD and Jadelle FP service. Conclusions: Educators/Preceptors can impact safe and better FP knowledge and skills using anatomic training models, thus competency based training of tutors can translate to better training of preservice students and increase in competent human resources for health that will address the health needs of the community. FCS01.3 PRACTICE OF GYNECOLOGY TRACK MEDICAL EDUCATION PROBLEM BASED LEARNING IN UNDERGRADUATE OBSTETRICS EDUCATION H. Kirubamani. Saveetha Medical College, Saveetha University, Thanadalam, Tamil Nadu/India, India Objectives: The assess effectiveness of Problem-Based learning in undergraduate obstetrics education. Method: At Saveetha Medical college 100 Medical students meet in small groups led by a facilitator and discuss carefully designed obstetric clinical cases and few station for obstetric drills were kept. The instructor in a PBL class facilitates the learning process by monitoring the progress of the learners and asking questions to move students forward in the problem solving process. At the end of the class they were able to gain necessary knowledge to solve the case. Results: Effectiveness was assessed by feed back questioner. 78% students had previous knowledge about PBL, 82% were able to understand theory well & made understanding of theory easy. 76% students felt it promotes self learning.68% were able to identify what they need to know & 83% were able to know what they already know because of group discussion. Problem analysis made them thing laterally in 81%, hand on drill improved there skill in 91.2%. understanding of clinical scenario was excellent after PBL. Rating of PBL methodology by students was excellent in 94%. Conclusions: PBL was found to be a more effective instructional approach for teaching obstetrics clinical cases than traditional lecture discussion. PBL is more stimulating, useful and not boring, session for students.

0020-7292/$ – see front matter © 2015 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

Free Communication (Oral) Presentations / International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics 131, Suppl. 5 (2015) E72–E313



L.R. Fiorelli, B.P. Blanco, N.P. Garcia, R.R.C. de Sa, T.R.H. dos Santos, J.M. Haddad, S.T.N. Arazawa, J.M. Soares Jr, E.V. da Motta, E.C. Baracat. Disciplina de Ginecologia do Departamento de Obstetrícia e Ginecologia do Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil

J. Nabukeera. Jhpiego, Kampala, Uganda

Objectives: To develop low-cost models that simulates pelvic anatomical structures and genital prolapse, in order to increase medical student learning on the Pelvic Organ Prolapse Quantification (POP-Q) system. Method: Four monitor-students who previously attended the course, oriented by the course coordinators were assigned to develop new anatomy teaching models. The monitors created a low cost anatomic model using socks, elastic bands, cellophane, Velcro, cardboard cylinders, and ink pen. These materials were shaped to simulate the vagina, pelvic fascia and the main pelvic ligaments. A second model was designed to simulate different cases of genital prolapse in order to teach POP–Q classification. After classes that used these models, the students filled a questionnaire. Results: This study showed increased interest from monitorstudents in the design and production of didactic models. The models were effective to increase pelvic anatomy and pelvic organ prolapse learning for third-year medical students. All students approved as complementar activity after expositive class and before the contact with real patient. Conclusions: Anatomical model is a useful and effective method for teaching gynecological propaedeutic, as well as to enhance the understanding of genital prolapse. They can be developed in an academic environment using low-cost materials. FCS01.5 INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY TO IMPROVE GYNECOLOGICAL PROPAEDEUTIC TEACHING IN MEDICAL SCHOOL L.R. Fiorelli, L. Couceiro, A.F.F. Pan, B.C.A. Rodrigues, F.S. Terzi, T.R. Figueredo, T.R. Lourenço, M. Tacla, J.M. Haddad, S.T.N. Arazawa, C.L. Wen, J.M. Soares Jr, E.V. da Motta, E.C. Baracat. Disciplina de Ginecologia do Departamento de Obstetrícia e Ginecologia do Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil Objectives: Create virtual environment with learning objects for medical students to improve gynecological propaedeutic teaching in Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo. Method: Monitor-students, course coordinators and telemedicine professor identified demands for audiovisual resources to improve gynecological propaedeutic teaching, with priority for Primary Care. Results: Graphics, flowcharts, woman virtual videos based on dynamic 3D graphics computing, videos of history and fundamental examination techniques were developed. Moreover, a debate in roundtable format with teachers and monitors were recorded. All materials prepared and used in class were available in Moodle platform with restricted access by password and Tablets in the University of Sao Paulo Library. An example of material is available on Moreover, the work group established more link between professors and monitors and allowed the adequacy of educational materials. Conclusions: Audiovisual resources and interactivity improve gynecological propaedeutic teaching in Medical School. Their availability in virtual environment increases the accessibility of materials by students and promotes learning.


Objectives: The project aims to provide evidence for operationalization of the LDHF training methodology in technical areas outside of HMS/HBB within MNCH in the Ugandan context. Method: Jhpiego is supporting three local NGOs to implement the LDHF training approach in 3 different technical areas: 1) paediatric HIV, 2) integrating family planning and HIV care, and 3) post abortion care. The first step was capacity building of the local NGOs and MoH units to design, develop and adopt materials into LDHF format. With the assistance of curriculum development specialists and instructional designers, the stakeholders were engaged and trained to standardise and harmonise training resources. Following material refinement, the NGOs and MOH are currently piloting the adapted training materials. Results: Three curriculum documents for paediatric HIV, integrating family planning into HIV care and post abortion care, as well as corresponding assessment tools, trainer and trainee guides have been developed for roll out during project implementation. Many lessons have been learned regarding the challenges and process of adapting curriculum to the LDHF format and the roll out of the training in the respective technical areas. Conclusions: To date, it has been noted that it is vital to revise curriculum of training materials and adapt into the LDHF format before implementation given that most of the materials are developed according to the traditional methods of training. In many cases this will result in the need to engage external curriculum development experts as technical expertise does not always translate into curriculum development expertise. Additionally, for the technical areas that lack a significant practical skills component, the LDHF approach must be applied in innovative ways such as sms alerts and elearning to achieve the high frequency component. FCS01.7 IMPROVING SURGICAL SKILLS OF OBGYN RESIDENTS THROUGH PARTNERSHIP WITH RURAL HOSPITALS: EXPERIENCE FROM SOUTHEAST NIGERIA O. Umeora 1 , A. Onyebuchi 1 , N. Emma-Echiegu 2 , J. Eze 1 , P. Ezeonu 1 . 1 Federal Teaching Hospital, Abakaliki, Nigeria; 2 Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki, Nigeria Objectives: To evaluate the impact of rural clinical rotations in Southeast Nigeria on the training of Obstetrics & Gynaecology resident doctors. Method: This was a mixed method cross sectional study using information from self-administered questionnaires, three focus group discussions and an in depth interview involving residents in Obstetrics & Gynaecology of the Federal Teaching Hospital Abakaliki. OBGYN residents rotate through rural mission hospitals for two to three months. Consultants supervise their activities during the posting. A total of 47 residents have undergone such postings. The Health Research Ethics Committee granted ethical approval and data was analyzed using Epi info (CDC, Atlanta USA). Results: Thirty four of 38 (89.5%) questionnaires were analyzed. There was a 900% and 460% rise in the rate of Emergency and elective Caesarean sections respectively performed by junior residents. There were similar increases with regard to gynaecological procedures. Senior residents had a 100% and 80% rise in performance of total abdominal hysterectomy and myomectomy respectively. Seventy-five percent of the residents believed their surgical skills improved while for 87.5% of the senior residents, their administrative skills improved greatly. Residents’ self confidence was boosted and they took quicker


Free Communication (Oral) Presentations / International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics 131, Suppl. 5 (2015) E72–E313

decisions. They however wanted an improvement in their welfare at the rural posts. Conclusions: Clinical rotations through high volume rural hospitals offer an opportunity for further training in surgical skills, clinical knowledge and administrative skills of resident doctors in obstetrics and gynaecology. A scale up of this programme nationwide is advocated. FCS01.8 A RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL OF LOW VERSUS HIGH FIDELITY SIMULATION TRAINING ON COMFORT, COMPETENCE, AND SKILLS WITH INTRAUTERINE DEVICE INSERTION J. Perez-Peralta 1,2 , M.J. Haviland 1 , S. Nippita 1,2 , S. Voit 3 , M.R. Hacker 1,2 , M. Paul 1,2 . 1 Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Boston, MA, USA; 2 Harvard Medical School, Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology, Boston, MA, USA; 3 Affiliates Risk Management Services (ARMS), New York, NY, USA Objectives: Intrauterine contraception (IUC) is highly effective, but must be inserted by trained providers. There is limited published research on optimal methods for training providers on IUC insertion. This study aims to compare novice learners’ comfort, competence, and skills with intrauterine device (IUD) insertion after practice with a high-fidelity simulator compared to a traditional low-fidelity. Method: We enrolled interns and nurse practitioner students who had inserted <5 IUDs. Participants were randomized to practice on the ARMSPelvicSim™ high fidelity simulator or a low-fidelity coaster-like model. All participants viewed didactic slides and an insertion tutorial before practicing. Participants answered questionnaires immediately before and after practice, and after three months. They were asked to evaluate self-perceived comfort and competence, as well as the value of the three training components (lectures, videos, and models.) Participants were video recorded inserting three IUD types (levonorgestrel 52mg, levonorgestrel 13.5mg, and copper T380A) into a model. Skills were evaluated using a standardized checklist. Results: Sixty participants enrolled, 29 were randomized to PelvicSim™, 30 to coaster; 59 (98.3%) completed the initial visit, 48 (80.0%) completed 3 months follow-up. The majority (66.1%) were nurse practitioner students. Median age was 27 years. Immediately postpractice, both groups reported similarly increased competence and comfort with the IUD insertion steps and with inserting the three IUD types (p>0.1 for all). Three months after, both groups reported similarly decreased comfort and competence with same activities (p>0.05 for all). PelvicSim™ participants (92%) valued their model compared to coaster participants (56.7%) (p=0.007). Skills analysis is ongoing and will be presented at the conference. Conclusions: Although the high fidelity group perceived greater value of its assigned model (PelvicSim™) compared to the low fidelity group, the type of model used to practice IUD insertion did not affect self-reported competency and comfort among trainees inexperienced with IUD insertion. The effect on insertions skills will be determined by the time of the conference.

FCS02. Medical Education FCS02.1 ATTITUDE OF PATIENTS TO MEDICAL STUDENTS’ PARTICIPATION IN THE GYNAECOLOGY CLINIC: AN AFRICAN PERSPECTIVE H. Ezegwui, A. Adiuku-Brown, I. Ezegwui, B. Ozumba. Department of Obstetrics GynaecologyCollege of Medicine Universityof Nigeria EnuguCampus, Enugu, Nigeria Objectives: This study was undertaken to determine the attitude of

patients to the participation of medical students in their evaluation in the gynaecology clinic from an African perspective. Method: This was a descriptive cross sectional survey. Selfadministered questionnaires were given to consecutive patients attending the gynaecology clinic of the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital Enugu. Results: 195 Patients were studied. Most (n=147, 75.4%) were willing to allow medical students participate in their consultation. Some (n=78, 66.1%) preferred they participate in the history taking only. Seven (3.5%) refused any form of participation. About three-quarters (75.4%) were comfortable giving their history in the presence of female medical students; whereas only 35.6% reported same for examination in the presence of male medical students. Age and marital status were identified as influencing the acceptance of medical students of either sex. Older women that are married and had children were more agreeable to medical students’ participation. Conclusions: Majority of the women were willing to allow medical students participate in their assessment in the gynaecology clinic, but there is a preference for female students. It may be preferable to target older and married women for involvement in education of medical students. FCS02.2 HUMAN RESOURCES FOR HEALTH (HRH) PROGRAM IN RWANDA: BUILDING CAPACITY FOR GYNECOLOGY ONCOLOGY TRAINING IN OBSTETRICS AND GYNECOLOGY RESIDENCY R. Ghebre 1,2 , U. Magriples 3 , P. Bagambe 4 , R. Petersen 2 , D. Ellis 1 , M. Small 1,5 , W. Hill 1,5 , T. Randall 6,7 , S. Rulisa 4,8 . 1 1Human Resources for Health Program Rwanda, Kigali, Rwanda; 2 Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Women’s Health, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA; 3 Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology & Reproductive Sciences, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, USA; 4 Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Rwanda, Kigali, Rwanda; 5 Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Duke University School of, Durham, North Carolina, USA; 6 Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA; 7 Global Oncology Initiative, Harvard Cancer Center, Boston, Massachusetts, USA; 8 Department of Clinical Research, University Teaching Hospital of Kigali, University of Rwanda, Kigali, Rwanda Objectives: The 1994 genocide in Rwanda had devastating effects on healthcare and education. In response to this crisis, the government set specific healthcare goals to be met by 2020. In 2012, the HRH program was developed through the Rwandan Ministry of Health in partnership with the Clinton Health Access Initiative and US and Rwandan academic institutions. This seven-year program aims to improve healthcare outcomes through medical education and management models. Presently, there is no in-country gynecology oncologist. It is imperative to incorporate a gynecologic oncology curriculum into medical school and residency education in order to advance women’s health in Rwanda. Method: We evaluated the growth of the existing residency program and developed a gynecology oncology curriculum for Obstetrics and Gynecology residents to be incorporated into the four-year formal Obstetrics and Gynecology residency at the University of Rwanda, College of Medicine and Health Sciences. This curriculum was implemented through lectures, skills labs, and clinical work at two of the six sites where residents train through the University of Rwanda, the University Teaching Hospital of Kigali (CHUK) and the University Teaching Hospital of Butare (CHUB). Additional needs for the curriculum were assessed through focus group discussion with residents and staff at each site. Results: The residency program expanded from 17 residents in 2012 to 47 residents in 2015. Residency education takes place at two teaching hospitals and four district hospitals. The curriculum is ex-

Free Communication (Oral) Presentations / International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics 131, Suppl. 5 (2015) E72–E313

ecuted through morning report at all sites, weekly scheduled didactics, bedside teaching on daily rounds, direct operating room supervision, and research mentorship. In 2014–2015, nine US faculty were recruited including one full time US board certified gynecology oncologist. A Gynecology Oncology curriculum was incorporated into the formal training program with a focus on: cervical cancer, breast cancer, gestational trophoblastic disease and complex pelvic surgery techniques. Conclusions: Despite significant advances in maternal and fetal health outcomes in Rwanda there is still room for improvement, specifically in gynecologic oncology. The HRH model of consortium of US academic institutions and University of Rwanda partnership to implement gynecology oncology residency training is a unique model of post graduate education. The partnering of US faculty and University of Rwanda faculty to implement the curriculum is one model of sustainable medical education in low resource setting. There is still need for further investigation regarding the efficacy of the entire curriculum which would require competency based testing. FCS02.3 DEVELOPMENT OF AN INTERN EDUCATION CURRICULUM IN OBSTETRICS AND GYNAECOLOGY AT QUEEN ELIZABETH CENTRAL HOSPITAL IN MALAWI A. Kachikis 1 , R. Tildesley 2 , P. Bonongwe 4 , F. Taulo 1 , A. Msusa 1 , R. Mataya 1,3 . 1 University of Malawi College of Medicine, Blantyre, Malawi; 2 Wirral University Hospital Trust, Liverpool, UK; 3 Loma Linda University, Loma Linda, USA; 4 Malawi Ministry of Health, Blantyre, Malawi Objectives: Before becoming qualified physicians, newly graduated medical officers in Malawi are required to complete an 18-month internship. Six months are spent in the obstetrics and gynaecology departments at either Kamuzu Central Hospital in Lilongwe or Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital in Blantyre. Following their internship, the majority of medical officers are assigned to work at the district health offices or district hospitals with minimal or no supervision of specialist physicians. The objective of the intern education curriculum is therefore to solidify key concepts in obstetrics and gynaecology and to create a standardized competency-based training curriculum. Method: Key educational topics and essential practical skills have been identified and developed into twelve educational sessions. Each session is designed to have a discussion on one of the key topics followed by practical skills training. The education sessions take place on a weekly basis. Following the twelve weeks, the sessions are then re-cycled, giving opportunity for each intern to attend the majority of the sessions. Results: The teaching sessions began in November of 2014. The number of intern participants has ranged from 5–12 interns per week. The educational sessions cover topics ranging from obstetrics to benign gynaecology, gynaecologic oncology and family planning. The practical skills sessions involve basic surgical skills, caesarean sections, operative deliveries, obstetric emergencies, ultrasonography, cardiotocography, WHO contraceptive eligibility criteria and cervical cancer screening. To date, over 30 interns have participated in the educational sessions. Conclusions: Participant feedback has been positive, although some interns report difficulty balancing clinical responsibilities with the education sessions. Some interns have even expressed the desire for more hands-on training. The next step of the education program is to develop competency forms for practical skills such as caesarean sections and basic ultrasonography that must be signed-off by consultants or upper-level registrars. Another step is to conduct research regarding the impact of the program. Increased attention must be given to providing continuing education and practical skills training to medical officer interns in order to help improve mother and child health in rural Malawi.


FCS02.4 ASSESSING THE IMPACT ON SAFETY CULTURE OF INTRODUCING A MULTI-PROFESSIONAL TEAM TRAINING DAY TO A GYNAECOLOGY UNIT S. Channing 1 , N. Ryan 1 , K. Collins 2 , S. Barnes 3 , J. Mears 2 , T. Draycott 2 , D. Siassakos 2 . 1 St. Michael’s Hospital, University Hospitals Bristol NHS Foundation Trust, Bristol, UK; 2 Southmead Hospital, North Bristol NHS Trust, Bristol, UK; 3 University of Bristol, Bristol, UK Objectives: Team training is embedded into the obstetrics department at North Bristol NHS Trust and there is evidence that it improves care and outcomes. A recent study has also shown that implementing team training on general surgical wards within the same hospital, using the same model of on-site multi-professional drills for all staff, can improve safety culture beyond maternity. The objective of this study was to determine whether the introduction of a multiprofessional team training day, based on the local obstetric model, would also improve safety culture in our gynaecology unit. Method: This interrupted time-series study evaluated the impact of introducing multi-professional training for all doctors, nurses and HCAs working regularly on the gynaecology unit. Two sessions ran with all staff encouraged to register to attend. Safety culture was measured using an adapted version of the validated (Sexton) “Safety Attitudes Questionnaire”. 42 (82%) of eligible staff completed the questionnaire before the introduction of training and 30 (67%) completed it 14 months later. Results: The baseline scores before implementation of training were lower than those seen in several other studies looking at safety culture, including those of our adjoining maternity unit. It was much more difficult to establish training on the gynaecology ward, despite it being adjoined to a unit with strong track record of training and international reputation for impact on outcomes. After training, there was large improvement in scores for safety climate (62.41 pre-training to 66.51 post-training) and job satisfaction (57.71 pretraining to 63.41 post-training). Conclusions: Low baseline safety climate scores in our gynaecology unit coincided with difficulty in establishing training. We encountered several challenges, including the cancellation of days due to staff being unable to be released to attend. It Is possible that those wards that need training the most, because of poor safety culture, are also the ones where training is most difficult to establish. Now that we know that multi-professional training works, we need to understand how to address the barriers to getting it started. FCS02.5 SIMULATED ROBOT ASSISTED MYOMECTOMY USING A 3-D PRINTED MODEL M. Towner 1 , J. Stone 1 , J. Carrillo 1 , W. Vitek 1 , G. Frishman 2 , A. Ghazi 1 , B. Bhagavath 1 . 1 University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY, USA; 2 Alpert Medical School at Brown University, Providence, RI, USA Objectives: To design an inexpensive, novel, high fidelity simulated inanimate model for physical learning experience (S.I.M.P.L.E.) that offers a platform for training advanced MIS skills in Gynecology. Method: Using a proprietary method, anatomically correct models of the human uterus and relevant structures were created using poly-vinyl alcohol (PVA) hydrogels. These are achieved through graded polymerization of the hydrogel by inducing crosslinks during freeze/thaw (FT) cycles, thereby stiffening the structure to the desired consistency. An expert in the field performed a simulated robot assisted myomectomy and completed a structured questionnaire. Three additional experts assessed the recorded procedure. Results: The model was determined to have high face validity (average score of 4.17/5), calculated by ratings of realism. Usefulness of


Free Communication (Oral) Presentations / International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics 131, Suppl. 5 (2015) E72–E313

the model as a training tool, demonstrated content validity with an average score of 4.56/5. Conclusions: Our realistic, inexpensive, high fidelity model offers an optimistic platform for procedural Gynecology simulation. If combined with the current basic task training, it could offer comprehensive training prior to operative exposure. FCS02.6 MEDICAL STUDENTS ARE AFRAID TO INCLUDE ABORTION IN THEIR FUTURE PRACTICES: IN-DEPTH INTERVIEWS IN MAHARASTRA, INDIA S. Sjostrom 1,2 , B. Essén 2 , K. Gemzell-Danielsson 1 , M. Klingberg-Allvin 1,3 . 1 Department of Women’s and Children’s Health, Division of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; 2 Department of Women’s and Children’s Health/IMCH, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; 3 School of Health and Social Sciences, Dalarna University, Falun, Sweden Objectives: To explore the attitudes and perceptions toward abortion care services, medical abortion and task shifting in abortion care, among medical students in Maharastra, India. Method: We used a qualitative emergent design conducting in-depth interviews with twenty-three medical students in Maharastra applying a topic guide. Data was organized using thematic analysis with an inductive approach. Results: Participants described a fear to provide abortion in their future practice. They lacked understanding of the law and confused the legal regulation of abortion with the law governing sex selection, concluding that abortion is illegal in Maharastra. Medical students’ attitudes were supported by their experiences and perceptions from the clinical setting as well as traditions and norms in society. Medical abortion using mifepristone and misoprostol was believed to be unsafe and prohibited in Maharastra. Students perceived that nursemidwives were knowledgeable in Sexual and Reproductive Health and many found that they could be trained to perform abortions in the future. Conclusions: To increase chances that Medical students in Maharastra will perform abortion care services in their future practice it is important to strengthen their confidence and knowledge through improved medical education including value clarification and clinical training. FCS02.7 MODIFIED OPEN PRIMARY TROCAR ENTRY IN GYNECOLOGICAL LAPAROSCOPY – A BETTER OPTION S. Sud. Sud Surgical & Laparoscopy Hospital, Nagpur, Maharashtra, India Objectives: To compare ease of technique and complications of modified open laparoscopy primary trocar entry with closed veress needle entry. Method: A retrospective comparative study of ease of technique and intraoperative and postoperative complications in all gynecological patients including previous laparotomy undergoing diagnostic and therapeutic laparoscopy via modified open primary trocar entry and closed veress needle entry over a period of 7 year period from Jan 1, 2008 to Dec 31, 2014 at a private hospital, Nagpur,India.2420 women underwent laparoscopy using modified open primary trocar entry (n=1570) and closed veress needle entry (n=850). Statistical analysis done by using percentages & chi square test. P values <0.05 were considered as significant. Results: Recorded intraoperative and postoperative complications in modified open primary trocar entry include failure to enter (0.25%), omental injury (0.31%), subcutaneous emphysema (0.12%), surgical site infection (0.25%) and non-cosmetic healing (0.25%). Closed veress needle entry include vascular injury (0.35%), visceral injuries (0.23%),

failure to enter (0.5%), omental injury (1%), subcutaneous emphysema (0.7%), surgical site infection (0.58%)and non-cosmetic healing (0.23%).Closed veress needle entry shows statistically significant higher rate of vascular injury, failure to entry, subcutaneous emphysema, surgical site infection and omental injury (p<0.05). Ease of technique found in modified open primary trocar entry. Conclusions: Primary trocar puncture is one of the most common causes of injury in laparoscopy. The most prominent entry in gynecological laparoscopic surgery remains a closed technique. This technique has unfortunately been demonstrated in multiple series to have the potentials for visceral and vascular injuries due to its blind insertion of veress needles and trocars. In this study, modified open primary trocar entry technique is found to be an easy, safe and effective method of obtaining access to the abdominal cavity with fewer complications in comparison to closed veress needle entry.

FCS03. Sexual and Reproductive Rights FCS03.1 PREVALENCE AND PATTERN OF RAPE AS ATTENDED, IN ENUGU STATE UNIVERSITY TEACHING HOSPITAL, SOUTH EAST NIGERIA S.R. Ohayi 2 , E.C. Ezugwu 1 , C.O. Chigbu 1 , S.U. Arinze-Onyia 2 , C.A. Iyoke 1 . 1 Department of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Ittuku-Ozalla, Enugu State, Nigeria; 2 Enugu state University Teaching Hospital, Enugu, Enugu State, Nigeria Objectives: To determine the prevalence and pattern of rape as attended, in Enugu State University Teaching Hospital, South east Nigeria. Method: A prospective descriptive study of female victims of rape that presented at the emergency gynecological and/or forensic unit of Enugu State University Teaching hospital (ESUTH) over 18 months period between 1st February, 2012 and 31st July, 2013. All female rape victims who reported at the hospital were counseled and informed consent was obtained from each participants. Data were collected using a pretested interviewer- administered questionnaire. Analysis was done using Epi info version 17. P value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Ethical approval for the study was obtained from the hospital Ethics committee. Results: There were 121 reported rape victims and 1374 gynaecological emergencies giving a prevalence rate of 8.81% of all gynaecological emergencies. The mean age of the rape victim was 13.05±8.13 years. Majority (n=90, 74.4%) of the victims were below the age of 18 years. Although majority of the rape cases in both group were penetrative (74.4%), non-penetrative sex was ten times higher among young victims less than 18 years. None of the victims reported use of condom by the perpetrators.Majority (n=74, 61.2%) of the victims reported late at the hospital. Four (3.3%) of the victims became pregnant. Conclusions: A significant number of women that presented at the Gynecology emergency/forensic unit of ESUTH were victims of rape. As we condemn such abuse of sexual and the reproductive right of women, victims should be encouraged to report early at the hospital for prompt intervention to prevent unwanted pregnancy and possibly sexually transmitted disease. FCS03.2 ENHANCING THE VALUE OF WOMEN RIGHTS THROUGH IMPLEMENTATION OF COMMUNITY BASED INTERVENTIONS IN TWO GOVERNORATES OF UPPER EGYPT A. Metwally, R. Saleh, A. Tawfik, L. El Etreby, S. Salama, S. Hemeda, T. Taha. National Research Center, Dokki- Giza, Egypt Objectives: To evaluate the influence of the use of educational and promotional material along three years on enhancing the awareness

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of the women about their reproductive rights during pregnancy and postpartum period for requesting adequate care either in pregnancy, labor, or puerperium. Method: An interventional study was conducted among 1150 married women in the reproductive age in El Fayoum and Benisuef governorates of Egypt. The study passed through three stages; preinterventional assessment of women awareness, educational interventions targeting the health providers and women in their communities, and post-intervention evaluation of the change in the women’s awareness by their rights for prenatal, natal and postnatal care. Results: The studied indicators related to receiving care either in pregnancy, labor, or puerperium have changed dramatically as a result of the project interventions. The percentages of women who new their right to have pregnancy card increased and those who possessed a pregnancy card were doubled. Some indicators showed improvement more than 75%, out of which; percent of surveyed women who know that it’s their right to follow up their pregnancy and to deliver with a specialized doctor, a trained nurse or at an equipped health facility, and those who know their right to have safe delivery at home. Conclusions: More work is needed in in order to reach the required achievement for maternal mortality reduction through ensuring accessible and high quality care before provided by the governmental health facilities together with increasing the awareness of women regarding their rights in receiving such care. FCS03.3 PERCEPTIONS OF MARRIED IRANIAN WOMEN REGARDING SEXUAL RIGHTS R. Janghorban 1,2 , R. Latifnejad Roudsari 2 , A. Taghipour 5 , M. Abbasi 3 , I. Lottes 4 . 1 Department of Midwifery, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran; 2 Department of Midwifery, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran; 3 Medical Ethics and Law Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; 4 Department of Sociology and Anthropology, University of Maryland, Baltimore County, Baltimore, USA; 5 Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, School of Health, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran Objectives: There has been a recent shift in the field of sexual health, representing a move away from biomedical concerns to sexual rights frameworks. However, few studies on sexuality are based on a rights framework. The unspoken nature of sexuality in Iranian culture has led to a lack of national studies on the topic. The objective of this study was to explore the perceptions of married Iranian women on sexual rights in their sexual relationships. Method: In this grounded theory study, 37 participants (25 married women, 5 husbands, and 7 midwives) were selected. Data were collected through in-depth interviews and analyzed through open, axial, and selective coding using MAXQDA software version 2007. Results: The analysis revealed the core category of women’s sexual relationships: “sexual interaction in the shadow of silence”. The interrelated categories subsumed under the core category included adopting a strategy of silence, trying to negotiate sex, seeking help, and sexual adjustment. Conclusions: The silence originating from women’s interactions with their families and society, from girlhood to womanhood, was identified as the core concept in Iranian women’s experiences of sexual rights. A focus on husbands’ roles seems salient because they can direct or alter some learned feminine roles, especially silence regarding sexual matters, which then affects the realization of women’s sexual rights.


FCS03.4 SMART INVESTMENT: YOUNG PEER EDUCATORS SERVING AS A BRIDGE TO LINK DEMAND AND SUPPLY OF SEXUAL AND REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH SERVICES IN SOUTHERN REGION, ETHIOPIA M. Soressa. Pathfinder International, Hawassa, Southern Nations Nationalities and Peoples Region (SNNPR), Ethiopia Objectives: There are over 29 million young people (aged 10–24) in Ethiopia. These young people face high rates of early marriage, unintended pregnancy, sexually transmitted infections, HIV infection, and maternal mortality and morbidity. Peer education programs focused on building the capacity of young people to educate their peers about healthy sexual and reproductive behaviors can have a positive impact on young people. Method: From 2008 to 2013, Pathfinder International supported a peer education program that aimed to reach large concentrations of youth in Ethiopia through the Integrated Family Health Program. The program recruited 2,550 in-school and out-of-school volunteer peer educators and trained them in basic peer education and counseling skills. Peer educators were then tasked with promoting positive adolescent and youth sexual and reproductive health messages, and facilitating referrals for health services. Results: From July 2008 to June 2013, peer educators reached more than 1.6 million youth with sexual and reproductive health messages, and mobilized and enabled more than 665,000 youth to obtain a range of sexual and reproductive health services (e.g., ANC, PNC, FP, PAC, PMTCT, STI treatment) in health facilities through direct visits and referrals. Peer educators also supported 1,280 young women to access post-abortion care services in nearby health facilities. Conclusions: Peer education programs with a strong adolescent sexual and reproductive health component present a powerful modality for engaging young people in health-seeking behaviors. In turn, healthier young people are more likely to continue their education, secure more stable sources of income, have healthier children, and become active, engaged citizens. FCS03.5 DISRESPECT AND ABUSE DURING FACILITY-BASED CHILDBIRTH: A CASE OF FOUR RURAL HEALTH FACILITIES IN TWO REGIONS OF ETHIOPIA M. Muleta 1 , K.P. McDonald 2 , H. Ratcliffe 2 , W. Betemariam 1 . 1 The Last 10 Kilometers Project, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; 2 Maternal Health Taskforce, Boston/MA, USA Objectives: Disrespect and abuse during facility-based childbirth results from a complex interplay of socio-cultural and health systemrelated factors and is an invisible barrier to achieving good maternal health outcomes. Emerging evidences have described a variety of disrespectful and abusive experiences that women face during childbirth. These include categories of disrespect & abuse highlighted in a 2010 landscape review by Bowser and Hill: physical abuse, nonconsented care, non-confidential care, non-dignified care, discrimination, detention, and abandonment of care. This study was aimed at assessing the prevalence and driving factors of disrespect & abuse and how disrespect and abuse manifest itself within health system. Method: The study was conducted in four health centres located in two regions of Ethiopia and employed a non-random allocation, selfcomparison (before and after intervention) design. Two hundreds and four women who gave birth in these facilities were interviewed to explore their experience during labour and delivery, with special attention paid to instances of disrespect and abuse. Bi-variate analyses were carried out to examine the relationship between experience of disrespect and abuse and selected demographic and facility factors. Statistical significance was considered at P-value less than 0.05. Results: Overall, 21% of women reported any experience of disre-


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spect or abuse. The most commonly reported categories of disrespect and abuse were non-consented care (17.7%), lack of privacy (15.2%), & non-confidential care (13.7%).Women who were Christians; from urban; who have delivery related complications; had not previously delivered at the same health facility; and who gave birth during weekday were respectively 6.25, 2.5, 7.98, 3.2 and 1.5 times more likely to report experiencing disrespect & abuse (p<0.001; p=0.009; P<0.001; p=0.013 and P<0.005 respectively). More maternity beds & BEmONC trained staffs had a less likely and significant association with reports of disrespect and abuse. Conclusions: The study results show that disrespectful and abusive behaviours are prevalent issues at the study health facilities and intervention is warranted. The drivers and enablers of these behaviours are varied, and include both structural and interpersonal factors. With the global health community rallying around universal health coverage to be included in the post-2015 development agenda, these individual and structural factors must be considered to ensure that mothers receive not just access to health services, but attain the highest level of respectful and dignified care. FCS03.6 CONSCIENTIOUS OBJECTION TO THE PROVISION OF REPRODUCTIVE HEALTHCARE: GLOBAL DOCTORS FOR CHOICE EXAMINES PREVALENCE, HEALTH CONSEQUENCES, AND POLICY RESPONSES W. Chavkin 1,2 . 1 Columbia University, NY, NY, USA; 2 Global Doctors for Choice, NY, NY, USA Objectives: 1) To examine the global prevalence of conscientious objection by physicians to providing legal reproductive health care (abortion, assisted reproductive technologies, contraception, post abortion care, treatment in cases of maternal health risk and inevitable pregnancy loss, and prenatal diagnosis). 2) To review policy and regulatory efforts to balance individual conscience, patient autonomy in reproductive decision-making, safeguards for health, and professional medical integrity. Method: Systematic literature searches of the medical, public health, legal, ethical, and social science literature published between 1998 and 2013 in English, French, German, Italian, Portuguese, and Spanish. The search was complicated by the lack of consensus about criteria for objector status and the lack of a standardized definition of the practice. Many of the quantitative, qualitative, and ethnographic studies reviewed have non-representative or small samples, low response rates, and other methodological limitations that limit their generalizability and fitness for a systematic review. Nevertheless, they were included because available data were so sparse. Results: The sturdiest estimates of prevalence come from the few places that require objectors to register and range from 14% in Hong Kong to 70% in Italy. Some studies describe physicians whose objections are not absolute but reflect opinions about patient characteristics, reasons for seeking abortion, experience of stigmatization, or opportunism. Lower rates of objection were associated with higher levels of training and experience. Several studies report consequences of institutional-level refusal of care, such as delays, or quality of care at odds with best practices, particularly involving treatment of ectopic pregnancy, maternal medical complications, and post abortion care. Conclusions: Empirical evidence is essential in order to design policies that honor individual integrity while safeguarding patients’ access to legal care. Further research could clarify the role of provider desire to avoid stigma or burdensome administrative processes; to earn more money by providing services in private practice rather than in public facilities; and lack of access to clinical training, necessary supplies or equipment. With dual commitments toward their own conscience and their obligations to patients’ health and rights, physicians and professional medical societies can lead attempts to

respond to conscience-based refusal and to safeguard reproductive health, medical integrity, and women’s lives. FCS03.7 EXPERIENCE OF SEXUAL VIOLENCE AND RISK BEHAVIOURS AMONG FEMALE UNIVERSITY STUDENTS IN BENIN CITY, NIGERIA K. Agholor 1,2 , F. Okonofua 2,3 , R. Ogu 2,4 , M. Ezeanochie 2,3 , T. Owolabi 2 . 1 Central Hospital, Warri, Delta State, Nigeria; 2 Women’s Health and Action Research Centre (WHARC), Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria; 3 University of Benin, Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria; 4 University of Port Harcourt, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria Objectives: Despite evidence that education may act as a protective factor against sexual violence, many young women in educational institutions continue to experience sexual violence in Nigeria. The present study was therefore conducted in order to increase our understanding of sexual violence experience and associated risk behaviours of current Nigerian female university students. Method: We conducted a cross-sectional survey that enrolled a total of 637 randomly selected female undergraduate students of the University of Benin, Edo State, living in two types of student accommodations from May to June 2013. The instrument used was a 20 item semi-structured self-administered questionnaire that covered four domains: Sex free survival and age at first sex; Experience of sexual violence; Risk behaviours and unintended pregnancy. Bivariable and multivariable logistic regression models were used to assess the relationship between sexual violence and current risk behaviours and unintended pregnancy. Results: Roughly 40% of the students reported previous experience of sexual violence. Forced sex, coerced sex and sexual deception were associated with early sexual initiation (adjusted hazard ratio (AHR) = 1.9; 95% CI [1.4, 2.7]; AHR=2.0; 95% CI [1.4, 2.7]; and AHR=2.4; 95% CI [1.7, 3.4] respectively) and alcohol drinking (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 3.4; 95% CI [1.7, 6.6]; AOR=4.2; 95% CI [2.3, 7.8]; and AOR=2.6; 95% CI [1.2, 5.2] respectively). Coerced sex and sexual deception were associated with unintended pregnancy (AOR=1.8 [1.2, 3.2] and AOR=2.2; 95% CI [1.1, 4.4] respectively). Conclusions: A non-negligible proportion of female university students in Nigeria reported that they had experienced sexual violence in the past. As early sexual initiation, alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking were risk behaviours associated with sexual violence, the inclusion of early adolescent girls in female empowerment programmes targeted at educating them about their sexual and reproductive health rights will be useful in the prevention of sexual violence. Additionally, alcohol prevention programmes may also be warranted in university student residences. FCS03.8 CLIENT-PROVIDER COMMUNICATION ABOUT CHILDBEARING AND USE OF SAFER CONCEPTION METHODS AMONG HIV-POSITIVE CLIENTS IN UGANDA J. Beyeza-Kashesya 1 , R. Wanyenze 2 , S. Finocchario-Kessler 3 , M. Atakilt Woldetsadik 7 , D. Mindry 4 , S. Khanakwa 5 , K. Goggin 6 , G.J. Wagner 7 . 1 Mulago Hospital, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Kampala, Uganda; 2 Department of Disease Control and Environmental Health, Makerere School of Public Health, College of Health Sciences, Makerere Uninversity, Kampala, Uganda; 3 University of Kansas Medical Center, Department of Family Medicine, Kansas City, USA; 4 University of California, Los Angeles Center for Culture and Health, Los Angeles, USA; 5 The AIDS Support Organization, Kampala, Uganda; 6 Health Services and Outcomes Research, Children’s Mercy Hospitals and Clinics; Schools of Medicine and Pharmacy, University of Missouri, Kansas City, USA; 7 RAND Corporation, Santa Monica, USA Objectives: Many HIV sero-discordant and concordant positive couples living in sub-Saharan Africa desire to have children. Limited in-

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formation exists on their support for sexual and reproductive health matters including the use of safer conception methods (SCM). Our study explored the client-provider communication about childbearing and safer conception. Method: A sample of 400 HIV clients in committed relationships and with intentions to conceive a child within next two years was surveyed at The AIDS Support Organization (TASO) sites in Kampala and Jinja, Uganda. Knowledge, attitudes and practices related to childbearing and use of safer conception methods were assessed, as well as communication with providers about childbearing, which is the focus of this analysis. Results: 75% of sample are female; 61% are on antiretroviral therapy; and 61% have HIV-negative or unknown status partners. 92% wanted a child within the next 12 months. 98.0% desired to discuss childbearing intentions with their HIV-provider, however, only 56% had discussions. 28% reported their provider initiated childbearing discussions (HIV transmission-risk to partner (30%), to child (30%), and about PMTCT (27%)). Only 8% discussed safer conception methods. Females were more likely to discuss childbearing with their HIV provider (Adjusted OR 1.79 (1.04, 3.08)). However, clients with greater internalized childbearing-stigma were less likely to discuss (Adjusted OR 0.68 (95% CI 0.48, 0.98)). Conclusions: Most discussions about childbearing are initiated by HIV-positive clients rather than their providers, and only 8% include discussion of safer conception methods. Clients’ internalized childbearing stigma is a key barrier to clients communicating with providers about their childbearing intentions. There is need for programs to mitigate childbearing stigma among HIV clients and their providers to enable discussion of SCM for HIV-positive people. FCS03.9 YOUNG PEOPLE, CONTRACEPTION AND ABORTION: FIGO BRINGS TOGETHER OBSTETRICIANS AND GYNECOLOGISTS WITH REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH AND ADVOCACY GROUPS TO MOVE THE AGENDA FORWARD REGARDING SERVICE QUALITY, ACCESS, AND PARTNERSHIP WORKING IN THREE SOUTH ASIAN COUNTRIES – BANGLADESH, INDIA AND PAKISTAN J. Morris 1 , H. Rushwan 1 , S. Zaidi 2 . 1 FIGO, London, UK; 2 Ziauddin Medical University, Karachi, Pakistan Objectives: Building on FIGO’s experience delivering regional workshops on unsafe abortion and regional discussion groups between obstetricians and young people, this workshop aimed to bring together obstetricians/gynecologists with members of reproductive health and advocacy groups to generate practical and innovative strategies for improving adolescent sexual and reproductive health. By bringing representatives from these two groups together to share experiences and ideas, it was anticipated that they would be able to work together as part of a more joined-up approach to improving sexual and reproductive healthcare for young people, while also strengthening the capacity of obstetricians/gynecologists to be advocates in this area. Method: A two day interactive workshop was held in March 2015. Participants included FIGO delegates, young obstetricians/gynecologists from member associations, medical students, and delegates from youth advocacy and reproductive health organizations. The workshop had three aims: 1) increase knowledge, specifically regarding medical eligibility and quality of care considerations, 2) create awareness of and mutual understanding between the different groups represented with a view to future collaboration, 3) improve advocacy skills needed for the following: ensure young people are viewed as a priority group with specific needs, and increase young people’s access to quality information, education, and safe contraceptive and abortion services. Results: The workshop was highly participatory and produced tangible results. These included a joint statement from the participants


calling for action on increasing young people’s access to safe abortion and contraception services, along with the development of three SMART (specific, measurable, achievable, realistic and timely) action plans. These plans outlined collaborative activities to be conducted in the respective countries within the next 6 months. Enthusiastic young obstetricians/gynecologists advocated for the inclusion of these action plans into their country’s plan in the subsequent annual FIGO “Prevention of Unsafe Abortion” Workshop. Delegates’ feedback from the workshop was positive, indicating goals of increased knowledge, understanding and empathy as well as improved advocacy skills were achieved. Conclusions: Obstetricians/gynecologists and activists can and should work together to identify ways to increase young people’s access to high quality and safe contraceptive and abortion services and information. From bringing together these two groups, activists are able to identify ways of including practitioners in their advocacy work and obstetricians/gynecologists are able to provide better sexual and reproductive care for young people as well as identify how they can advocate for increased attention on young people, and provision of improved and accessible services. By working together, obstetricians/gynecologists and activists can bring better coordination between information and health services to this priority group.

FCS04. Sexual and Reproductive Rights FCS04.1 “WE DO NOT KNOW WHAT IS HAPPENING INSIDE A WOMAN’S BODY”: A QUALITATIVE INVESTIGATION OF AFRICAN REFUGEE WOMEN’S POST-RESETTLEMENT REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH CONCEPTUALIZATIONS P. Royer 1 , B. Jackson 2 , L. Olson 1 , E. Grainger 1 , D. Turok 1 . 1 University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, USA; 2 Unaffiliated, Salt Lake City, UT, USA Objectives: To explore post-resettlement perceptions of reproductive health among African refugee women in the United States. Method: Six focus groups (FG) were conducted with resettled Somali (n=41) and Congolese (n=26) refugee women in a large western United States city between May and August 2014. Participants were recruited via community leaders and refugee service organizations. FG were conducted in the women’s native language using a semi-structured interview guide of open-ended questions designed to elicit understanding of reproductive health perceptions and understanding. FG Audio recordings were translated and transcribed verbatim by externally located certified translators then checked for accuracy. Two researchers utilized modified grounded theory to analyze transcripts and develop themes using Atlas.ti software. Results: Median participant age was 36 years, time since resettlement was greater for Somali women than Congolese women (median: 54 v. 20 months) and Somali women had greater gravidity than Congolese women (mean: G6 v. G4) though household sizes were comparable (Mean=5). Major themes were analogous across groups and included (1) multidimensional concepts regarding health with an emphasis on the ongoing effects of pre-displacement trauma on current health (2) limited health understanding including poor knowledge regarding anatomy and physiology and (3) barriers to healthcare access including confidentiality concerns, poorly regarded interpreter services and negative interactions with post-resettlement healthcare providers and systems. Conclusions: Post-resettlement reproductive health conceptualizations, beyond obstetrical concerns, are not well-understood. This study provides description of non-obstetric women’s health challenges among resettled African refugee women. Education of refugee health providers regarding these challenges could lead to improvements in resettled refugee reproductive health. Healthcare systems could improve resettled refugee care by providing in person confi-


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dential interpreters and working to decrease barriers to effective care for this population. FCS04.2 VIOLENCE VICTIMISATION ASSOCIATED WITH SEXUAL ILL HEALTH AND SEXUAL RISK BEHAVIOURS IN SWEDISH YOUTH H. Blom 1,4 , U. Högberg 2 , N. Olofsson 3 , I. Danielsson 1,3 . 1 Dept. of Clinical Sciences, Obstetrics and Gynecology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden; 2 Dept. of Women’s and Childrens’s Health, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; 3 Dept. of Public Health and Research, Sundsvall Hospital, Sundsvall, Sweden; 4 Dept. of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Sundsvall Hospital, Sundsvall, Sweden Objectives: The WHO’s definition on sexual health includes both absence of disease, and also sexual reproductive rights including pleasurable and safe sexual experiences free of coercion, discrimination and violence. Multiple violence victimisation in youth and associations to adverse mental health outcomes is recently more recognised. The aim was to assess associations and gender differences regarding multiple violence victimisation and sexual ill health and sexual risk behaviours in youth. Method: A cross-sectional population-based study in all upper secondary schools in a town in Sweden, with a study response rate of 80%. Only the sexually experienced youth, 1192 women and 1021 men, participated in this study. The questionnaire included validated questions on emotional, physical and sexual violence (NorAQ), sociodemographics, health risk behaviours and sexual ill health and sexual risk behaviours such as treatment for Chlamydia infection, selfreported experience of pregnancy, early age at sexual debut, non-use of contraceptives and several sex partners. Proportions, unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios (OR/aOR) with 95% Confidence Interval (CI) were calculated. Results: The young women had experienced multiple victimisation, i.e. victimisation with two or more different types of violence, more often than the men, 28% respectively 24%. The associations between multiple victimisation and sexual ill health/sexual risk behaviours were overall consistent for both genders, with raised aORs for experience of/involvement in pregnancy, 2.4 (1.5–3.7) for women and 2.1 (1.3–3.4) for men, and early age for first intercourse, 2.2 (1.6–3.19 for women and 1.9 (1.2–3.0) for men. No significantly raised aOR was found for non-use of contraceptives latest intercourse in both men and women. Conclusions: Multiple-violence victimisation is strongly associated with several sexual ill- health variables and sexual risk behaviours in both genders. This should be taken into consideration when counselling and addressing sexual reproductive health in youth. FCS04.3 MOBILIZING RELIGIOUS LEADERS AND FAITH-BASED ORGANIZATIONS IN AFRICA TO SCALE UP FAMILY PLANNING AND REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH (FP/RH) BEST PRACTICES AMONG AFRICAN CHRISTIAN HEALTH ASSOCIATIONS PLATFORM (ACHAP) MEMBERS S. Bitar. Evidence to Action Project, Washington, DC, USA Objectives: The Evidence to Action (E2A) Project builds evidence on new approaches to scale up FP/RH best practices. With technical assistance from E2A and ACHAP as a platform for dissemination and advocacy, E2A is testing an approach that engages religious leaders in FP programs to increase contraceptive use among those served by three faith-based service-delivery organizations in Africa. The approach aims to facilitate the adoption and scale-up of FP/RH services by building the capacity of teams of religious leaders, communityand facility-based providers, and ACHAP member organizations to enhance quality, reach, and supply of FP/RH services and improve reproductive health outcomes.

Method: E2A grants support faith-based organizations in Ethiopia, Kenya, and Uganda to engage religious leaders to encourage support for FP, work with community outreach workers to increase demand for and use of FP services among the populations served, improve the community-based provision of short-acting FP methods and referrals to nearby health facilities for long-acting methods, and enhance the quality of facility-based services. E2A’s technical assistance to the grantee organizations includes training religious leaders on FP/RH messages to share with their communities, and strengthening FP/RH counseling and services, referrals, monitoring and supervision systems, and quality of data at community and facility levels. Results: In Ethiopia, through community-based health education, which has reached approximately 55,000 people, and FP counseling, there were 3,989 new FP acceptors from October-December 2014. Intrauterine device insertion began during that period at all health centers supported by the grant, and vasectomy is being offered in one remote area. In Uganda, there were 2,815 new FP acceptors at facilities supported by the grant from January-December 2014, and 3,284 awareness-raising events, which reached 43,459 people with FP messages. In Kenya, quality-improvement trainings were conducted for health workers, religious leaders, community health volunteers, and other stakeholders, who form a robust quality-improvement team. Conclusions: With the grants, the three organizations have enhanced and scaled services through efforts that are deeply rooted in the communities they serve. According to the World Health Organization, faith-based organizations, such as the grantees, provide 40% of healthcare in Africa. With modest financial assistance to these organizations, intensive capacity-building of facility- and communitybased FP/RH service providers, a focus on the use of data for decisionmaking, and engagement of religious leaders in support of FP/RH, there is vast potential to improve health outcomes across the continent. Networks such as ACHAP can simultaneously be leveraged to hasten the spread of best practices. FCS04.4 STATUS OF WOMEN’S SEXUAL AND REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH AND RIGHTS:A COMPREHENSIVE RIGHTS-BASED MEASURE K. Ocheltree, G. Sarfaty. PAI, Washington, DC, USA Objectives: This report is the fifth in a series that assess the status of nations’ SRHR. While our previous indices frame the issues in terms of sexual and reproductive risk, this iteration deliberately shifts its focus on how to achieve healthy sexual and reproductive health and realize rights. The aim is to provide an assessment that incorporates a multidimensional approach to reproductive health and adds a new perspective to how comprehensive SRHR is defined and measured. The Index and its accompanying report provide a measure of where women 62 low- and lower-middle-income countries stand in attaining SRHR. Method: Based on the 1994 POA of the ICPD, we define SRHR according to the following four dimensions: 1. Preventing unintended pregnancy; 2. Increasing access to safe abortion and post-abortion care; 3. Helping women safely through pregnancy, childbirth and the postpartum period; and 4. Preventing and treating sexually transmitted infections, including HIV/AIDS. A fifth dimension, termed the Enabling Environment, captures factors beyond the health system that support SRHR. To calculate an Index score for each country, 11 indicators representing the dimensions of SRHR were combined into a single measure. The Index is scored on a 0 to 100 scale. Results: Index scores for the 62 countries included in our study range from 25.5 to 86.5. Though scores vary greatly within that range, the fact that no country received a score of 100 means that there are opportunities to advance the sexual and reproductive health and rights of women in all 62 countries.

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The average Index score is 54. Given that the strongest possible state of SRHR in a country according to the Index would be a score of 100, the average indicates that the needs and rights of women in these countries are being only partially fulfilled. Conclusions: Though gaps in meeting the needs and fulfilling the rights of women may be larger in some countries than others, even those countries with higher scores have room to grow. Our analysis indicates that improving the sexual and reproductive health and rights of women in these countries depends on three overarching actions: 1. Strengthen political will and financial commitments; 2. Craft and implement positive policies; and 3. Provide quality information and services. FCS04.5 REDUCING DISRESPECT AND ABUSE DURING FACILITY BASED CHILDBIRTH: PROMISING RESULTS FROM KENYA T. Abuya 1 , C. Warren 2 , C. Ndwiga 1 , A. Maranga 4 , F. Mbehero 3 , A. Njeru 5 , B. Bellows 1 . 1 Population Council, Nairobi, Kenya; 2 Population Council, Washington DC, USA; 3 NNAK, Nairobi, Kenya; 4 FIDA, Nairobi, Kenya; 5 DRH, MOH, Nairobi, Kenya Objectives: Many women continue to deliver at home due to cost, distance, cultural and geographic barriers. However an often overlooked barrier to seeking care is the perceived poor quality of care and fear of experiencing disrespectful and abusive treatment within health facilities. In order to reduce the occurrence of disresepctand abuse during facility deliveries, an implementation research project was designed in Kenya to test the effect of composite interventions to reduce its occurrence. Main Objective: To assess the effect of a package of interventions on the prevalence of disrespect and abuse during facility based childbirth. Method: A quasi experimental before and after design without control in thirteen facilities from five sub counties in Kenya was used to test the effect of interventions on the prevalence of types of disresect and abuse. The intervetntions inlcuded activiities at policy, facility and commuity levels. Data were generated from an exit survey among women discharged from postnatal wards. Unadjusted and multivariate logistic generalized linear mixed models were used to assess differences in disrespect and abuse between baseline and end line participants, as well as the association of disrespect and abuse with other characteristics. Results: Women surveyed post-intervention were significantly less likely to report any feelings of humiliation/disrespect 13.2% vs 21% at baseline OR: 0.58 (0.43–0.79), p=0.0004; physical abuse 2.1% vs 4.2% at baseline: OR 0.47 (0.25–0.90), p=0.024; experience verbal abuse 11.3% vs 18.0% at baseline OR 0.58 (0.42, 0.80) p=0.001; violation of confidentiality 1.8% vs 3.9% at baseline OR 0.45 (0.23–0.89); p=0.021 or less likely to be detained 0.8% vs 8.0% at baseline OR: 0.09 (0.04– 0.22) p<0.0001. There were no effect on abandonment and privacy violation. Conclusions: Following the introduction of a package of interventions there was a signifcant reduction (7%) in the prevalence of D&A. This indicates that the set of interventions have the potential of promoting respectful maternity care during childbirth. These promising results can lead to an increase in use of skilled professional services. We recommend that this package be scaled up widely to other facilities. FCS04.6 ABORTION STIGMA AMONG HEALTH PROVIDERS IN MEXICO: CURRENT STATUS E. Troncoso 1 , B. Ochoa 1 , R. Schiavon 1 , J. Montoya 2 , M.E. Collado 1 . Mexico City, Mexico; 2 Femecog, Mexico City, Mexico

1 Ipas,

Objectives: In Mexico, although legal conditions allow abortion under some indications such as pregnancy after rape, malformations


and health risks for women, few services are provided, and even less are disclosed. Only Mexico City since 2007, has a more progressive law that permits abortion within twelve weeks of pregnancy. Health professionals with the technical knowledge to perform abortion procedures are primarily gynecologists and obstetricians, who bear the responsibility of operationalizing the current legislation both at public and private health institutions. To understand more on the stigma surrounding the provision of abortion services, we conducted a survey and in-depth interviews. Method: A survey was conducted (n=1,085) at the 64th Conference of Gynecology and Obstetrics held in Mexico City from October 27 to 30, 2013. Also, 15 in-depth interviews were conducted in public and private legal abortion services in Mexico City. The quantitative analysis was made using Stata and the qualitative using Atlas.ti. Results: In the survey, half of the respondents felt that a woman who has had an abortion may influence other women to have abortions. Almost 4 out of 10 respondents believed that medical professionals discriminated against providers who perform abortions; and about 3 out of 10 acknowledged that they stigmatized their colleagues or that they would be stigmatized if they engage in abortion provision. In the interviews, providers stressed the need to improve contraception services in order to prevent another unwanted pregnancy, and another abortion. A repeat abortion is seen as a failure of the system and a problem that should be prevented. Conclusions: Stigma may contribute to incorrect management and/or to clandestine abortion practices in Mexico, even after the adoption of legal reforms. The prevalence of stigma necessitates specific intervention strategies in the general population and in the medical community. Such interventions should seek to increase the acceptance and normalization of abortion as a legitimate, and sometimes necessary, reproductive choice. This may avoid stigmatization of women and health professionals regarding this issue in Mexico and prevent it from becoming an additional barrier for delivery of high quality services. FCS04.7 THE INFLUENCE OF RELATIONSHIPS ON MATERNAL WELL-BEING IN SOUTHERN MOZAMBIQUE T. Firoz 1 , T. Makanga 2 , M. Vidler 1 , H. Boena 3 , R. Chau 3 , E. Sevene 3 , K. Munguambe 3 . 1 University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada; 2 Simon Fraser University, Vancouver, Canada; 3 Centro de Investigação em Saúde da Manhiça (CISM), Manhica, Mozambique Objectives: The objectives of this qualitative study, situated within a framework of a larger study on the influence of the social determinants of health on maternal outcomes, were to: 1) identify the relationships that are important to maternal well being; 2) understand the nature and impact of these relationships; 3) determine the programmatic implications based on the findings. Method: Twelve focus group discussions were conducted with reproductive age women, matrons, male decision-makers, community leaders and community health workers in Gaza and Maputo provinces in Mozambique in 2013. Participants were recruited using sample of convenience and snow balling. Focus groups had an average of 6 participants. To understand the broader social and political contexts, twelve in-depth interviews were conducted with administrative post chiefs of each study locality. Data were coded thematically and analysed using nVIVO software. Results: Four main relationships were identified as being important for a healthy pregnancy. It was described that pregnant women could avoid intimate partner violence by behaving properly with their husbands. While women relied on neighbours for help with pregnancy complications, they also felt that if good relations were not maintained, neighbours could perform witchcraft which could affect pregnancy outcomes. Matrons in the community played a key role by providing advice and assisting with deliveries. Women voiced that or-


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ganized groups like xitique were not possible due to economic constraints but that informal networks of female friends were important for support during pregnancy. Conclusions: The study highlights the role of relationships within a woman’s community that affect her wellbeing in pregnancy. Particularly, it draws attention to gender norms and gender violence during pregnancy. The findings also emphasize the critical role of matrons in the care of pregnant women and the importance of support from other females in the community. Based on these findings, programmes are needed to address gender inequality and violence during pregnancy. Programmes focusing on maternal health education should target other women in the community and provide opportunities for building women’s support groups. FCS04.8 ABORTION SERVICES FOR VICTIMS OF GENDER-BASED VIOLENCE IN RWANDA: CHALLENGES DUE TO STIGMA AND LACK OF EVIDENCE N. Sahin Hodoglugil 1 , F. Ngabo 2 , F. Sayingoza 2 , E. Ngoga 3 , L. Nyirazinyoye 4 , E. Dushimeyezu 1 , E. Kanyamanza 2 , N. Prata 1 . 1 University of California Bixby Center for Population Health and Sustainability, Berkeley, CA, USA; 2 Ministry of Health Maternal and Child Health Department, Kigali, Rwanda; 3 Rwanda Society of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, Kigali, Rwanda; 4 University of Rwanda College of Medicine and Health Sciences School of Public Health, Kigali, Rwanda Objectives: To identify the barriers for accessing safe abortion services within the legal framework in Rwanda since the Penal Code was published in 2012. The Penal Code included exemptions for abortion for pregnancies as a result of rape, incest or forced marriage with the provision of a court order to allow doctors to terminate the pregnancy. Method: A total of 22 in-depth interviews with key stakeholders (including health care providers from hospitals and gender based violence centers, administrators, and representatives from the intermediate courts and Ministry of Justice) and three focus group discussions (FGD) with women in the community (urban and rural single women ages 18–24; urban married women ages 25–45) were conducted between June-October 2014. Interviews and FGD were conducted in Kinyarwanda and French, tape recorded, translated into English and analyzed for emerging themes. Results: Stigma around rape and abortion emerged as a very strong theme preventing victims of sexual violence to speak up and seek care; victims were more likely to arrive at the health facility after they were pregnant. Due to stigma and the challenges to get a court order, legal termination of pregnancy does not appear as an accessible option. The requirement of hard medical evidence by the courts; time required to collect evidence and convict the perpetrator; and inability to admit with the first 72 hours of assault hinders victims of rape, incest or forced marriage to present their cases legally. Conclusions: As the Ministry of Health is expanding the program to make abortion safer in Rwanda within the legal framework, addressing stigma and silence around rape and other forms of GBV through different approaches is a major objective. The legal grounds for abortion can only be realized to help the victims of GBV in an environment where victims and their families are not further stigmatized or challenged to prove their case to be able to terminate their pregnancies. FCS04.9 EVALUATING THE WILL OF THE PEOPLE: ATTITUDES TOWARDS ABORTION IN TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO S. Job 1 , K. Lascelles 2 . 1 The University of the West Indies, Saint Augustine, Trinidad and Tobago; 2 University of Sussex, Brighton, UK Objectives: In a population of 1.3 million people, over 19,000 esti-

mated abortions take place in Trinidad and Tobago. Yet, the current laws make abortion illegal except to save the life or protect the health of the pregnant woman. Arguably, effective laws should reflect the will of the people for greater compliance. The current study strove to assess the Trinbagonian “will” to determine its correspondence with conservative law. Specifically, it sought to assess a Trinbagonian sample’s abortion attitude, whether certain socio-demographic and dispositional variables significantly predict variations in the attitude and whether abortion attitude could predict support for abortion under differing circumstances. Method: Two hundred participants were recruited and completed an online questionnaire hosted by Qualtrics Survey Software. They were asked to complete two measures of abortion attitude (feeling thermometers and the Abortion Attitude Scale [AAS; Snegroff, 1978]) and a developed measured of abortion support (MAS). Participants also completed measures of variables thought to relate to abortion attitude to determine if these variables might be able to predict variations in attitude. Finally, participants were asked to provide demographic information, debriefed and thanked. All participants received one entry into a prize draw to win one of five TT$1000 Visa gift cards for participating. Results: Data were analysed using one-sample t-tests and multiple regression. Abortion attitude trended towards unfavourable when measured by the more structured AAS, t(198)=−3.42, p<0.001, but was neither favourable nor unfavourable when measured by feeling thermometers. Attitude was predicted by Conservatism (beta=−0.40) and Religiosity (beta=−0.35). When measured by feeling thermometer, Conservatism (beta=0.32), Religiosity (beta=0.19) and overt sexism (beta=0.19) predicted abortion attitude. Finally, abortion attitude better predicted support for circumstances of convenience (beta=0.75) or questionable parental suitability (beta=0.75) over situations where wellbeing was endangered (beta=0.65). Conclusions: It appears that conservatism and religiosity are contributing to an unfavourable attitude towards abortion in Trinidad and Tobago (T&T). However, it remains to be empirically understood why, with conservative laws and corresponding unfavourable attitudes, so many abortions still occur in T&T. Abortion attitude was predictive of abortion support. However, the attitude better predicted support for circumstances of convenience and parental fitness over situations where wellbeing was endangered. Thus, it seems that attitudes might be only part of the abortion narrative in T&T. Abortion support, or a yet identified variable, might better explain the rationale behind abortion in T&T.

FCS05. Sexual and Reproductive Rights/Ethics and Law in Gynecological Practice/Addressing Violence Against Women FCS05.1 URUGUAY: RESULTS OF THE FIRST 2 YEARS OF IMPLEMENTATION OF THE LAW ON VOLUNTARY TERMINATION OF PREGNANCY V. Fiol, F. Nozar, L. Rieppi, L. Briozzo. Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, School of Medicine, University of Uruguay, Montevideo, Uruguay Objectives: To present the overall results of the first 2 years of implementation of the law that legalizes abortion in Uruguay, which was approved in November 2012. Method: Observational descriptive analysis of national data provided by the National Information System of the Ministry of Health, in the period December 2012–November 2013 and December 2013– November 2014. Results: In the first 2 years of implementation of the law no maternal deaths by legal abortion were recorded; only one death was reported due to illegal abortion in 2013.

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15,175 legal terminations of pregnancy within the health system were performed: 6,676 the first year and 8,499 the second year. In the past year, the abortion rate was 12 cases per 1,000 women aged 15–44 years. 9% of women continued pregnancies after consultation. The percentage of teens that have abortions is 17%. 70% of women were counseled with a contraceptive method after abortion. Conclusions: In the first 2 years of implementation of the Law on Voluntary Termination of Pregnancy, Uruguay managed to position itself as one of the countries with fewer abortions in the world, surpassed only by Ireland and Mexico’s Federal District. In European countries, the rate of women who have abortions ranges from 13 to 15 cases per 1,000. Uruguay is a pioneer in the region to recognize the right of women with unwanted pregnancies to decide consciously on the termination of pregnancy. FCS05.2 ABORTION: DISTINGUISHING BETWEEN ATTITUDE AND SUPPORT IN TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO S. Job 1 , K. Lascelles 2 . 1 The University of the West Indies, Saint Augustine, Trinidad and Tobago; 2 University of Sussex, Brighton, UK Objectives: Abortion remains illegal in Trinidad and Tobago. Local one-shot polls often reveal unfavourable opinions of abortion, corresponding with conservative law. Yet, previous research suggests that attitudes are fairly favourable. This research, like most literature, used measurements of the circumstances under which one supported a woman’s decision to abort as a proxy measure of abortion attitude. We argue that this indirect method taps into abortion support and not abortion attitude, which leads to the discrepancy between public opinion and the literature. Using previously collected data, the current work explored whether a distinction between abortion attitude and abortion support could be demonstrated. Method: Data from a larger study (Job & Lascelles, 2014, manuscript in preparation) were used in analysis. This study investigated attitudes towards abortion and abortion support among a sample of Trinbagonians as well as sociodemographic variables that might predict the attitude. We contend that if abortion support and abortion attitude are not distinct, then the results should reveal no differences between them with regard to individual predictors and the relations between them. Results: Using multiple regression, socio-demographic variables were used to predict abortion attitude and abortion support. Differential predictions emerged. Knowledge predicted abortion support (beta=0.09) but not abortion attitude. Similarly, being of Indian descent predicted being more supportive of abortion when wellbeing was endangered (beta=0.16) or parental suitability was questioned (beta=0.12). Finally, attitude was differentially related to and predictive of different types of abortion support. Specifically, it was best predictive of support in circumstances of convenience (beta=0.75), and questionable parenting skills (beta=0.75) and less predictive when foetal or maternal wellbeing would be jeopardised (beta=0.65). Conclusions: These analyses demonstrate preliminary differences between abortion attitude and abortion support. We argue that while measurements of abortion attitude are useful as general gauges, they do not offer the sensitivity needed to tap into the peculiarities of the abortion issue. Furthermore, abortion attitude can differentially impact on one’s level of support. Moreover, it may be that the perceived favourability of abortion varies as a function of the construct used to measure it- using support may artificially inflate it while attitude can deflate it. If so, separate measures of support and attitude may be critical for accurate measurements of abortion opinion.


FCS05.3 EVALUATION OF VALUES CLARIFICATION WORKSHOPS IN ADDRESSING BARRIERS TO ABORTION CARE PROVISION AMONG HEALTHCARE PROVIDERS IN PAKISTAN A. Rifaqat 2 , M. Waqas 2 , E. Pearson 1 , J. Menzel 1 . 1 Ipas, Chapel Hill, NC, USA; 2 Ipas Pakistan, Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan Objectives: In Pakistan, abortion is only legal to save the life of the woman. Due to the narrow interpretation of the law, stigma, and provider biases based on their personal values, an estimated 623,000 women were treated for complications resulting from induced abortions in 2012. Abortion Values Clarification and Attitude Transformation (VCAT) workshops are an intervention that aims to address stigma-related barriers to care and engage stakeholders to facilitate provision of and access to abortion care. This study aimed to evaluate Ipas Pakistan’s VCAT workshops’ success in improving providers’ knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors pertaining to abortion care. Method: Ipas Pakistan conducted 39 VCAT workshops for 720 stakeholders from 2011–2014. This mixed methods study included quantitative data from matched pre- and post-VCAT workshop surveys from 84 Ipas-trained abortion care providers. The survey evaluated the participants’ knowledge and attitudes toward abortion and contraception. Differences in pre- and post-workshop answers were assessed using McNemar’s test, and statistical significance was assessed at an alpha level of 0.05 for all analyses. In addition, 23 indepth interviews were conducted with Ipas-trained providers to understand their perspectives on behavior change resulting from participation in the VCAT workshops. The interview transcripts were read and analyzed thematically. Results: Both knowledge and attitudes about abortion improved between the pre- and post-workshop surveys. Pre-workshop 33% of providers knew the legality of abortion in Pakistan, compared to 86% post-workshop (p<0.001). Additionally, pre-workshop 79% of providers said they could explain their personal values concerning abortion compared to 99% post-workshop (p<0.001). The qualitative data showed that after VCAT participation, providers began to regard access to abortion services as a woman’s right and to treat their clients with more empathy. Providers also reported an increased sense of professional responsibility to provide abortion care and, when needed, began providing referrals for safe abortion services. Conclusions: This study finds that VCAT workshops have been successful in Pakistan in improving providers’ knowledge, attitudes and behaviors about abortion and abortion care. VCAT workshops are a promising approach for helping providers clarify their personal values about abortion to improve care for women, especially in a culturally conservative setting such as Pakistan. FCS05.4 GLOBAL HEALTH OPPORTUNITIES IN OBSTETRICS AND GYNECOLOGY TRAINING: EXAMINING ENGAGEMENT THROUGH AN ETHICAL LENS M. Zaidi, E. Lathrop, L. Haddad. Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, USA Objectives: Interest in global health training (GHT) within residency programs has grown exponentially. The Working Group on Ethics Guidelines for Global Health Training (WEIGHT) developed guidelines to assess benefits and harms of GHT programs. We aimed to describe Obstetrics and Gynecology GHT programs through the ethical lens suggested by WEIGHT. Method: This was a mixed-methods study of 35 GHT programs identified by prior publications and expert recommendations. A search of programs’ websites was conducted to obtain contact information and general information. Semi-structured telephone interviews of key members of programs from 19 programs were then conducted and transcribed. The interview guide was constructed using WEIGHT


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recommendations. The data from the transcripts for each interview were grouped according to domains: Reciprocity, Trainee Selection, Trainee Preparedness, Needs Assessments, and Ethical Questions. Results: The web search revealed limited online information. The telephone interviews revealed diverse responses. Many programs expressed difficulty in building reciprocal relationships due to imbalanced power structures. Eleven programs reported no formal application process for selecting trainees. Twelve (63%) programs reported a single day of preparation, while other programs reported using extensive course curricula. Several programs conducted needs assessments while nine (47%) programs did not conduct a formalized needs assessment of partner sites. Ethical concerns varied: some programs expressed no ethical concerns while others mentioned concerns for trainee safety and inadequate training for residents before going abroad. Conclusions: This study exposes several areas for improvement for OB/GYN GHT programs. The limited preparedness curricula and lack of formalized needs assessments among several programs demonstrates the opportunity to restructure how GHT programs are formed and operated. Although many programs make an effort to build reciprocal exchanges with host partners, experiences for foreign trainees within the US are limited, and US residents are often tasked with duties above their training level abroad. FCS05.5 TO CURB UNSAFE ABORTIONS IN INDIA – THE IMPLEMENTATION OF MEDICAL TERMINATION OF PREGNANCY ACT 1971 IN INDIA M. Megh. Dr. Megh’s Gynaeo-Care Clinics, Consulting Obstetrician & Gynaecologist, Dept. of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India Objectives: Unsafe abortion is one of the most common causes of maternal morbidity & mortality (4000 death per year due to unsafe abortion in India). To curb this practice the MTP Act was passed on 10th August 1971 amended in 2002.Unsafe abortions still contribute 11–13 percent of total maternal deaths more than 70% of Indian population lives in rural areas,access to safe abortion facilities are mainly restricted to urban areas.Availability of safer abortion facilities in rural areas, training of health care providers, simplifying registration procedures, and strict implementation of the MTP Act aim at reduce the unsafe abortions practices in India. Method: MTP Act in India was implemented in 1971 amended in 2002 for increasing the safe abortion facilities available in rural areas by way of introducing medical abortion in the new amended act.Legal abortion is up to 20 weeks of pregnancy with indications of risk to the life of the pregnant woman or grave injury of physical or mental health or risk to the child to be born. Registration of MTP Centres all over India has improved from around 12000 to 30000 + registered MTP Centres through which all class of patients can access the safe abortion services. Results: A Lancet paper in 2007 said there were 6.4 million abortions, of which 3.6 million or 56 per cent were unsafe.Registration of MTP centres has been improved after amendment in 2002 in which District Authorities are giving registration for MTP.In Maharashtra no of 2000 centres has increase to 5500 + centres. All over India the no.has gone up by 30000. By strict implementation of MTP Act & increasing access to safe abortion services, the maternal mortility has reduced from 11 to 9%. So over all there is improvement in maternal health by reducing maternal death due to unsafe abortion. Conclusions: MTP Act is an enabling act Aims to improve the maternal health scenario by preventing large number of unsafe abortions. Legalizes abortion services by regulating and ensuring access to safe abortion care and defines “when”, “where” and under “what” conditions abortion is permissible. De-criminalizes the abortion seeker. Offers protection to medical practitioners who otherwise would be penalized under the Indian

Penal Code (sections 315–316). Thus reducing the maternal mortility due to unsafe abortion to a greater extend. FCS05.6 SON PREFERENCE AND REPRODUCTIVE CHOICES OVER TIME IN TAMIL NADU, SOUTH INDIA B.B. Nielsen 1 , T. Patel 2 . 1 Rigshospitalet, Obstetrical Clinic, Copenhagen, Denmark; 2 Delhi School of Economics, Delhi University, New Delhi, India Objectives: To explore if Government initiatives to protect the girl child has influenced on son preference and sex selection over the past 20 years in rural Tamil Nadu, South India. Method: In rural Tamil Nadu, South India twenty-three women, their families, health professionals and government officials were interviewed repeatedly from 1994 to 2013. Results: During the interviews in the 1990’ies many families explained about the necessity to kill daughters to be able to have at least one son and not too many children. Husbands and in-laws decided about the number of children and sex in their families. In the latest interviews from 2013 the young generation explained that one child – girl or boy was enough. The young women were educated and described themselves as a new computer generation with power to decide themselves about reproductive issues together with their husband. Female infanticide did not take place any more. Conclusions: The Government initiatives to protect the girl child may have influenced the behaviour of young women. However, only when the new generation has finished getting the desired number of childen one will know if their views are dreams or reality. FCS05.7 HIGH RATES OF VIOLENCE VICTIMIZATION EXPLAINS MUCH OF THE ADVERSE HEALTH OUTCOMES IN SEXUAL MINORITY YOUNG WOMEN A. Palm 1,2 , I. Danielsson 3 , A. Skalkidou 1 , N. Olofsson 4 , U. Högberg 1 . of Women’s and Children’s Health, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; 2 Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Sundsvall Hospital, Sundsvall, Sweden; 3 Department of Clinical Sciences Obstetrics and Gynecology, SE-901 87 Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden; 4 Department of Medicine and Health, Division of Social Medicine and Public Health, Linköping, Sweden 1 Department

Objectives: Recent studies demonstrate that sexual minority youth report higher degrees of ill-health compared to heterosexual youth. The association between violence victimization and adverse health in youth is strong and studies suggest that sexual minority youth are more victimized than heterosexual youth. The aim of this study was to assess the violence victimization and self-reported physical and mental ill-health in sexual minority and heterosexual young women victimised to one, or two or more types of violence (multiple victimization), compared to non-victimized sexual minority and heterosexual women. Method: Young women (15–22 years) visiting youth health centres in Sweden answered a questionnaire constructed from standardised instruments addressing violence victimization (emotional, physical, sexual, and family violence), socio-demographics, sexual orientation, substance use, and physical and mental health. Of the 1051 participating young women (73% of eligible women) 105 (10%) defined themselves as homo/bi sexual/or uncertain about their sexual orientation. Pearson’s χ2 or Fisher’s exact tests were used to assess differences in non-parametric variables. Adjusted odds ratios (AOR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) were assessed. Results: Of sexual minority young women 23% were victims of one type of violence and 60% were multiple-victimized. Corresponding figures for heterosexual women were 26% and 28%. Both victimized and non-victimized sexual minority young women reported more

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suicide- and self-harm ideation (p<0.01) compared to victimized and non-victimized heterosexual women. Other health outcomes did not differ between groups. Violence victimization increased risk for ill-health in all outcomes, in all victimized women, especially for those multiple-victimized. Multiple-victimized had AOR 11.8 (CI 6.9–20.1) for posttraumatic stress symptoms, AOR 7.7 (CI 3.8–15.7) for sleeping problems and AOR 5.6 (CI 2.4–13.2) for recurrent bowel problems. Conclusions: Violence victimization, and especially multiple victimizations, was strongly associated with physical and mental ill-health in both sexual minority and heterosexual young women. Sexual minority young women were more often multiply victimized compared to heterosexual women. In this study the total adverse health in the group of sexual minority women was in large due to the higher rate of violence victimization in minority women. The reason for the high violence victimization rate in sexual minority young women needs to be further explored. FCS05.8 STUDY ON VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN (VAW) RELATED KNOWLEDGE AND ATTITUDES AMONG SELECTED MEDICAL PERSONNEL AND OUTPATIENT WOMEN IN CHINA X. Luo, J. Wu, Y. Zhao. National Center for Women and Children’s Health, China CDC, Beijing, China Objectives: To measure selected medical personnel and outpatient women’s current levels of knowledge and attitudes about VAW. Method: A cross-sectional study was conducted in two hospitals and two health care facilities in Hebei and Hunan Province in China between July and August in 2012. A total of 361 medical personnel were selected and investigated. Self-designed questionnaire was used to collect information from both outpatient women and medical personnel. The survey items include characteristics of subjects, family status, gender conception, knowledge on VAW, and attitude towards violence for outpatient women; and characteristics of subjects, knowledge on VAW, knowledge on violence screening, attitude towards violence, and the current medical intervention on VAW for medical personnel. Results: The full score of knowledge about violence was 18, the average scores of the medical personnel and outpatient women were 15.3±3.7 and 13.8±5.1, only 42.7% medical personnel and 39.2% outpatient women got full score. The top form of violence can’t be recognized by both of the two groups were “Laugh at defect or weakness of a woman”. Both of the outpatient women and medical personnel thought that men can batter women under some conditions. The top three forms of violence can’t be recognized by medical personnel were “Chronic pain with no cause”, “Alcohol abuse”, “Repeated vaginal and urethral injury and infection”. Conclusions: The knowledge about VAW of the medical personnel and outpatient women is needed to be improved. Medical personnel and outpatient women haven’t had a zero tolerance attitudes towards VAW. The violence screening capacity needs to be enhanced. Medical intervention of VAW has just been started. FCS05.9 EVALUATION OF HEALTH CARE WORKERS TRAINING ON IMPROVING THE QUALITY OF CARE FOR RAPE SURVIVORS: A QUASI-EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN STUDY IN MOROGORO, TANZANIA M. Abeid 1,2 , P. Muganyizi 1,2 , R. Mpembeni 2 , E. Darj 1 , P. Axemo 1 . University, Uppsala, Sweden; 2 Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences, Dar es salaam, Tanzania

1 Uppsala

Objectives: Sexual violence against women and children in Tanzania and globally is a human rights violation and a developmental challenge. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of train-


ing health professionals on rape management. The specific objectives were to evaluate the changes of knowledge and attitudes towards sexual violence against women and children, among selected population of health professionals at primary health care level. Method: A quasi-experimental design using cross-sectional surveys was conducted to evaluate health providers knowledge, attitude and clinical practice towards sexual violence before and after the training. Health facilities were provided with national management guideline and pre-packed rape kits which included supplies for forensic evidence collection and medications. The study involved Kilombero (intervention) and Ulanga (control) districts. A total of 151 health professionals at baseline and 169 in the final assessment participated in the survey. Data were collected using the same structured questionnaire at baseline in 2012 and at final assessment in 2014. The Chisquare test was used for nominal and categorical data. The amount of change in key indicators from baseline to final assessment in the two areas was compared using the difference in difference method. Results: Overall, about half (48%) of survey respondents were nurses at baseline and at the final assessment (52.8%), with the rest being clinicians. Overall, there was improved knowledge in the intervention district from 55% at baseline to 86%; and a decreased knowledge from 58.5% to 36.2% in the comparison area with the net effect of 53.7% and a p-value <0.0001. The proportion of participants who exhibited accepting attitude towards violence declined from 15.3% to 11.2% in the intervention area but increased from13.2% to 20.0% in the comparison area. However, the observed overall changes in the intervention and comparison areas were not statistically significantly with the net effect of −10.9; p-value = 0.1845. A significant improvement in the care of survivors was observed in most of the items used to measure practice in the intervention but not in the comparison area. Conclusions: The current intervention provides evidence that training on the management of sexual violence is effective in improving healthcare workers’ knowledge and practice but not attitude. To ensure sustainability of such change, commitment is needed from those at strategic level within the health service to ensure that adequate resources are made available.

FCS06. Addressing Maternal Mortality FCS06.1 IMPACT OF EDUCATIONAL INTERVENTIONS ON WOMEN CARE SEEKING BEHAVIORS AS CONTRIBUTION FOR MATERNAL MORTALITY REDUCTION A. Metwally, G. Abdel-Latif, A. Tawfik, A. Mohsen, R. Saleh, I. Salama, A. Osama. National Research Center, Dokki-Giza, Egypt Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of provision of women in childbearing period with the messages and necessary information to improve their awareness and care seeking behaviors to recognize the early warning signs during pregnancy, delivery and postpartum period and take timely referral to hospital and also to measure their utilization to the available health services within the governmental health facilities. Method: This study was conducted through a project; that was supported financially by the Science and Technology Development Fund – Egypt as an interventional evaluation study conducted along three years starting from July 2010 till 2013 along 21 villages in El Fayoum and Benisuef governorates of Egypt, targeting married women. interventions included outreach home visits, campaigns and in facility educational program with the project aiding materials (wall calendar, film Salamtek, game who will win with us and three wall banners for prenatal, natal and postnatal care). The initial assessment and the evaluation targeted 643 and 773 married women respectively. Results: The number of pregnancies ended in abortion showed statis-


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tically significant decline in Al Fayoum (% change = 25.3%). The percentage of women having pregnancy complications showed significant decline (one fourth). The percentage of surveyed women who received four or more antenatal visits from a trained provider increased significantly from 5.1% to 52.9% in Al Fayoum governorate (% change = 47.8%) and from 4.3% to 34.3% in Benisuef (% change = 30%). There was significant increase in percent of women who sought help at health facilities when having complication in both governorates and the percentage of women provided with first aid measures for their delivery complications. Conclusions: The study concluded that the maternal health education provided to women improved their behavior as regard pregnancy, delivery and postpartum care. FCS06.2 COMPARISON OF TREATMENT OF INCOMPLETE ABORTION WITH MISOPROSTOL BY PHYSICIANS AND MIDWIVES AT DISTRICT LEVEL IN UGANDA: A RANDOMISED CONTROLLED EQUIVALENCE TRIAL M. Klingberg-Allvin 1,2 , A. Cleeve 2 , S. Atuhairwe 3 , N. Mbona Tumwesigye 3 , E. Faxelid 2 , J. Byamugisha 3 , K. Gemzell-Danielsson 2 . 1 Dalarna University, Falun, Sweden; 2 Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; 3 Makerere University, Kampala, Sweden Objectives: To assess whether diagnosis and treatment of firsttrimester incomplete abortion with misoprostol provided by a midwife is as equally effective and safe as that provided by a physician. Method: A multicentre randomised controlled equivalence trial was conducted at district level at six facilities in Uganda. Eligibility criteria were women with signs of incomplete abortion. We randomly allocated women with first-trimester incomplete abortion to clinical assessment and treatment with misoprostol either by a physician or a midwife. The randomisation (1:1) was done in blocks of 12 and was stratified for study site. Primary outcome was complete abortion not needing surgical intervention within 14–28 days) after initial treatment. The study was not masked. Analysis of the primary outcome was done on the per-protocol population with a generalised linearmixed effects model. Results: In total 1108 women were assessed for eligibility and 1010 women were randomly assigned to each group (506 to midwife group and 504 to physician group). 955 women (472 in the midwife group and 483 in the physician group) were included in the per-protocol analysis. 452 (96%) of women in the midwife group had complete abortion and 467 (97%) in the physician group. The modelbased risk difference for midwife versus physician group was −0.79% (95% CI: −2.90 to 1.35). The overall proportion of women with incomplete abortion was 3.8%, similarly distributed between the two groups. Conclusions: Treatment of incomplete abortion with misoprostol by midwives is equally safe and effective as when provided by physicians, in a low-resource setting. Scaling up midwives’ involvement in treatment of incomplete abortion with misoprostol at district level would increase access to safe post-abortion care. Paper accepted and will be published in The Lancet. FCS06.3 OBSTETRIC RENAL FAILURE, A HIDDEN CAUSE OF MATERNAL DEATH IN BANGLADESH J. Ferdous 1 , N. Banu 2 , P.K. Datta 2 . 1 Khagrachari Upazilla Health Complex, Chittagong, Bangladesh; 2 Chittagong Medical College, Chittagong, Bangladesh Objectives: To determine the etiology and maternal outcome in obstetric renal failure. Method: This observational study was conducted in Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Chittagong Medical College, Chittagong, Bangladesh from July 2012 to Dec 2013. Thirty eight patients with ob-

stetric renal failure were included in the study. Patients with chronic renal disease, hypertension, diabetes mellitus and renal stones were excluded from the study. A detailed history was followed by thorough examination and investigation. Their clinical history, physical examination and urine output was recorded. Routine laboratory investigations were done. Results: Among total 23,579 obstetric patient pregnancy related acute renal failure was found in 38 women, their age ranged from 15 to 55 years. Among 38 women checkup 47.37% belonged to age group 25–34 years, 57–89% were multipara, 53% were in irregular antenatal checkup, 42.10% patient developed oliguria, 28.95% patient developed anuria. Among 38 patients 23.68% patient had preeclampsia, 13.16% patient had septic abortion, 10.53% patient had post partum haemorrhage, 10.53% patient had post caesarian spinal shock. Haemodialysis was done in 58% patients and other patients were managed conservatively. Complete recovery was observed in 45% patient. Maternal mortality was 42%. Conclusions: This study helped us to evaluate the possible common cause of obsteric renal failure in a developing country like bangladesh and its impact on maternal mortality.Analysing this cause will help to prevent maternal death from such fatal indirect cause. FCS06.4 OBSTETRIC INTENSIVE CARE IN KATHMANDU UINIVERSITY HOSPITAL: A FIVE YEAR STUDY A. Shrestha, C.D. Chawla. Dhulikhel Hospital, Kathmandu University Hospital, Kavre, Nepal Objectives: This study is aimed at observing the status of critical obstetric care in a Kathmandu University Hospital (tertiary care hospital) in developing nation like Nepal. This study was to determine the Intensive Care Utilisation by critically ill obstetric patients, the spectrum of diseases and the outcome. Method: A prospective study on obstetric patients admitted to the ICU of a Kathmandu University Hospital during a five year period 2009–2014. A total of 56 patients were studied. Results: The main cause for admission was haemorrhage in 17 patients (30.35%) followed by hypertensive disorders complicating pregnancy in 14 patients (25%) and sepsis of various etiology in 7 patients (12.5%). These causes were also the leading cause of maternal mortality and morbidity. Conclusions: In this study we observed that obstetric patients form a small number of patients (2.5%) of the total patients (number-2215) admitted to ICU and the majority of them are due to preventable aetiology. In order to decrease the maternal mortality in a country like ours, primary health care needs to be better, with main emphasis being laid on preventive and promotive care. It is indeed a great necessity to have an efficient referral system. FCS06.5 POST PARTUM TETANUS: A REPORT OF FOUR CASES IN KATSINA, NORTH WEST NIGERIA S.E.O. Aigere, H. Ibrahim. Federal Medical Center Katsina, Katsina, Nigeria Objectives: To report post partum tetanus as an emerging cause of maternal mortality in this environment. Method: Case notes of patients who delivered from January 2010 to December 2014 at the federal medical center katsina state were reviewed and four cases were noticed. These have been reported taking into cognizance the clinical presentations of these patients and outcomes. Results: Late presentation was common to all the cases reported and were all unbooked. None had any form of antenatal care, they all lived in the rural areas, none had tetanus toxoid immunization in the course of thier prenancy and all died on admission.

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Conclusions: Tetanus in pregnancy is an emerging cause of maternal mortality in this environment. Ensuring universal reach of immunization, ensuring clean and safe delivery will go a long way in reducing this rising scourge. FCS06.6 RESHAPING MATERNAL SERVICES IN NIGERIA: ANY NEED FOR SPIRITUAL CARE? A.I. Adanikin 1 , U. Onwudiegwu 2 , A. Akintayo 1 . 1 Ekiti State University, Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria; 2 Obafemi Awolowo Univeristy, Ile-Ife, Nigeria Objectives: High maternal and perinatal mortalities occur from deliveries conducted in prayer houses in Nigeria. Although some regulatory efforts have been deployed to tackle this problem, less attention has been placed on the possible motivation for seeking prayer house intervention which could be hinged on the spiritual belief of patients about pregnancy and childbirth. This study therefore seeks to determine the perception of booked antenatal patients on spiritual care during pregnancy and their desire for such within hospital setting. Method: A total of 397 antenatal attendees from two tertiary health institutions, Obstetrics and Gynaecology unit of Bowen University Teaching Hospital (BUTH), Ogbomoso and Ekiti State University Teaching Hospital (EKSUTH), Ado-Ekiti,in southwest Nigeria were sampled. A modified, pretested, self-administered HOPE Questions practical tool guide was used to obtain information on sociodemographic features of respondents,perception of spiritual care during pregnancy and childbirth; and how they desire that their spiritual needs are addressed. Responses were subsequently collated and analyzed using both univariate and multivariate statistical methods. The level of significance (α) was set at 0.05. Results: Sizeable proportion, 301 (75.8%), of respondents believe there is need for spiritual help during pregnancy and childbirth. Close to half of participants (48.5%) were currently seeking such help while another 8.6% intended to. Majority, 281 (70.8%) felt it was needful for health professionals to consider their spiritual needs. Most respondents, 257 (64.7%), desired that their clergy is allowed to pray with them while in labour and sees such collaboration as incentive that will improve hospital patronage. There was association between high family income and desire for collaboration of healthcare providers with one’s clergy (OR 1.82; CI 1.03–3.21; p=0.04). Conclusions: Our current maternal services pay little or no attention to patients’ psychosocial support despite evidences from Cochrane review that it is beneficial. From this study, it is clear that patients desire that spiritual care is offered alongside with medical treatments. The approach could be an attracting force to improve hospital maternity patronage.It is therefore recommended that current maternal services in Nigeria be restructured to make provision for spiritual care since this would not interfere with the usual core scientific clinical care provided to the women. FCS06.7 UNIVERSITY OF GEZIRA INITIATIVE FOR SAFE MOTHERHOOD AND CHILDHOOD; INTERVENTIONS LEAD TO REMARKABLE REDUCTION IN THE MATERNAL MORTALITY RATIO E. Miskeen, S. Khalafalla, M. Elsanousi, A. Hagza, I. Hassan Hussain, O. Mirghani. University of Gezira, Gezira State, Sudan Objectives: The objective is to review role of Gezira Initiative for safe motherhood and childhood in maternal mortality reduction during the period (2005–2015) & to identify underlying causes behind maternal mortality. Method: Gezira Initiative for Safe motherhood and childhood was introduced to Gezira State, Central Sudan after comprehensive situation analysis. This particular project, among other things, initiated


the training of village midwives and facilitated their absorption into the government-funded health system, upgrade of the rural hospital, offer emergency obstetrics services, Training on delivery care and neonatal care in rural hospital, Manuals & protocols for management of obstetrical & neonatal emergencies and evaluation. All maternal deaths were reviewed retrospectively since the initiative produced. Data was analysed by SPSS. Results: Gezira initiative has led to a remarkable reduction in the maternal mortality ratio (MMR) and in the neonatal mortality ratio (NMR) in Gezira state. The effort has recorded great achievements in Gezira, lowering the MMR from 469 per 100,000 live births in 2005 to 57 in 2014, and the NMR from 43 per 1,000 live births in 2005 to 11.3 per 1,000 in 2014. Cause of death were (top six causes); Obstetric haemorrhage (23.3%), viral hepatitis (19.2%), pulmonary embolism (15.1%), Eclampsia (13.7%), sepsis (12.3%) and malaria (5.5%). Conclusions: The Safe Motherhood project is a classic example of how a socially accountable medical institution has positively responded to an identified societal need in a holistic manner and with measurable impact. Interventions lead to remarkable reduction in the maternal mortality ratio. FCS06.8 PRIMARY POST PARTUM HEMORRHAGE AND MANAGEMENT OPTIONS R. Bashir. Ayub Teaching Hospital complex, Abbottabad, Pakistan Objectives: To determine the incidence and causes of PPH in developing countries. Method: This prospective study was conducted from 1/11/2013 to 1/03/2015.All patients who underwent PPH were included in the study. Results: The incidence of PPH is 3.1% uterine atony was the most common cause of PPH contributory around 75% of cases. Conclusions: Differences of Maternal morbidity and Mortality due to Primary PPH reflects general economic prosperity, Health education and awarness,differences in health care provisions and geographic and climatic condition that affect access to obstetrics care. WHO estimates the incidence of obstetric hemorrhage is 10.5% of all live births globally. Around 132,000 maternal deaths are directly attributable to hemorrhage. Good antenatal care is important in promoting health. MMR can be reduced if the risk factors are identified and communicated and preparations can be made to deal with them accordingly.

FCS07. Addressing Maternal Mortality FCS07.1 MATERNAL NEAR MISS MORBIDITY AND MORTALITY IN THE LARGEST TERTIARY REFERRAL CENTER IN RWANDA S. Rulisa 1 , I. Umuziranenge 2 , S. Maria 3 , J. van Roosmalen 4 . 1 University of Rwanda, Kigali, Rwanda; 2 Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands; 3 Duke University, Durham, NC USA, USA; 4 Leiden University Medical Center and Athena Institute, VU University Amsterdam, Leiden, The Netherlands Objectives: To determine the incidence and factors associated with severe (“near miss”) maternal morbidity and mortality in the University Teaching Hospital of Kigali (CHUK), Rwanda. Method: We performed a cross sectional study of all women admitted to the tertiary care University Hospital in Kigali with severe – “near miss” – maternal morbidity and mortality during a six-month period using the WHO criteria for “near miss” maternal mortality. We assessed maternal demographic characteristics and disease processes associated with severe obstetric morbidity and mortality. Results: The prevalence of severe maternal outcomes was 11 per


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1000 live births. The maternal near miss ratio was 8 per 1000 live births. The majority of severe obstetric morbidity and mortalities resulted from: sepsis/peritonitis (30.2%)–primarily following caesarean deliveries, hypertensive disease (28.6%), and hemorrhage (19.3%). Lower maternal socioeconomic status, referral from district hospitals to the tertiary care center, and residence in the eastern part of the country were risk factors for severe maternal morbidity and mortality. Conclusions: The study identified opportunities for improvement in clinical care to potentially reduce these adverse outcomes. The high incidence of peritonitis may reflect suboptimal intraoperative and intrapartum management of high-risk patients at district hospitals. More studies are needed to further clarify these findings. FCS07.2 ACHIEVING MDG 5 AT A TERTIARY FACILITY – 5-YEAR AUDIT AT THE MOTHER AND CHILD HOSPITAL AKURE, ONDO STATE, SOUTHWESTERN NIGERIA L. Oyeneyin 2 , A. Akintan 1 , N. Aderoba 1 . 1 Mother and Child Hospital, Akure, Ondo state, Nigeria; 2 Mother and Child Hospital, Ondo, Ondo state, Nigeria Objectives: 1. Determine the trend of antenatal registrations and births during period of study. 2. Determine the trend of maternal mortality ratios and causes of maternal deaths. 3. Determine the trend of perinatal mortality ratios. Method: This retrospective study was conducted in the Mother and Child Hospital Akure, one of Nigeria’s busiest purpose-built tertiary care maternity centres, which offers free services (i.e. free consultations, admissions, drugs, laboratory tests, blood transfusions and surgeries). Data was collected from the files of patients delivered at the hospital since inception on 24th February 2010 to 31st December 2014 and analyzed using Microsoft Excel and SPSS. Results: Total births in the 5-year period were 30,031 increasing by 108% from 3,673 in 2010 to 7,634 in 2013 then dipping by 18% between 2013 and 2014. Total antenatal registrations were 49,195 from 7,378 in 2010 to 12,002 in 2013, a 63% increase before dipping to 9,780 in 2014. The maternal mortality ratio reduced from 708 per 100,000 births in 2010 to 208 per 100,000 in 2014, a 70% reduction. The commonest causes of deaths were postpartum haemorrhage (30%), eclampsia (29%) and uterine rupture (14%). The perinatal mortality ratios per 1000 births were 65, 74.5, 74.5, 61.7 and 63 for 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013 and 2014 respectively. Conclusions: Running a tertiary care maternity centre offering free and qualitative services is sustainable and ultimately leads to significant improvement in maternal and perinatal statistics. The dip between 2013 and 2014 can be adduced to a 3-month nationwide strike action by health workers in 2014. FCS07.3 WHY MOTHERS DIE? A REVIEW OF MATERNAL MORTALITY CASES BY FACILITY BASED MATERNAL DEATH REVIEW COMMITTEE AT A TERTIARY REFERRAL UNIT IN CENTRAL INDIA R. Fuke, N. Sukhsohale, S. Fusey. Government Medical College and Hospital, Nagpur, Maharashtra, India Objectives: 1. To review and analyze various factors contributing to maternal mortality at a tertiary referral unit. 2. To assess the changing scenario of maternal mortality in central India. 3. To formulate some guidelines to prevent maternal deaths in future. Method: It is a retrospective observational study of 362 maternal deaths that occurred over a period of 4 years at Government Medical College and Hospital, a tertiary referral unit in Nagpur, a part of central India. Each maternal death is analyzed by Facility Based Maternal

Death Review Committee (FDMDR) which is a government project, regarding sociodemographic factors and medical reasons responsible for causing maternal deaths. Delay at different levels of functioning healthcare system is identified and suggestions are made to take appropriate measures to prevent maternal deaths in future. Results: The total number for deliveries, livebirths and maternal deaths was found to be 45101, 43776 and 362, respectively. 86.19% cases received antenatal care and almost all subjects were provided with free referral services under health care schemes still the main causes for maternal mortality identified were poor antenatal care, delay in referral and lack of basic health facilities. Eclampsia (15.19%), preeclampsia (14.08%) were the leading direct causes followed by haemorrhage while anaemia (8.88%) and liver disorders (12.15%) and acute febrile illness (10.49%) were the main indirect causes. 93.1% cases were emergency referrals and critical cases (33.97%) which died within 24 hours of admission. Conclusions: Identifying high risk pregnancies with quality antenatal care and timely referral with well equipped transport facility will improve survival rate. FDMDR programme played an important role in finding out the factors responsible for maternal deaths as well as highlighted the deficiencies in health care system which was the main reason of failure of government sponsored healthcare programmes. Extending health care facilities to grass root level, participation of all sectors in the health education, formulating health policies and a multidisciplinary approach for critically ill referrals will go long way in reducing the MMR and improving health status of India. FCS07.4 PUERPERAL SEPSIS, THE LEADING CAUSE OF MATERNAL DEATHS AT A TERTIARY UNIVERSITY TEACHING HOSPITAL IN UGANDA J. Ngonzi 1,2 , Y. Fajardo 1 , J. Kabakyenga 1 , J.P. Geertruyden 2 , Y. Jacqueymn 2 , K. Wouters 2 . 1 Mbarara University of Science and Technology, Mbarara, Uganda; 2 University of Antwerp, Antwerpen, Belgium Objectives: The causes and factors associated with maternal mortality at Mbarara University Teaching Hospital. Method: The study was a retrospective unmatched case control study which was carried out at the maternity unit of Mbarara Regional Referral Hospital (MRRH). The sample included pregnant women aged 15–49 years admitted to the Maternity unit between January 2011 and November 2014. Data from patient charts of 139 maternal deaths (cases) and 417 controls was undertaken using a standard audit/data extraction form. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to assess for the factors associated with maternal mortality. Results: Direct causes of mortality accounted for 77.7% while indirect causes contributed 22.3%. The commonest cause of mortality was puerperal sepsis (30.9%), obstetrical hemorrhage (21.6%), hypertensive disorders in pregnancy (14.4%), abortion complications (10.8%). Malaria was the commonest indirect cause of mortality at 40%. On multivariable logistic regression analysis, factors associated with mortality were: primary or no education (OR, 1.9; 95% CI: 1.0– 3.3); HIV positive (OR, 3.6; 95% CI: 1.9–7.0); no antenatal care attendance (OR, 3.6; 95% CI: 1.8–7.0); rural dwellers (OR, 4.5; 95% CI: 2.5– 8.3); referral (OR, 5.0; 95% CI: 2.9–10.0); delay to seek health care (delay-1) (OR, 36.9; 95% CI: 16.2–84.4). Conclusions: Most maternal deaths occur among mothers from rural areas, uneducated, HIV positive, unbooked mothers (lack of antenatal care), referred mothers in critical conditions and mothers delaying to seek health care. Sepsis, obstetrical hemorrhage and severe pre-eclampsia/eclampsia are the leading causes of maternal deaths. Improvement in primary health care and emergency obstetric care can contribute towards reduction of maternal deaths.

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FCS07.5 THE PREVENTABLE FACTORS OF MATERNAL MORTALITY FROM PREECLAMPSIA IN INDONESIA: CHANCE IN PUBLIC HEALTH PERSPECTIVES R. Cahyanti, S. Hadijono. Obstetrics & Gynecology Department, Faculty of Medicine, University of Diponegoro, Semarang, Jawa Tengah, Indonesia Objectives: To address the chance of preventable factors in public health system with effective control of preeclampsia in Indonesia and develop components used to intervene within local context. Method: Cross sectional study in Semarang municipality as a center of comprehensive emergency obstetric care (EmOC) facilities in Central Java Province, Indonesia. We analyzed cases to identify the causes of preeclampsia maternal death from January 2011 until December 2014 in Semarang, Central Java Province, Indonesia. The underlying preventable factors were from maternal death reviews on causes, characteristics and circumstance in clinical management with implementation of referral system and health policy based on compliance to national standard. Results: The study found that 37.9% of maternal death caused by preeclampsia, 95.5% cases as preventable disease. Substantial health system factors contributing to preventable deaths were identified in the third delay in health service provision and followed by first delay in decision to seek care arise as a result inability to judge maternal condition. The management constraints in the third delay were inadequate staffing in teamwork process, medical equipment, and lack of clinical knowledge and skills in early emergency detection in primary care and proper management of timely delivery in secondary health level with unsupported referral system. Conclusions: The regulation in health system having a standardized process needed to support improvement of quality care with continue update of management team and making direct improvements in referral system to avoid the preventable factors of maternal death from preeclampsia. FCS07.6 IMPACT OF PRONTO SIMULATION-BASED OBSTETRIC AND NEWBORN CARE TRAINING ON NON-EMERGENCY DELIVERY PRACTICES IN GUATEMALA A. Walton 1 , E. Kestler 2 , J. Dettinger 3 , S. Zelek 3 , F. Holme 3 , D. Walker 4 . 1 University of Washington, School of Medicine, Seattle, WA, USA; 2 Epidemiological Research Center in Sexual and Reproductive Health (CIESAR), Guatemala City, Guatemala; 3 University of Washington, Department of Global Health, Seattle, WA, USA; 4 University of California, San Francisco, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology and Global Health Sciences, San Francisco, CA, USA Objectives: To assess the impact of PRONTO, a low-technology, simulation-based training program for obstetric and perinatal emergency management, on primary-level clinics’ non-emergency delivery practices. Method: Fifteen intervention clinics participated in PRONTO as part of a matched-pair cluster randomized trial in Guatemala. We conducted a cross sectional birth observation study in a convenience sample of nine clinic pairs (n=18). Study outcomes included implementation of practices previously shown to decrease maternal/neonatal mortality and improve patient care. One and two-tailed t-tests were used to compare proportional differences of practice utilization between intervention and control facilities. Results: We observed 25 and 17 births in intervention and control clinics, respectively. Intervention teams appropriately performed active management of the third stage of labor more often than controls (83% vs 50%, P=0.01) and implemented more practices proven to decrease neonatal mortality (P<0.001). They more often ensured patient privacy (92% vs 65%, P=0.01) and kept patients informed (100%


vs 55%, P=0.001). Differences were also noted in many teamworkrelated outcomes; in particular, skill-based teamwork tools were observed more often in intervention sites (P=0.009–0.03). Conclusions: PRONTO appears to benefit non-emergency delivery care by increasing utilization of evidence-based practices, patientcentered care, and teamwork. Further research is needed to better assess impact. FCS07.7 NEW STRATEGIES ARE NEEDED TO PREVENT MATERNAL SEPSIS J. Smith, K. Lilly. Jhpiego, Baltimore, MD, USA Objectives: Participants will understand the current evidence base on interventions to prevent maternal sepsis in developing countries and be able to describe data that shows the difference between national policy and actual practice. Method: Maternal sepsis is a leading causes of maternal mortality, accounting for 11% of maternal mortality worldwide. Despite global and national recognition of the problem, limited research or programming has been done in this area, and stark differences exist between prevention strategies in developed and developing country settings. In developed countries, prolonged labor is generally understood to be a significant contributor to maternal sepsis. In low and middle income countries, however, maternal hygiene or hand hygiene is thought to be the dominant precipitator. We conducted a review of the literature to understand the evidence base for current interventions for prevention of maternal sepsis. Results: Fifty-one studies were identified that referenced interventions to prevent maternal or newborn sepsis; 27 met criteria for review. Only nine studied a developing country context. Eleven linked prolonged labor or prolonged rupture of membranes to maternal sepsis. Handwashing by TBAs and chlorhexidine vaginal douching were found ineffective. The WASH community has advocated intensified hand hygiene. A further survey of 20 developing countries showed that national guidelines on infection prevention are generally accurate, but prevention of prolonged labor is rarely mentioned as a strategy to reduce sepsis. Direct observation of birthing practices in six countries found that providers washed their hands 40% of the time before conducting labor examinations. Conclusions: Progress has been made in reducing mortality from postpartum hemorrhage and pre-eclampsia. With the global emphasis on facility births, interventions - whether appropriate or not have the potential to increase. The almost exclusive focus on hand hygiene, and the relative absence of attention to prolonged labor, for the prevention of maternal and newborn sepsis is unlikely to achieve the desired result. The evidence base for sepsis prevention practices in labor is weak and there is an urgent need for additional research to guide development of appropriate interventions for mortality reduction. FCS07.8 IMPROVING CLINICAL OBSTETRIC TEAMWORK: A TOOL FOR PRACTICE-BASED FEEDBACK IN LOW INCOME COUNTRIES J. Cranmer 1 , J. Baumgardner 2 , S. Cohen 3 , J. Dettinger 7 , E. Kestler 5 , F. Evans 6 , D. Walker 8,4 . 1 Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA; 2 Seattle University, Seattle, WA, USA; 3 University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, USA; 4 University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA; 5 El Centro de Investigacion Epidemiologica en Saluid Sexual y Reproductiva, Guatemala City, Guatemala; 6 PRONTO International, Seattle, WA, USA; 7 University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA; 8 University of California-San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA Objectives: Cohesive teamwork could maximize available resources and decrease obstetric-related morbidity and mortality during facility births in Low and Middle Income Countries (LMICs). However,


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there are no known teamwork measurement tools for these contexts. An intuitive teamwork tool for real-time feedback could foster measurement and quality improvement. As part of a larger study of PRONTO’s obstetric outcomes, this nested observational study aims to create a robust, abbreviated teamwork tool that can 1) rapidly and accurately measure clinical teamwork 2) be implemented with limited training, 3) provide real-time feedback during obstetric trainings or clinical mentorship and 4) track a facility’s skills longitudinally. Method: 9 simulated obstetric emergencies were managed by primary care clinicians at 7 sites from a cluster-randomized trial in Guatemala. This nested observational study analyzed 53 achieved videos of the simulation; they were coded for 57 teamwork behaviors using the Performance Assessment for Communication and Teamwork-Video tool (PACT-V) that quantifies TeamSTEPPS behaviors. Blinded bilingual coders randomly scored 77 videos. Standard exploratory, Principal Factor Analysis (PFA) with varimax orthogonal rotation and post-model decision criterion were used to extract factors and surrogate variables for a short-form of the PACT-V. Results: Domain-specific Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin criterion (KMO) for each teamwork domain ranged from 52.04–78.59%. 10 factors and 21 surrogate variables were extracted from the 57-item PACT-V using PFA. These variables contributed to a short-form of this tool – the MOM (Measurement of Obstetric team-Managemen)t. Cohesion of the MOM’s domain-specific scales exceeded the original PACT-V tool with Alphas (α) ranging from 76.58–96.06%. The MOM’s behavioral anchors were adapted from Dreyfus’ non-judgmental scales for complex skill measurement and MOM modified the typography and structure of the PACT-V to promote intuitive use and to match “Balanced Score Card” measurements used in Kenya and other LMICs. Conclusions: The MOM’s quantitative, simplified five-point scales and intuitive typography could promote rapid teamwork measurement at primary obstetric facilities in LMICs. The non-judgmental behavioral anchors could promote team self-reflection or nonthreatening facilitator feedback during training or facility-based quality improvement coaching. The tool’s flexibility permits episodic domain-specific feedback or longitudinal coaching. Using the MOM to disseminate teamwork measurement throughout health systems could enculturate continuous improvements in obstetric quality and promote maternal-neonatal survival.

FCS08. Addressing Maternal Mortality FCS08.1 ANALYSIS OF POLITICAL PRIORITY FOR THE MATERNAL DEATH SURVEILLANCE AND RESPONSE (MDSR) POLICY T. Firoz 1 , V. Filippi 2 , I. Lange 2 . 1 University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada; 2 London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, London, UK Objectives: The aim was to determine the ability and degree of political priority that the MDSR can generate by examining the processes that shaped how this policy was made, introduced and implemented as well as studying the processes of power, control and conflicts of interests between key actors. By assessing the degree of global political priority, we aimed to identify challenges and barriers that the MDSR faces and propose policy directions for successful implementation. Method: 34 stakeholders representing various institutional categories from high and low income countries participated in interviews, questionnaires and surveys. Questions were derived from Shiffman’s framework for determinants of political priority and covered four content areas: policy community, political context, portrayals and policy characteristics. A comprehensive literature search of published and grey literature was conducted to complement the findings. 20 relevant papers, policy documents and web materials (websites, videos) were reviewed and included in the analysis.

Results: The MDSR was introduced following high profile policy opportunities. It is portrayed in technical and human rights frames in the published literature but was sometimes perceived as a rebranding of existing policies by respondents. The policy community is diverse with supporting actors from all sectors with varying resources and different levels of participation at the global and local levels. Although concerns were expressed, there is no overt opposition to the MDSR. Respondents identified features of the policy that were benefits over previous policies but highlighted several that were barriers to successful implementation. Conclusions: The MDSR has the potential to generate political priority but more political will and dedicated resources are required. Operational challenges and lack of integration into the existing health systems were other identified barriers that need to be addressed. FCS08.2 PANICKER’S VACUUM SUCTION HAEMOSTATIC DEVICE FOR TREATING POST PARTUM HEMORRHAGE V. Panicker. Panicker’s Hospital, Kodungallur, Thrissur, Kerala, India Objectives: To find out a safe, simple and sure technique for preventing and treating PPH thereby decreasing maternal mortality and morbidity. And also to find out a method to treat PPH in low resource setup, primary care setup were even paramedical personals including ANM’s can use this method in emergency situation very safely and effectively to save the life of the mother. Method: Forty women who had normal vaginal deliveries and fifteen women who had LSCS were included in this study in a low resource maternity hospital. All these 55 women developed PPH in spite of using all uterotonic drugs. Four women developed atonic PPH. A specially made plastic cannulla of 12mm in diameter and 25cm in length with multiple holes of 3mm diameter at the distal 7cm of the cannulla was introduced into the uterine cavity through the vagina to reach the fundus. The cannulla is connected to a suction machine and a negative pressure of 600mm mercury was produced. Results: The negative suction resulted in sucking out all the blood collected in the uterine cavity. The quantity of blood sucked was 50 to 300 ml. When the collected blood was completely sucked out, the bleeding ceased. The suction was maintained for 30 minutes. Then the cannulla was taken out slowly after releasing the suction. There was no further bleeding from the uterine cavity and the uterus was well contracted. Five patients had fresh bleeding from the vagina even after connecting the suction. These were all found to have vaginal tares and suturing was done. Conclusions: The inner surface of the uterine cavity got strongly sucked by the cannulla and the bleeding arterioles and sinusoids got sucked into the holes of the cannulla, closing them. The bleeding points are permanently closed due to the clot formation within 30 to 40 minutes. This is a very simple, safe, sure and inexpensive technique to control and cure PPH with absolute success. Instead of using suction machine, a mechanical suction unit of ventose or MVA syringe can be used. No complications and failure observed. This life saving procedure is very useful for preventing maternal mortality in the world. FCS08.3 MONITORING MATERNAL AND NEWBORN HEALTH OUTCOMES IN BAUCHI STATE, NIGERIA: AN EVALUATION OF A STANDARDSBASED QUALITY IMPROVEMENT INTERVENTION I. Kabo 1 , E. Otolorin 1 , N. Orobaton 2 , H. Abdullahi 1 , M. Abdulkarim 2 . 1 Jhpiego Coporation, Nigeria, Abuja, Nigeria; 2 USAID/JSI, Abuja, Nigeria Objectives: Maternal mortality ratio and neonatal mortality rate in Bauchi state of Northeast Nigeria are among the highest in the country. Substandard care factors are associated with increased rates of maternal and newborn mortality and morbidity at facilities in devel-

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oping countries. Innovative quality of care interventions are therefore needed to assure patient safety, provide motivation and institutionalize a culture of quality of care for improved maternal and newborn health outcomes. The aim of this study was to assess the correlation between compliance with set performance standards, intervention use and maternal and neonatal deaths in secondary health facilities of Bauchi state, Nigeria. Method: In a quasi experimental design, the Standard Based Management and Recognition (SBM-R) approach to quality improvement was introduced to all 23 secondary health facilities in the state. Baseline and three follow-up assessments were conducted between 2010 and 2013. Each assessment is followed by quality improvement initiative that included multiple reinforcing activities-provider training, supportive supervision, detailed performance standards, assessments of service quality, and facility action plans. We examined trends in: (1) health facility achievement of SBM-R set performance standards, (2) the use of evidence-based maternal and newborn health (MNH) service delivery practices, and (3) related MNH outcomes. Results: The overall proportion of MNH standards that the health facilities achieved increased from 8% to 86% during the three years after the implementation of SBM-R. Over the same time period, increases were also observed in provision of active management of third stage of labor from 10% to 95% and essential newborn care from 13% to 98% with decline of incidence of postpartum hemorrhage from 2.6% to 0.6%, institutional neonatal mortality and stillbirth rates decreased from 40 to 26/1000 live births and 92 to 78/1000 deliveries respectively. Health facility maternal mortality ratio also dropped from 4577 to 527/100,000 live births. Conclusions: Introduction of an SBM-R approach, which involved intensive and mutually reinforcing intervention activities, has led to significant increase in compliance with set performance standards, and improvement of quality of MNH services and outcomes. Scaling up use of SBM-R for quality improvement and tracking selected outcome indicators alongside of improvement in standards is recommended. FCS08.4 MATERNAL NEAR MISS DEATHS IN TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL – A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY FROM INDIRA GANDHI GOVERNMENT MEDICAL COLLEGE (IGGMC) NAGPUR, INDIA K. Kedar, A. Choudhary. Indira GandhiGovernment Medical College, Nagpur, Maharashtra, India Objectives: 1. To determine the prevalence of near miss cases in tertiary care hospital. 2. To analyze the nature of near miss obstetric cases and maternal deaths. 3. To identify the factors leading to near miss deaths. 4. To suggest measures to reduce them. Method: Retrospective analytical study conducted in obstetric department of IGGMC for near miss cases admitted from 1st January to 31st December 2014. Out of 4956 deliveries, 498 were near miss cases. Geller’s five-factor scoring system used having specificity of 93.9%, comprising of Organ –system failure, ICU admission, blood transfusion >3 units, intubation (>12 hour), and surgical intervention. These factors are given the score of 5, 4, 3, 2, and 1 respectively. The cutoff score of 8 or greater is considered. Statistical analysis was done by using percentages & Chi square test. P values <0.05 were considered as significant. Results: Out of 4596, 428 identified as near miss obstetrical cases with prevalence of 9.31%. Rates were higher in resource poor setting area and whenever the organ–system based criteria was used. 220 cases were due to Hypertensive Disorders of Pregnancy (51.4%) and hemorrhage in 134 cases (31.3%). Infections were seen in 32 cases (7.4%). Others were rare causes like anesthesia complications, dilated cardiomyopathy. Amongst the women who were categorized as near miss, anemia


was seen in 338 patients (78.91%), which was statistically significant when compared to patients who were categorized as not near miss with anemia (p<0.05). Conclusions: The review of near miss cases helps delineate continuing threats to maternal health and types of support services most commonly required. The near miss can be used as a guide to the standard of maternal care. Need for the development of an effective audit system for maternal care which includes both near miss obstetric morbidity and mortality is felt. Anemia being the significant cause of near miss death, proper antenatal care and timely correction will help in improving their health & putting these women’s life at less risk. FCS08.5 INSTITUTIONALIZATION OF STANDARD BASED MANAGEMENT AND RECOGNITION PROCESS FOR QUALITY MNH SERVICES R. Mutayoba, D. Bishanga, L. Ikamba, G. Tibaijuka. Jhpiego, an affiliate of Johns Hopkins University, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania Objectives: Institutionalizing Standard Based Management and Recognition (SBM-R) process into 251 project health facilities as a means of improving quality of MNH service provision in Tanzania. Method: Under MoHSW leadership, the project developed National SBM-R guidelines and standards to be a gold standard for health facilities QI approch. SBM-R approach was rolled out in 251 health facilities in 25 regions between 2008 and 2014. Quality improvement teams (QIT) were established and/or strengthened in each health facility and QI cycles were conducted periodically both in regional hospitals and in selected lower-level facilities to assess progress, identify gaps, address them and re-plan for better achievements through mentorship during supervision by district and project staff. Through these processes, facilities demonstrated remarkable improvement in their performance scores. Results: Of the supported 251 health facilities, 53 (21%) facilities met criteria for external verification by the Ministry on achieving score of 70% and above on their QI cycles. Of these facilities, 49 were recognized by MoHSW for achieving a score above 70% on performance standards in FANC and/or BEmONC. This demonstrated a remarkable improvement from baseline scores of 2% - 50% to the endline score ranging from 70% to93%. With facilities that demonstrated improvement in SBM-R scores, there was associated improvement in quality of care and some health outcomes. Conclusions: Localization and institutionalization of QI approaches with active involvement of health care workers, facility management and community can bring a significant change in the quality of MNH services. Regular QI cycles, internal and external supervisions are recommended to support health facilities into achieving desired standards. Additionally, management ownership and support from the MoHSW is a key to success. This approach is now nationally approved by the Ministry for roll out across the country. FCS08.6 BEYOND SIGNAL FUNCTIONS IN GLOBAL EMERGENCY OBSTETRICS: USING A CASCADE MODEL TO IMPROVE CLINICAL QUALITY AND GUIDE NATIONAL STRATEGY J. Cranmer 1 , J. Dettinger 2 , K. Calkins 2 , M. Kibore 2,3 , D. Walker 2,4 . University, Atlanta, GA, USA; 2 University of Washington, Department of Global Health, Seattle, WA, USA; 3 University of Nairobi, Department of Paediatrics, Nairobi, Kenya; 4 University of California-San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA 1 Emory

Objectives: Clinical Emergency Obstetric Care (EmOC) capacity is traditionally assessed using the “Signal Functions” framework. We compared EmOC capacity using signal functions and a novel “Clinical Cascade” using two functions – retained products of conception (RPOC) and anticonvulsants. The cascade is a hierarchal model where emer-


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gency functions at the top of the hierarchy, (i.e., MgSO4 for preeclampsia), cannot be performed without requisite resources. The cascade has five stages: 1) identification (e.g., sphygmomanometerstethoscope for pre-eclampsia), 2) consumables (e.g., IV supplies), 3) durables (e.g., IV poles) and 4) medications (e.g., MgSO4). Stage 5 – monitoring & modifying interventions, is crucial for quality but considered separately. Method: This cross-sectional facility analysis, nested within a nonequivalent group design pre-post implementation trial in Kakamega County, Kenya, summarized 758 facility-specific variables from 42 basic EMoC clinics. 276 of these variables relate to five elements of EMoC care (Facilities, Staff, Equipment, Supplies, Drugs). We described these resources using a standard adaptation of signal functions and tracer drugs. Subsequently, we compared these findings to a facility’s practical EmOC capacity using a novel cascade model adapted from HIV and the “Hierarchy of Needs”. The proportion of facilities with EmOC resources at each stage of the cascade is compared to the signal function analysis. Results: For the management of pre-eclampsia, 71.4% of facilities had the first-line signal function tracer drug available. The cascade suggests 14.3% of facilities have all requisite resources for pre-eclampsia management, while 4.3% of facilities could monitor and modify therapy. 38.1% of facilities have stage 1 resources to identify the disorder. 31.0% have the stage 2 consumables for management; 23.8% have stage 4 durable equipment. 14.3% of facilities can administer stage 4’s first-line medication even though 71.4% of facilities stock it. A similar trend of step-wise decreases in resource availability is present for RPOC: 1 (100% available), 2 (90.5%), 3 (47.6%), 4 (0%), 5 (0%). Conclusions: Comparing the performance of existing signal functions and the novel cascade identifies five themes. First, the cascade identifies substantive drop-offs in EmOC resources by stage. Second, it quantitatively summarizes the precise points where resource attrition occurs. Third, using signal functions alone to assess EmOC may significantly overestimate capacity. Fourth, applying the cascade to all signal functions and diverse contexts could further refine the model. Finally, this cascade could enable EmOC facilities, clinicians, and health system planners to more precisely identify, measure, and improve a facility’s capacity to manage obstetric emergencies and promote global maternal survival. FCS08.7 MATERNAL DEATH AUDITS IN LOW RESOURCE COUNTRIES: SCALING UP OF MATERNAL DEATH AUDITS IN 22 HEALTH CENTERS IN MALI J. Blake 1 , M. Traoré 2 , A. Coulibaly 2 , L. Perron 1,2 . 1 SOGC, Ottawa, Canada; 2 Reduction of Maternal Mortality and Morbidity Project, Bamako, Mali Objectives: The QUARITÉ research project (QUAlité des soins, gestion du RIsque et TEchniques obstétricales) demonstrated a 35% reduction in maternal mortality in referral hospitals implementing a multi-facetted strategy which included: upgrading of clinical knowledge and skills of health professionals, implementing maternal mortality audits and ensuring regular monitoring visitis by external supervisors. The positive result from this study has led to the implementation of a subsequent project which aims to extend this strategy to the 22 referral hospitals targeted within the QUARITÉ project. This presentation will share the preliminary results of this new project in Mali. Method: The project’s implementation strategy included: the provision of ALARM International Program to opinion leaders; the establishmnent of a maternal mortality audit committees and on-going medical education activities in the hospitals of the control group of the QUARITÉ project; and the training of a national team of supervisors responsible for monitoring activities at all the hospitals. Maternal morality audit activities were initiated in the hospitals involved

in the intervention group of QUARITÉ in 2009 and in the hospitals involved in the control group in January 2014. The preliminary results that will be presented were obtained from a review of the external supersors’ reports and the annual reports of the referral hospitals. Results: Project data revealed that a total of 434 maternal deaths were registered in the 22 referral hospitals, 47 were referrals that were dead upon arrival. Of the 201 audited maternal deaths, 103 were analysed as preventable. During this exercise, a total of 243 recommendatins were formulated by the referral hospitals and of these, 162 have been implemented. The principal causes of maternal mortality were identified as: hemorrhage (n=136), eclampsia (n=81), infection (n=39), and uterine rupture (n=36). During the first year, 132 continuing medical education activities were conducted in the participating hospitals. Conclusions: Maternal mortality audits are a promising strategy to reduce maternal mortality but they necessitate well trained, supevised muldisciplinary teams. FCS08.8 TIME TO REDEFINE POSTPARTUM HEMORRHAGE? THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN POSTPARTUM BLOOD LOSS AND CHANGE IN PRE- TO POST-DELIVERY HEMOGLOBIN H. Anger, J. Durocher, R. Dabash, B. Winikoff. Gynuity Health Projects, New York, NY, USA Objectives: Definitions of postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) used in clinical practice and research (postpartum blood loss ≥500ml for PPH and ≥1000ml for “severe” PPH) are primarily derived from professional consensus and not on evidence that they are indicators of PPHassociated morbidity. To better understand the appropriateness of these PPH definitions and their utility as endpoints in PPH research, our analysis compared measured postpartum blood loss with change in pre- to post-delivery hemoglobin. Method: We performed a secondary analysis of data from three studies: two international multi-site hospital-based randomized controlled trials comparing sublingual misoprostol and intravenous oxytocin for PPH treatment among 1754 women with ≥700ml blood loss, and a randomized controlled trial comparing oral misoprostol and placebo for PPH prevention among 1058 home-births in Pakistan, including 203/1058 (19%) with blood loss ≥500ml. R2 values were calculated for change in hemoglobin and measured blood loss. We compared PPH blood loss definitions (≥500ml, ≥1000ml) with the threshold value considered to be indicative of a clinically significant drop in hemoglobin (≥2 g/dL). Results: While the change in pre- to post-delivery hemoglobin was significantly correlated with blood loss (p<0.001), only 9–13% of the variability in hemoglobin drop was explained by blood loss (R2 =0.134 for the multi-country treatment trials, R2 =0.089 for the Pakistan prevention study). In the multi-country treatment trials, hemoglobin drop ≥2 g/dL occurred in 328/1127 (29%) women with 700–999ml blood loss and 406/627 (65%) women with blood loss ≥1000ml. In the Pakistan prevention trial, hemoglobin drop ≥2 g/dL occurred in 55/175 (31%) women with blood loss 500–999ml and 19/28 (68%) women with ≥1000ml blood loss. Conclusions: Considering the relatively weak association of hemoglobin drop and measured postpartum blood loss, the two should not be used interchangeably when assessing the effectiveness of interventions that address PPH. Furthermore, women with postpartum blood loss ≥500ml but <1000ml infrequently experience a clinically important drop in hemoglobin (≥2 g/dL), suggesting that the PPH definition of ≥500ml blood loss may have limited utility.

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FCS08.9 PREVENTION OF ANEMIA IN ADOLESCENT SCHOOL GIRLS OF NAGPUR, INDIA N. Vaze, B. Gandhe. Private, Nagpur, Maharashtra, India Objectives: 1. To study the prevalence of anemia in adolescent school girls of Nagpur, India. 2. To study the effect of empirical Iron & Folic Acid (IFA) supplementation, in the form of tablet dried ferrous sulphate I.P.200 mg [equivalent to 6o mg of ferrous iron] daily & tablet folic acid 5 mg daily for 3 months with single dose of tablet Albendazole 400 mg. 3. To suggest measures to reduce anemia in adolescent school girls. Method: 3153 adolescent school girls from all socio-economic strata [SES] of age 13 to 17 years included. Detail history of SES, diet, menstruation,past medical & worm infestation noted. General examination including - height, weight, pallor, abdomen & chest done. Hb% by Cyanmethaemoglobin method performed. With Informed consent, IFA daily for 3 months & Albendazole single dose given. Degree of anemia graded as per WHO classification. Hb% repeated after 3 months. Statistical analysis done by using percentage & Chi square test. P values <0.05 were considered significant. Results: Prevalence of anemia was 90.61%. Pre IFA, normal Hb% – 9.39%, anemia – mild 71.1%, moderate 18.87%, severe 0.63% [more common in upper class]. Hb% rise 1–2 Gm in majority of girls following IFA therapy. Post IFA therapy Hb% – normal in 28.9%, anemia – mild 60.89%, moderate 10%, severe 0.07% There was no correlation between anemia, BMI, diet, SES, menorrhagia. Clinically pallor corresponded to degree of anemia. Conclusions: Anemia is the most common nutritional deficiency disorder in the world and in India also. Increased iron demand, excessive menstrual loss, worm infestation, early/requent childbearing exacerbates pre existing anemia. Young mothers can have poor growth of the fetus, pre term and low birth weight babies leading to compromised pubertal growth spurt & cognitive development in young girls. Government and Non Government Organizations should join hands together towards the anemia prevention and control programme in adolescents by giving iron and folic acid supplementation, nutrition education and awareness programme.

FCS09. Addressing Maternal Mortality FCS09.1 MEASURING MATERNAL MORBIDITY – WHICH CRITERIA TO USE? T. van den Akker 1 , T. Witteveen 1,2 , E. Nelissen 3 , J. van Roosmalen 1,4 , K. Bloemenkamp 1 . 1 Department of Obstetrics, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands; 2 Department of Pediatrics, Haaglanden Medical Center, The Hague, The Netherlands; 3 Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Great Western Hospital, Swindon, UK; 4 Athena Institute, VU University, Amsterdam, The Netherlands Objectives: Registration and audit of severe maternal morbidity are increasingly performed in addition to enquiries into maternal mortality to improve quality of obstetric care. However, universally accepted criteria for severe maternal morbidity did not exist until the World Health Organization (WHO) set out to identify these. The goal of standardized criteria is to enable local morbidity audit and international comparisons. The WHO approach focuses on the identification of “maternal near miss” (MNM) using organ failure criteria indicating life-threatening complications. We assessed the consequences of this approach in two low-income countries (Malawi and Tanzania) and one high-income country (the Netherlands). Method: WHO defines MNM as “any woman who nearly died but survived a complication that occurred during pregnancy, childbirth or within 42 days of termination of pregnancy” and created a tool comprising disease-based (hemorrhage, (pre-)eclampsia, sepsis/


systemic infection and ruptured uterus), intervention-based (blood transfusion, laparotomy, interventional radiology or ICU-admission) and organ failure-based criteria (cardiovascular, respiratory, renal, hepatic, uterine, coagulation and neurologic dysfunction). We applied this tool to women who sustained severe morbidity according to previously used disease- and management-based criteria in district hospitals in Malawi (n=386, 2007–2009) and Tanzania (n=248, 2009–2011), and to a nationwide Dutch cohort (n=2552, 2004–2006). Results: In the entire cohorts in Malawi, Tanzania and the Netherlands, case fatality rates (CFR) were 12%, 13% and 2% respectively. Organ failure criteria identified 84 (22%) of the Malawian, 103 (42%) of the Tanzanian and 1024 (40%) of the Dutch women with severe morbidity as MNM. Among women fulfilling organ failure criteria, CFRs were 25%, 31% and 3% respectively. Intervention-based criteria identified 175 (45%), 231 (93%) and 2116 (83%) of the women respectively, but allowed for little differentiation (e.g. ICU or interventional radiology were no option in Malawi). Disease-based criteria identified 336 (87%), 123 (50%) and 2308 (91%) women respectively. Conclusions: The WHO approach is promising, but –with its current focus on organ failure- leads to underestimation of severe morbidity in low-resource settings, rendering international comparison impossible. The CFR for all morbidity in Malawi and Tanzania was higher than the CFR for “life threatening conditions” fulfilling organ failure criteria in a WHO-pilot, illustrating the context dependence of these criteria. In a technical consultation on the WHO approach in January 2015 these problems were recognized. The challenge is to develop criteria that are sensitive enough to detect severe morbidity in all settings, and simultaneously specific enough not to burden data systems. FCS09.2 ELIMINATING THE SECOND DELAY: IS A STAY IN A MATERNAL WAITING HOME AN ACCEPTABLE RISK REDUCTION STRATEGY FOR WOMEN IN RURAL SW UGANDA? A QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS H. Allott 1,2 . 1 University College London, London, UK; 2 Kisiizi Hospital, Kigesi, Uganda Objectives: To understand women’s concerns regarding labour and delivery and their views regarding the acceptability of using a maternity waiting home to avoid difficult journeys in labour. Method: In September 2013, thirty three pregnant women seen in five antenatal outreach clinics in rural SW Uganda agreed to take part in semi-structured interviews in which their concerns regarding birth, and their views regarding using a new maternity waiting home which had been opened on the hospital site were exploerd. The interviews were translated contemporaneously and transcribed for coding. Thematic analysis of the coded transcripts was undertaken using a framework approach. Results: Women’s expressed a variety of concerns. All women interviewed were positive about the maternity waiting home and several made suggestions which were later adopted. For example, a night watchwoman was employed to provide security, and one female attendant was permitted to sleep in the home with each women if they wished. This represented a change from the original plans, in response to the women’s wishes. Conclusions: Women in this remote rural community expressed numerous concerns regarding delivery, ranging from fears of stillbirth to haemorrhage, often based upon their own past experiences or those of family or friends. They welcomed the provision of a maternity waiting home in the local hospital and expressed interest in using the facility. They were able to make constructive suggestions which should improve the acceptability of a stay in the home. An audit of usage of the home and user outcomes is ongoing. A stay in a maternity waiting home is an acceptable risk reductionstrategy for women in rural SW Uganda.


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FCS09.3 DETECTION OF FACILITY-BASED MATERNAL DEATHS FROM UNSAFE ABORTION USING THE RAPID ASCERTAINMENT PROCESS FOR INSTITUTIONAL DEATHS IN KIGOMA REGION, TANZANIA D. Morof 1 , F. Serbanescu 1 , G. Maro 4 , N. Davis 1 , H.M. Mohamed 2 , N. Rusibamayila 3 . 1 U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA; 2 World Lung Foundation, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania; 3 Tanzania Ministry of Health and Social Welfare, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania; 4 U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania Objectives: Accurately measuring maternal mortality and causes of maternal death is critical for designing mortality reduction interventions and reaching maternal health goals. However, maternal deaths, especially abortion-related deaths, are underreported at the facilitylevel due to cause of death misclassification and poor record keeping. A multitude of data registers, logbooks, and notebooks are used to collect maternal health data at facilities offering obstetric care. We aimed to determine the total number of facility-based maternal deaths occurring from 2008–2012 in Kigoma, Tanzania and compare the proportion of abortion deaths identified in facility data sources to all-cause obstetric deaths identified in facility data sources. Method: Maternal deaths in Kigoma region facilities were retrospectively identified and reviewed using a Rapid Ascertainment Process for Institutional Deaths (RAPID) methodology. RAPID captures all institutional deaths to women of reproductive age from any available facility data source and reviews those that were pregnancy related. Descriptive statistics were used to compare the proportion of abortion deaths identified in different data sources to the proportion of deaths from other obstetric causes identified in different data sources. Further, we summarized the data sources where each death was noted and compared sources that identified abortion deaths with those recording other causes of maternal deaths. Results: RAPID identified 594 maternal deaths, including 89 that were abortion-related. Maternal deaths were reported in 22 data sources. On average, an abortion-related death was identified in 4 sources compared to 6 sources for non-abortion maternal deaths. Abortion deaths were often identified in morgue registers (60%) and inpatient non-obstetric ward sources (56%); only 15% were found in obstetric registers, 10% in surgical registers, and 4% in admission/discharge logbooks. Non-abortion maternal deaths were found in morgue registers (71%), nurses ward notes (58%), and obstetric registers (56%). Only 4% of abortion-related deaths and 17% of nonabortion deaths were recorded in maternal death audits. Conclusions: RAPID methodology succeeded in identifying and determining causes of facility-based maternal deaths, including detection of maternal deaths related to abortion complications. Identification of facility-level maternal deaths is complicated by the large number of data sources. A unified register to record all deaths to women of reproductive age including documentation of pregnancy status would improve detection of maternal deaths. An accurate determination of the magnitude of maternal mortality is essential to design effective interventions to reduce maternal deaths. RAPID methodology can provide objective evidence to inform health policies and decision making. FCS09.4 DEVELOPMENT OF THE ALGORITHM INCORPORATED INTO A LOW COST VITAL SIGNS MONITOR TO DETECT PRE-ECLAMPSIA AND SHOCK H. Nathan 1 , N. Hezelgrave 1 , A. El Ayadi 2 , P. Seed 1 , E. Butrick 2 , S. Miller 2 , L. Chappell 1 , A. Shennan 1 . 1 King’s College London, London, UK; 2 University of California at San Francisco, San Francisco, USA Objectives: Obstetric haemorrhage, pre-eclampsia and sepsis con-

tribute to more than 50% of maternal deaths worldwide; all are associated with abnormal vital signs. We have previously developed an accurate blood pressure (BP) and shock detector, the Microlife CRADLE Vital Sign Alert (VSA), and determined the hypertension and shock thresholds appropriate for the traffic light early warning system within the device. The next aim was to incorporate these thresholds into the device in an effective and user-friendly way. Method: Qualitative evaluation of display animation options indicating shock and hypertension was performed using questionnaires given to various cadres of health provider (from community healthcare provider to consultant obstetrician, in India, UK and Canada) (n=90). The symbols for both shock and hypertension most consistently understood by all cadres were selected, along with the most appropriate indicator for severity of clinical scenario. Hypertensive thresholds were based on established practise. Shock thresholds were based on our team’s retrospective analysis of two large datasets of women with post partum haemorrhage (UK, Nigeria, Zimbabwe, Zambia and Egypt) evaluating vital sign prediction of adverse maternal outcomes. Results: Shock index (SI), (pulse/systolic BP), was the optimal shock indicator, with thresholds of ≥0.9 and ≥1.7 selected for amber and red lights respectively. When shock was detected in conjunction with hypertension, the shock display was given precedence, in view of the urgency of intervention required. If SI is 1.1 (e.g. pulse 130bpm/systolic BP 118mmHg) and diastolic BP 92mmHg, the amber light flashes and DOWN arrow flashes to indicate shock, despite diastolic hypertension. Through qualitative assessment, a flashing light and CONSTANT up arrow was selected to indicate hypertension; a flashing light and FLASHING down arrow was selected to indicate shock. Conclusions: The CRADLE device is an accurate, low-cost device incorporating a traffic light early warning system, alerting clinicians to the need for urgent referral or intervention, potentially reducing maternal mortality and morbidity. Prospective evaluation of the shock and hypertension thresholds and traffic light early warning system design is underway at two facilitylevel sites in South Africa and community-level sites in Nigeria. FCS09.5 PERCEPTION OF OBSTETRIC DANGER SIGNS AMONG WOMEN LIVING ON THE COASTLINE OF ATLANTIC OCEAN IN RURAL LAGOS, NIGERIA B.M. Afolabi 1 , E.N.U. Ezedinachi 2 , I. Arikpo 2 , A. Ogunwale 3 . 1 Health, Environment and Development Foundation, 34 Montgomery Road., Yaba, Lagos State, Nigeria; 2 Institute of Tropical Disease and Research, University of Calabar, Nigeria, Calabar, Cross River State, Nigeria; 3 Project Hope, Washington, USA Objectives: This questionnaire-based survey aimed to describe the perception of obstetric danger signs among women living on the coastline of Atlantic Ocean in rural Lagos, Nigeria. Method: This cross-sectional descriptive study took place in Lagos State, Nigeria, between October 2012 and March 2013. Respondents were categorized into early reproductive age (ERA; <25 years), mid reproductive age (MRA;25–34 years), and late reproductive age, (LRA; ≥35 years). A systematic random sampling was used in which the starting point was the first house on a popular street in a particular direction and then every 4th house was selected for the study. Statistical analysis was carried out using STATA 13 software. Level of significance was set at P-value ≥0.5. Results: A total of 829 females were studied. Of the 428 who disagreed that bleeding is an obstetric danger sign, 76.1% were ever married, 45.1% in MRA and 37.4% have had 1–2 children. Of the 600 who differed that cessation of fetal movement is an obstetric danger sign,

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79.3% were ever married, 47.8% in MRA and 41.2% have had 1–2 children. Multivariate analysis showed a positive and significant association between awareness of bleeding as obstetric danger sign and both knowledge of antenatal care (t=6.53, p=0.000) and knowing a woman who died in pregnancy (t=3.34, p=0.001). Conclusions: The findings indicate that women living on the Atlantic coastline of rural Lagos have a very low perception of obstetric danger signs. Data from this study specify highly significant implications for focused health education and the promotion of good and acceptable maternal health in this geographical location to reduce high maternal mortality. FCS09.6 SOCIOCULTURAL BARRIERS AND HEALTH SYSTEM LIMITATIONS TO SAFE MOTHERHOOD IN RWANDA – EXPLORED THROUGH IN-DEPTH INTERVIEWS WITH WOMEN EXPERIENCING NEAR-MISS EVENTS J. Påfs 1 , A. Musafili 1,2 , S. Rulisa 2 , M. Klingberg Allvin 3 , P. Binder-Finnema 1 , B. Essen 1 . 1 Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; 2 University of Rwanda, Kigali, Rwanda; 3 Dalarna University, Falun, Sweden Objectives: To explore “near-miss” women’s health care-seeking behavior and experiences with maternal care in order to identify barriers and potential health system limitations. We aim to contribute in a larger perspective by increasing knowledge and strengthening the maternal services provided by the Rwandan Ministry of Health, especially as related to early and late pregnancy complications. Method: Forty-seven first-round and fourteen second-round indepth interviews were conducted with women who had experienced a “near-miss” event during pregnancy, and were treated for inpatient care at three hospitals in Kigali between March 2013 and April 2014. We used a framework of naturalistic inquiry to guide the study and analysis, and the “three delays model” for sorting and discussing our findings. Results: Women faced different care-seeking barriers depending on whether the pregnancy was intended or not, the gestational age, insurance coverage, and marital status. Barriers were mainly connected with the stigma attached to induced abortion, and contributed to obstacles in the referral chain. Overall, poor communication between the women and the providers was identified, resulting in inadequate or inappropriate treatment that led some women to seek care elsewhere or repeatedly within the formal health system. Others sought care altogether outside the formal system. Conclusions: To ensure Safe Motherhood in Rwanda, improved quality of the maternal care is strongly recommended. Furthermore, the current criminalized status of abortion poses difficulties for women to receive care and stigmatizes complications during pregnancy. A normative health system must consider all women who face early complications or unintended pregnancies. FCS09.7 POSTPARTUM MATERNAL MORTALITY AND CESAREAN DELIVERY: A POPULATION-BASED STUDY IN EIGHT BRAZILIAN STATES A.p. Esteves-Pereira 1,2 , C. Deneux-Tharaux 2 , M. Nakamura-Pereira 1 , M.-H. Bouvier-Colle 2 , M.d.C. Leal 1 . 1 ENSP/FIOCRUZ, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; 2 INSERM/UMR 1153, Equipe EPOPé, Paris, France Objectives: Cesarean delivery rates continue to rise worldwide. In Brazil, there has been an accelerated growth of this rate, reaching 56% in 2012. It is unlikely that such a rapid change in obstetrical risk happened to justify such an increase, yet instead, it suggests an enlargement of the range of cesarean indications to non-medical purposes. This trend is of concern since cesarean section carries potential risks to women’s health, and may be a modifiable risk factor for maternal mortality. This paper aims to investigate the risk of postpartum ma-


ternal death independently associated with caesarean delivery, in the Brazilian context. Method: This is a population-based case-control study including eight Brazilian states with high coverage of the Maternal Mortality Enquiry Committees. To control for indication bias, deaths due to antenatal morbidities were excluded. For the 4-year study period 2009– 2012, 73 cases of postpartum maternal deaths were included. Controls were selected from “Birth in Brazil Study”, a recent Nationwide Survey, and included 9,221 subjects. We tested and quantified the association of cesarean with postpartum maternal death through multivariate logistic regression to adjust for confounders. Results: After controlling for indication bias and confounders, cesarean delivery was associated with an almost three-fold increased risk of post-partum maternal as compared to vaginal (OR 2.87 95% confidence interval 1.63–5.06). This was mainly due to deaths from intrapartum/postpartum hemorrhage (OR 3.04 95% confidence interval 1.40–6.59) and the combination of deaths from pulmonary embolism, amniotic fluid embolism and complications of anesthesia (OR 10.94 95% confidence interval 2.17–55.30). Conclusions: Although the perceived safety of cesarean delivery has increased its acceptance, the current study suggests that this procedure is independently associated with an increased risk of postpartum maternal death even in a context where it is mostly performed before the onset of labor. Clinicians and patients should acknowledge this when balancing the risks against the benefits of cesarean delivery. FCS09.8 A QUANTITATIVE STUDY OF MATERNAL HEALTH PRACTICES IN NORTHERN MOZAMBIQUE: ARE HARMFUL CULTURAL BELIEFS POSING A CONSIDERABLE BARRIER TO WOMEN ACCESSING HEALTH SERVICES DURING LABOUR? A. Makins 1 , J. Sixpence 2 , A. Matapue 1 , J.C. Samuel 3 , M. Aly 6 , A. Martin Hilber 4 , M. Hobbins 5 . 1 SolidarMed Moçambique, Pemba, Cabo Delgado, Mozambique; 2 Nunisa, Pemba, Cabo Delgado, Mozambique; 3 Fundação Wiwanana, Pemba, Cabo Delgado, Mozambique; 4 Swiss TPH, Basel, Switzerland; 5 SolidarMed Luzern, Luzern, Switzerland; 6 Núcleo de Investigação Operacional, Provincial Health Dept Cabo Delgado, MoH, Pemba, Cabo Delgado, Mozambique Objectives: Maternal mortality ratio in Mozambique is estimated to be 405 deaths per 100 000 live births and little progress was made towards reaching MDG 5. Delay in seeking care during the golden 24 hours peri-delivery is thought to play a key part particularly in rural areas. The study objectives were: 1. Elucidate the factors contributing to 1st delay (delay in seeking care) and quantify the contribution that harmful cultural beliefs make. 2. Determine which demographic factors are associated with birth in the community, harmful cultural beliefs and hence lower usage of the Health Centers (HC) for emergency obstetric care. Method: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in Chiure district. From an estimated target population of 31700 (women and partners giving birth in the last 2 years) a random representative sample of 730 was selected (367 women and 363 men) detecting determinant factors at frequency 20%, power 80% and 95% Confidence Intervals. A Generalized Linear Mixed Model (GLMM) was fit to the probability of having harmful cultural beliefs with a random effect to estimate the between-village variance. Fixed factors included age, distance to HC, religion, parity and education level. Cross-tabulations were computed and differences in proportions were determined using Fisher’s exact tests. Results: 50.3% reported giving birth in the community. Community births were more common amongst those living in more distant villages p<0.001, and amongst the less educated p<0.001. There was no significant association with religion or parity. 52.0% reported dis-


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tance as the main reason (80.6% walk) and 40.0% reported harmful cultural beliefs where only a community birth under the watchful eye of the partner’s female relatives guarantee legitimacy. Harmful beliefs were less common in men (OR 0.55, P=0.004) and in those with more education (OR 0.47, p=0.05). There was no significant association with distance living from HC. Conclusions: In northern rural Mozambique, although distance remains a key barrier for women to access safe delivery, harmful cultural beliefs contribute enormously. It has been assumed that these beliefs were largely held and imposed by men, and that it was an issue of women’s rights. This study demonstrates that harmful beliefs are more commonly held by women and by those with less education. The Ministry of Health and its partners may wish to include improving women’s education as an added strategy for reducing barriers to health care for labouring women. Tackling high MMRs through broader socioeconomic strategies should be considered globally.

FCS10. Addressing Maternal Mortality FCS10.1 LOW-TECH, SIMULATION-BASED IN SERVICE TRAINING FOR PRIMARY LEVEL MATERNITY PROVIDERS: IMPACT OF THE PRONTO TRAININGS ON PROVIDER KNOWLEDGE AND SYSTEM CHANGE PROCESS INDICATORS IN KENYA J. Dettinger 1 , S. Kamau 2 , K. Calkins 1 , O. Gachuno 3 , D. Walker 4 . 1 University of Washington, Department of Global Health, Seattle, WA, USA; 2 UW-Kenya, PRONTO, Kakamega, Kenya; 3 University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya; 4 University of California, San Francisco, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology and Global Health Sciences, San Francisco, CA, USA Objectives: Appropriate and efficient responses to obstetric and neonatal emergencies are essential for improving maternal and perinatal health outcomes. Through the Linda Afya ya Mama na Mtoto project, PRONTO implemented in service trainings in emergency obstetric and neonatal care for providers at 26 primary level health facilities in Kakamega County, Kenya. Method: From 2013 to 2014, 177 healthcare providers participated in six PRONTO trainings in Kakamega, Kenya consisting of Modules I and II trainings, 2–3 months apart. Knowledge of obstetric hemorrhage, neonatal resuscitation, shoulder dystocia, pre-eclampsia, and teamwork concepts were assessed in addition to a teamwork selfassessment. During the Module I training, participants were asked to develop strategic goals to improve care for mothers and infants in their facilities, informed in part by their PRONTO simulation training. Completion of these goals was assessed at the Module II training, and again during follow up site visits three to eight months later. Results: Preliminary analyses of the pre/post test scores at Module I show a 24 percentage point increase in knowledge of obstetric hemorrhage (p: <0.0001), 20.1 percentage point increase in knowledge of neonatal resuscitation (p: <0.0001), and a 23 percentage point increase in knowledge of teamwork concepts (p: <0.0001). These changes were sustained when comparing scores post Module I with post Module II (p: 0.83, 0.71, 0.62, respectively). At Module II, providers achieved 86% of the 155 strategic goals set during Module I. By the site visits, providers had developed an additional 33 goals, and accomplished 99.4% of 188 strategic goals. Conclusions: These results suggest that PRONTO trainings are well received in Kakamega County, resulting in improved provider knowledge and a high rate of strategic goal achievement. Continued investment in trainings and provider empowerment to decide and implement changes within their facilities are required for continued improvement in maternal and perinatal health outcomes.

FCS10.2 UTERINE BALLOON TAMPONADE AS A TREATMENT TO AVERT SURGICAL INTERVENTION IN UNCONTROLLED POSTPARTUM HEMORRHAGE: A MULTINATIONAL QUALITATIVE ASSESSMENT OF DOCTOR PRACTICES AND PERCEPTIONS A.A. Pendleton 1,2 , M. Eckardt 1,5 , A. Natarajan 1,2 , R. Ahn 1,2 , M. Niang 4 , K. Abdalla 6 , B. Nelson 1 , T. Burke 1,2 . 1 Division of Global Health and Human Rights, Department of Emergency Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, USA; 2 Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA; 3 Kisumu Medical and Education Trust, Kisumu, Kenya; 4 Centre de Formation et de Recherche en Santé de la Reproduction, Dakar, Senegal; 5 Boston Medical Center, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Boston, MA, USA; 6 UNICEF, Kenya, Kenya Objectives: The purpose of this study is to investigate the impact of introduction of uterine balloon tamponade (UBT) on doctor clinical management of uncontrolled postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) in healthcare facilities in Kenya and Senegal, and to assess the effect of UBT training on provider decisions regarding surgical intervention in future cases of uncontrolled PPH. Method: The sample for this study consisted of all doctors from healthcare facilities in Kenya and Senegal who had received condom catheter UBT training developed by Massachusetts General Hospital in collaboration with the Ministry of Health of Kenya and Kisumu Medical Education Trust, and who had implemented UBT subsequent to training. In total 20 Kenyan and 10 Senegalese doctors were interviewed, of whom 10 were attending doctors, 7 were Ob/Gyn residents, and 13 were medical officers. Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with providers using a standardized guide, and interview transcripts were analyzed independently by two researchers using NVivo10 (QSR International). Results: Thirty of the thirty-one doctors who received UBT training in Kenya and Senegal and subsequently implemented UBT were interviewed. The majority of providers (86.7%) responded that if they had not received UBT training, they would have performed hysterectomy in the cases of uncontrolled PPH that they instead managed with UBT. Only two providers reported a patient requiring hysterectomy after placement of UBT. All doctors responded that they believed that UBT prevented women from being taken to surgery in cases of severe PPH, and all doctors reported that they would continue to use UBT in future cases of PPH. Conclusions: Following UBT training, doctors in Kenya and Senegal are effectively using UBT rather than surgical intervention as the next step in management of uncontrolled PPH. This study provides evidence that UBT training may be leveraged to reduce surgical intervention in cases of uncontrolled PPH. FCS10.3 MODELING THE IMPACT AND OUTLINING THE VALUE PROPOSITION FOR A LOW-COST UTERINE BALLOON TAMPONADE FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF POSTPARTUM HEMORRHAGE T. Herrick, E. Abu-Haydar. PATH, Seattle, WA, USA Objectives: Uterine balloon tamponade (UBT) is an effective secondline intervention for the management of postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) when standard methods of care fail or are unavailable. However, the high cost of current devices, and other factors, limit its use in low-resource settings. The main objective of the study was to quantify the potential impact that a low-cost UBT could have on women suffering from uncontrolled PPH in low-resource settings. The study estimated the innovation’s potential to save lives, prevent severe anemia cases from occurring and avert surgeries using the Maternal and Neonatal Directed Assessment of Technology (MANDATE) model. Method: PATH reviewed publically available literature to determine key model inputs (penetration, utilization, and efficacy) for three different settings (home, clinic and hospital). The modeling work as-

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sumed that the UBT would be available to women who give birth in clinics or hospitals and receive a uterotonic but fail first-line treatment. Sensitivity analysis was performed on the UBT efficacy variable in patients that lose >1000mL of blood due to the uncertainty in this value. The MANDATE model outputs were obtained for the subSaharan (SSA) region in the year 2018. SSA was chosen due to the high burden of treatable PPH. Results: The base impact modeling estimated that a low-cost UBT could save 6,547 lives (11% reduction in maternal deaths) and avert 10,823 surgeries in SSA in the year 2018. In addition, PATH estimated that 634 severe anemia cases could be averted by extrapolating from the model’s severe hemorrhage averted results. Conclusions: The low-cost UBT modeling results highlight the innovation’s strong potential to save lives, reduce morbidity and reduce costly downstream interventions for women that give birth in a healthcare facility. The modeling supports continued investment in the development and scale low-cost UBT options and further costeffectiveness research. FCS10.4 MASSIVE POSTPARTUM HAEMORRHAGE AND MASSIVE BLOOD TRANSFUSIONS – THE ROLE OF THE ABNORMALLY INVASIVE PLACENTA H. McKinnon Edwards 1 , A. Juul Wikkelsø 2 , J. Stensballe 3,4 , A. Afshari 4 , A. Møller 5 , J. Lauenborg 1 , J. Svare 1 , J. Langhoff-Roos 6 . 1 Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Herlev Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Herlev, Denmark; 2 Department of Anaesthesia, Hillerød Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Hillerød, Denmark; 3 Section of Transfusion Medicine, Capital Region Blood Bank, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark; 4 Department of Anaesthesia, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark; 5 Department of Anaesthesia, Herlev Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Herlev, Denmark; 6 Department of Obstetrics, Juliane Marie Centre, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark Objectives: Massive bleeding after childbirth is associated with to a high incidence of maternal mortality and morbidity including hysterectomy and complications related to multiple blood transfusions. The aim of this study was to identify risk factors associated with development of postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) requiring multiple blood transfusions, thereby identifying possible future areas of prevention. Furthermore we wanted to investigate the success rate of procedures attempted before haemostasis. Method: We combined The Birth Registry, The Patient Registry and The Danish Transfusion Database from 2001 to 2009 identifying all Danish births requiring ≥10 transfusions of red blood cells within a 24 hour period and occurring up to 6 weeks postpartum. Information from the databases was then validated and supplemented through medical records. Surgical control of the bleeding was defined as a dry operating field with stable parameters without the need for further surgical intervention. Results: Out of a total of 486,431 deliveries, 251 women required ≥10 units of red-blood-cell transfusions, with 245 having available medical records. Two of the 245 women died due to the massive haemorrhaging. Peripartum hysterectomy was performed in 53% of the women, with 71% resulting in haemostasis while the median amount of blood loss was 7,150 ml. Abnormally invasive placenta (AIP) was found in 56 women (23%), where 7 (13%) were diagnosed before birth. Placenta previa was found in 57% of all AIP cases and 4% of all non-AIP cases; in contrast 80% of woman with placenta previa had AIP. Conclusions: Massive bleeding following childbirth can have severe consequences even in the developed world. Hysterectomy does not always lead to haemostasis, with the success rate highly influenced by the aetiology of PPH, prior procedures and transfusion therapy.


The majority of AIP cases associated with massive bleeding were not identified prior to childbirth. All women with placenta previa should have a specialist ultrasound scan in pregnancy with special attention to signs of abnormally invasive placenta. FCS10.5 ASSOCIATION BETWEEN OBSTETRIC HAEMORRHAGE AND HIV AND ITS TREATMENT H. Sebitloane 1 , E. Shabalala 1,2 . 1 Nelson Mandela School of Medicine, University of KwaZulu Natal, Durban, KZN, South Africa; 2 King Edward V111 Hospital, Durban, KZN, South Africa Objectives: Chart review to determine whether HIV or its treatment was associated with an observed increasing trend in obstetric haemorrhage in our setting. Without change in local practices or health care delivery platform, the local maternal mortality audit reports indicated an increasing trend of postpartum haemorrhage, especially at the time of caesarean section. During this time, the antiretroviral treatment regimen for pregnant women had changed several times, from single dose nevirapine (sd-NVP) during labour, to antepartum zidovudine (AZT) plus sd-NVP - (referred to as dual therapy), to highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART). Method: We conducted a retrospective chart review of a period of 5 years (January 2007 till December 2011) to investigate the objectives. Women who had any form of antepartum and postpartum haemorrhage at King Edward V111 Hospital, Durban, were identified, n=673. Out of 31283 deliveries occurring during this period, 582 charts were available for review, giving an incidence rate of 1.9%. We determined the HIV status as recorded in the file (33% HIV infected, 54% HIV uninfected and HIV unknown 12.7%) as well as what antiretroviral treatment was received by women. Results: There were 314 (39.5%) placental abruption, 36 (3%) previa, 66 (33.5%) unspecified antepartum haemorrhage, and 166 (24%) postpartum haemorrhage. Amongst HIV infected women, 16.1% (n=31) used sd-NVP; 30.1% (n=58) dual therapy and 53.9% (n=104) received HAART. With the exception of abruption, all other forms of obstetric haemorrhage occurred more frequently amongst HIV infected women, p<001. Postpartum haemorrhage occurred highest amongst women receiving HAART, and those on dual therapy were comparable to HIV uninfected women. Most maternal deaths occurred amongst women who had postpartum haemorrhage, and had received HAART. HIV group also had higher rates of stillbirths and neonatal deaths. Conclusions: HAART was associated with increasing trend of postpartum haemorrhage, and the maternal and perinatal mortality is high. This is in line with recent audits on maternal mortality. Unspecified haemorrhage could be minor forms of abruption, and occurred more frequently amongst HIV infected women. The findings should be confirmed and underlying mechanism needs to be determined by further prospective studies. Meticulous caution should be exercised when treating HIV infected women during delivery, particularly by caesarean section.


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FCS10.6 RISK PREDICTION MODELLING FOR OBSTETRIC WOMEN IN INTENSIVE CARE – THE COLLABORATIVE INTEGRATED PREGNANCY HIGH-DEPENDENCY ESTIMATE OF RISK (CIPHER) GLOBAL STUDY H. Ryan 1,2 , B. Payne 1 , K. Walley 1,3 , A. Aarvold 1,3 , J. Hutcheon 1 , S. Lisonkova 1 , T. Lee 1 , S. Sharma 1 , P. Yong 1,4 , G. Cundiff 1,3 , M. Ansermino 1,4 , G. Seaward 5,6 , S. Lapinsky 5,6 , Z. Bhutta 7 , R. Qureshi 7 , D. Vasquez 8 , J.W. Ganzevoort 9 , A.C.J.M. de Pont 9 , M. Kallen 9 , V. Zhou 10 , T. Duan 10 , M. Geary 11 , M. Bowen 11 , E. Lambe 11 , A. Doyle 11 , F. McAuliffe 2,12 , C. O’Herlihy 2,12 , L. Hartigan 12 , T. Togal 13 , O. Demirkiran 13 , I. Lataifeh 14 , R. Tadros 14 , E. Wallace 15 , T. Crozier 15 , N. Barrett 15 , D. Goffman 16 , C. Chazotte 16 , G. Cecatti 17 , L. Magee 1,4 . 1 University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada; 2 University College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland; 3 St Paul’s Hospital, Vancouver, BC, Canada; 4 BC Women’s Hospital, Vancouver, BC, Canada; 5 University of Toronto, Toronto, Ont., Canada; 6 Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, Ont., Canada; 7 Aga Khan University, Karachi, Pakistan; 8 Hospital Interzonal General de Agudos Gral, Buenos Aires, Argentina; 9 Academic Medical Centre, Amsterdam, The Netherlands; 10 Shanghai 1st Maternity and Infant Hospital, Shanghai, China; 11 The Rotunda Hospital, Dublin, Ireland; 12 The National Maternity Hospital, Dublin, Ireland; 13 Inonu University, Malatya, Turkey; 14 King Abdullah University Hospital, Ar Ramtha, Jordan; 15 Monash Medical Centre, Melbourne, Australia; 16 Montefiore Medical Center, New York, USA; 17 University of Campinas, Campinas, Sao Paulo, Brazil Objectives: Currently there are no existing critical care outcome prediction models that accurately predict mortality in pregnant and postpartum women. Existing Intensive Care Unit (ICU) models overestimate pregnancy mortality risk, partly due to unique physiology. To help identify severely ill obstetric women at greatest risk of mortality or life-threatening morbidity, a novel outcome prediction model is required: • designed specifically for ICU-admitted obstetric patients • optimized for any cause of maternal morbidity/mortality • applicable to low and high-income settings. Our objectives were to: 1. identify variables which predict adverse outcome in critically ill pregnant and postpartum women; 2. develop an obstetric risk prediction model. Method: Fourteen sites in a global collaborative study comprising 11 countries worldwide were enrolled. Comprehensive retrospective data were collected from participating tertiary centres for 797 pregnant or recently pregnant women (within 6 weeks of delivery) admitted to ICU for more than 24 hours from 2000–2010. Candidate predictor variables included demographics, symptoms, vital signs and laboratory measures. A risk prediction model, CIPHER, was developed to predict risk of death or severe morbidity (prolonged duration of organ support >7 days), in women admitted to ICU using step-wise multivariable logistic regression analysis. Risk of mortality was also calculated using the previously-published APACHE 2 score. Results: Initial analysis on completed datasets of 507 cases from 12 sites showed a combined outcome rate of 19.5% (99/507); 9.9% (50/507) mortality and 15% (76/507) prolonged organ support. Following multivariable analysis, six variables were retained as significant predictors of adverse outcome. These included Glasgow Coma Scale and laboratory measurements of coagulation, liver and renal function with high area under the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve of 0.89 (95% CI 0.85–0.93) for combined outcome. The CIPHER model had increased discrimination for mortality (AUC ROC 0.88, 95% CI 0.83–0.92) compared with APACHE 2 (AUC ROC 0.82, 95% CI 0.76–0.87) in this cohort. Conclusions: The area under the ROC curve of the CIPHER model suggests excellent discrimination and future clinical utility. Developed specifically for obstetric patients, CIPHER contains fewer variables and has higher discrimination than APACHE 2, a commonly

used general ICU prediction model. CIPHER is a promising first step in the development of a tool for predicting adverse maternal outcome in ICU-admitted pregnant and postpartum women. Ultimately, we hope to apply CIPHER in worldwide settings to reduce the burden of pregnancy-related morbidity and mortality. FCS10.7 SKILLED BIRTH ATTENDANCE, INSTITUTIONAL DELIVERIES AND MATERNAL, PERINATAL AND NEONATAL MORTALITY IN SOUTHERN AND CENTRAL INDIA S. Goudar 1 , N. Goco 2 , S. Dhaded 1 , M. Somannavar 1 , S. Vernekar 1 , S. Mastiholi 1 , U. Ramadurg 3 , A. Mallapur 3 , J. Moore 2 , D. Wallace 2 , N. Sloan 4 , A. Patel 5 , P. Hibberd 6 , R. Derman 4 , E. McClure 2 , M. Koso-Thomas 7 , R. Goldenberg 8 . 1 KLE University’s Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College, Belgaum, Karnataka, India; 2 RTI International, Durham, NC, USA; 3 SN Medical College, Bagalkot, Karnataka, India; 4 Christiana Care Health Services, Newark, DE, USA; 5 Lata Medical Research Foundation, Nagpur, Maharashtra, India; 6 Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, USA; 7 Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, Bethesda, MD, USA; 8 Columbia University, New York, USA Objectives: Most maternal, perinatal and neonatal deaths occur at or shortly after labor and delivery. Skilled birth attendance (SBA) and institutional delivery have been advocated for reducing maternal, perinatal and neonatal mortality (MMR, PMR and NMR respectively). India has successfully implemented various strategies to promote skilled birth attendance and incentivize institutional deliveries in the last 5 years. This study evaluates the trends in skilled birth attendance, institutional delivery, MMR, PMR, NMR, and their risk factors in two Eunice Kennedy Shriver NICHD Global Network for Women’s and Children’s Health Research sites, in Belgaum and Nagpur, India, between January 2010 and December 2013. Method: Descriptive analyses, stratified by level of delivery care and key risk factors, were conducted for 36 geographic clusters providing 48 months of data from a prospective, population-based surveillance system that registers all pregnant permanent residents in the study area, and their pregnancy outcomes irrespective of where they deliver, with over 99.8% follow up at delivery and 42 days postpartum. An annual household survey of married women of reproductive age ensures completeness of the registry enrollment from the catchment area. Log binomial models with generalized estimating equations to control for correlation of clustered observations were used to test the trends significance. Results: 64,803 deliveries were recorded in Belgaum and 39,081 in Nagpur. SBA increased from 92.8% to 96.6% in Belgaum and from 91% to 98.9% in Nagpur. Institutional deliveries increased from 92.6% to 96.1% in Belgaum and from 89.5% to 98.6% in Nagpur (both p<0.0001). MMR declined, from 169.2 to 87.2 per 100,000 live births in Belgaum and from 132.1 to 122.9 in Nagpur. PMR declined, from 41.3 to 34.6 (p=0.008) per 1,000 births in Belgaum and from 47.4 to 40.8 (p=0.09) in Nagpur. Stillbirths declined, from 22.5 to 16.3 per 1,000 births in Belgaum and from 29.3 to 21.1 in Nagpur (both p=0.002). NMR remained unchanged. Conclusions: While hemorrhage and hypertensive disorders were commonly associated with maternal deaths, most neonatal deaths were attributed to birth asphyxia and low birth weight/prematurity. Significant increases in skilled birth attendance and institutional deliveries, particularly in hospitals, were accompanied by reductions in MMR, stillbirths and PMR, but not by NMR. Increasing cesarean rates and training of birth attendants for newborn resuscitation may partially explain the reductions in MMR and stillbirths. Improved quality of care and ensuring that all women experiencing complications seek and receive timely appropriate skilled birth attendance and institutional delivery are needed to further advance maternal, perinatal and neonatal survival.

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FCS10.8 EVALUATION OF COMMUNITY MATERNAL DEATH SURVEILLANCE AND RESPONSE IN SAVING MOTHERS, GIVING LIVES DISTRICTS – UGANDA, 2012–2013 E. Petersen 1 , F. Serbanescu 1 , F. Kaharuza 6 , W. Obiero 2 , B. Picho 4 , J. Nsungwa-Sabiiti 5 , D. Murokora 3 . 1 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA; 2 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Entebbe, Uganda; 3 Baylor Children’s Foundation-Uganda, Kampala, Uganda; 4 Infectious Disease Institute, Kampala, Uganda; 5 Uganda Ministry of Health, Kampala, Uganda; 6 Makerere University School of Public Health, Kampala, Uganda Objectives: Saving Mothers, Giving Life (SMGL) is a public-private partnership which aims to reduce maternal mortality by using a comprehensive approach with interventions at the community, facility, and district levels. Maternal Death Surveillance and Response (MDSR) is an effective process designed to monitor and respond to maternal deaths and evaluate the impact of actions towards reduction of maternal death. MDSR was implemented in Phase 1 of the SMGL initiative in 4 districts in Uganda, integrated with the Uganda Ministry of Health’s community health platform. We assessed the MDSR system to provide recommendations for future actions to inform implementation, feasibility and utilization. Method: We used a mixed-methods approach based on the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Guidelines for Evaluating Surveillance Systems. We evaluated the surveillance system for simplicity, flexibility, acceptability, sensitivity, predictive value positive, timeliness, and usefulness of data. For qualitative assessment, we assessed current activities and interviewed staff and stakeholders to evaluate current practices, difficulties, and future goals. For quantitative assessment, we analyzed data collected from the maternal death surveillance system, and compared it to a gold standard Reproductive Age Mortality Study conducted for the same period of time covered by MDSR (June 2012-May 2013). Results: Usefulness of the MDSR system was high; findings of reduction of maternal mortality, confirmed by the gold standard, demonstrated a proof of concept for the SMGL model. The system was flexible, highly acceptable, and highly representative (98% of villages in the 4 districts participated). Data quality was relatively good, with item-nonresponse of 20% and duplication of records of3%. Sensitivity and positive predictive value were moderate (72%, 73%). Timeliness was poor with 0 cases meeting established guidelines for rapid notification and reporting. Stability was moderate; financial resources lapsed and led to interruptions in data collection. Conclusions: This assessment shows MDSR is feasible at the community level through a well-coordinated effort. This system was implemented successfully in a short time period, possible because of integration with existing Uganda Ministry of Health community health system. Strengths of the system include representativeness, acceptability, and usefulness. Further efforts should focus on improving sensitivity, timeliness, and data quality by continuing building capacity of data collectors, standardizing protocols, and introducing an informatics system. The “R” component of MDSR should be strengthened by formalizing district review and response committees. The MDSR system should be expanded to other areas of Uganda.


FCS11. Addressing Maternal Mortality FCS11.1 CAESAREAN SECTION RATES IN RURAL SOUTHERN TANZANIA: RESULTS FROM TWO LARGE CONSECUTIVE HOUSEHOLD SURVEYS IN 2007 AND 2013 C. Hanson 1,4 , F. Manzi 2 , E. Mkumbo 2 , G. Mbaruku 2 , S. Gabrysch 3 , C. Ronsmans 1 , J. Schellenberg 1 . 1 London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, London, UK; 2 Ifakara Health Institute, Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania; 3 University Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany; 4 Karolinska Institutet, Sweden, Sweden Objectives: The population based Caesarean section rate is considered as an indicator of access to lifesaving obstetric care in lowresource settings. Caesarean section can prevent maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality, if medically indicated. However the intervention bears risks, particular when done in hospitals that may not be able to ensure highest safety standards, why over and underuse of Caesarean section needs to be monitored. Here we present changes in the Caesarean section rates in relation to distance to a hospital including 22,243 and 15,373 livebirths in the year prior to two large household surveys done in 2007 and 2013. Method: We visited in 2007 all 245,000 households in five districts and included a sample of 185,000 households in 2013 in six districts in Southern Tanzania. Geographical positioning was assessed. Household assets were recorded to compute a wealth index. Identified women of reproductive age (12–49 years) which had a livebirth in the year prior the survey were asked where she delivered and whether she delivered by Caesarean section. We calculated the distance from home to the nearest hospital. Multilevel logistic regression was used to assess the effect of distance to a hospital on Caesarean section adjusted for socio-demographic variables. Results: The proportion of birth by Caesarean section was 4.1% in 2007 and 6.4% in 2013. Levels were as high as 8.0% and 12.3% within 5 km distance to a hospital and reduced to levels of 2.8% and 3.5% if the mother lived more than 35 km from a hospital, in 2007 and 2013, respectively. The odds to deliver by Caesarean section was 50% and 70% lower, in 2007 and 2013, respectively, if the mother resided more than 35km from a hospital compared to less than 5 km (adjusted Odds Ratio 0.5, 95% CI: 0.3–0.8 in 2007 and 0.3, 95% CI: 0.2–0.5 in 2013). Conclusions: Overall Caesarean section rates increased in this rural area between 2007 and 2013, but most of the increase was in distances of less than 5 km to a hospital whereas in places of distances of over 35 km Caesarean section rates are still low. FCS11.2 ADDRESSING HIDDEN BARRIERS TO INSTITUTIONAL DELIVERIES – A KEY INTERVENTION FOR REDUCING MATERNAL MORTALITY IN RURAL ZAMBIA V. Mukonka 1,3 , F.M. McAuliffe 2 , O. Babaniyi 4 , S. Malumo 4 , C. Sialubanje 5 , P. Fitzpatrick 1 . 1 University College Dublin, School of Public Health, Physiotherapy & Population Science, Dublin, Ireland; 2 UCD Obstetrics & Gynaecology, School of Medicine and Medical Science, University College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland; 3 Copperbelt University, School of Medicine, Ndola, Zambia; 4 World Health Organisation, Country Office, Lusaka, Zambia; 5 Ministry of Health, Monze District Health Office, Monze, Zambia Objectives: In Zambia, majority rural women deliver at home without skilled birth attendants, leading to high maternal mortality rate (MMR) 591/100,000 live births; among highest worldwide. 60% Zambians live below poverty line. Institutional delivery by skilled birth attendants is considered most important strategy to reduce MMR. Institutional deliveries are low (48%) despite high single antenatal attendance (93%). An important barrier to institutional delivery iden-


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tified was demands by health providers requesting women to bring delivery supplies and mother/baby clothes. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of provision of non-financial incentives on institutional deliveries in rural Monze district, Zambia. Method: A one-year prospective community intervention trial was conducted from Jan- Dec 2014 supported by UNICEF and WHO. Two comparable rural regions in Monze separated by a central urban region, the intervention arm expectant women who chose to give birth at health facility received a mother-baby delivery-pack at health facility containing basic hygienic delivery supplies as non-financial incentives and the control arm continued with routine health services. The primary outcome measure was comparison of the number of institutional deliveries in the two arms over one year, as well as comparing institutional deliveries before (2012 & 2013) and after (2014) the intervention. Results: There was a 43% increase in institutional deliveries in the intervention arm in 2014 (n=2396) compared to 2013 (n=1674; p<0.000) and 2012 (n=1680; p<0.000), while in the control arm the numbers of deliveries did not significantly change over the three years (2012 n=1182; 2013 n=1322; 2014 n=1182; p>0.103). Conclusions: The mother-baby delivery pack provides a high-impact, low-cost, easier-to-replicate and scale-up intervention using existing systems in the health sector. The pack was developed responding to the hidden barriers to institutional deliveries identified and expressed by the end users in the community through a cross-sectional survey conducted earlier during the commencement of the study. The study results provide scientific evidence for policymakers to design effective interventions to overcome reversible barriers that hinder utilisation of health facilities by pregnant mothers, a key intervention for reducing maternal mortality. FCS11.3 MAGNESIUM SULPHATE IN ECLAMPSIA AND PRE-ECLAMPSIA – A CASE SERIES OF 103 PATIENTS TREATED WITH ULTRASHORT REGIMEN AT A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL IN PAKISTAN H. Bilqis, R. Chaudhri, N. Bano. Holy Family Hospital, Rawalpindi, Pakistan Objectives: To determine the efficacy and safety of ultrashort regimen of magnesium sulphate (loading dose of 14 grams only) in the treatment of eclampsia and pre-eclampsia. Method: The study was conducted at Holy Family Hospital, Rawalpindi, Pakistan over a period of three years (Jan 2012-Dec 2014). It was a case series of 103 patients who reported with history of seizures or were admitted due to severe pre-eclampsia. The patients were given 4 grams I/V bolus plus 10 grams I/M stat as the sole anticonvulsant agent. Other aspects of the management were as in the standard practice. Main outcome measure was the occurrence of seizure within next 24 hours. The labour events and neonatal outcomes were also observed. All the observations were recorded on a specially designed proforma. Results: Sixty one eclamptics and 42 with severe pre-eclampsia were included. The mean age was 27.0 years. Patients belonging to urban and rural areas were 47 (45.6%) and 56 (54.3%) respectively. 49 (47.5%) patients were primigravida, 48 (46.6%) were P1–4 and 6 (5.8%) were ≥P5 . In 42 (68.8%), seizures were observed antenatal, 5 (8.1%) intrapartum and 14 (22.9%) postpartum. Forty four (42.7%) patients were at term. Seizures occurred in 6 (5.8%) patients after this therapy. There were 66 (79.5%) SVDs, 17 (20.4%) emergency LSCS and 20 (19.4%) planned LSCS. In 65 (63.1%) deliveries, the neonates were alive and healthy, while there were 38 (36.8%) perinatal deaths. There was only one maternal mortality (0.97%). Conclusions: This low dose regimen can be used safely in eclampsia and pre-eclampsia with good seizure control and less chances of toxicity. It is a good dosage option to reduce the maternal mortality related to the hypertensive disorders of pregnancy especially in low-

resource countries as it will reduce the cost and the need for skilled manpower. FCS11.4 THE ROLE, OPPORTUNITIES, ACCOMPLISHMENTS AND IMPLICATIONS WORLDWIDE OF THE OBSTETRICIAN-GYNECOLOGIST IN THE HUMAN RESOURCES FOR HEALTH (HRH) PROGRAM IN RWANDA W. Hill 1,2 , D. Ellis 1,6 , C. Kress 1,3 , S. Washington 1,6 , D. Kitessa 1,8 , S. Erber 1,7 , C.C. Hays 1,3 , S. Rulisa 1,4 , P. Bagame 1,5 . 1 Human Resources for Health Program Rwanda, Kigali, Rwanda; 2 Duke University School of Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Durham, NC, USA; 3 Yale School of Medicine, Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology & ReproductiveServices, New Haven, CT, USA; 4 University Teaching Hospital of Kigali, Department of Clinical Research, National University of Rwanda, Kigali, Rwanda; 5 National University of Rwanda, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, Kigali, Rwanda; 6 Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, New York, NY, USA; 7 Harvard School of Medicine, Department of Obsterics and Gynecology, Boston, MA, USA; 8 University of Maryland School of Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Baltimore, MD, USA Objectives: Rwanda is a Central African country and home of 11 million. The HRH Program was launched in 2012 to address the country’s severe shortage of healthcare professionals. The 7 year program established a strong collaboration between the Rwandan Ministry of Health, Clinton Health Access Initiative, academic medical centers and universities in Rwanda and U.S. Ten OB-GYN from U.S. institutions of various backgrounds have been deployed so far to partner with Rwandan colleagues in developing post-graduate education in OBGYN and improve health care especially maternal mortality. Our objective was to evaluate the HRH OB-GYN program. Method: We reviewed the role, opportunities, accomplishments, challenges and implications worldwide of the OB-GYN in the HRH program in Rwanda since the start of the program in achieving its goals. Results: The OB-GYN have taught at 2 teaching hospitals, 1 district and 2 referral hospitals. Along with their 15 Rwandan colleagues, they participated in curriculum development, training, and testing of 50 OB-GYN residents and 200 medical students increasing the number of trained medical students and residents. They also participated in daily clinical bedside teaching. Protocols, updated clinical guidelines and quality measures have standardized care and prevented maternal deaths. Weekly maternal mortality conferences with all providers and a formal evaluation process to track resident progress were established. The quality and needed retention of residents and medical students have improved. Conclusions: OB-GYN involvement in the HRH program in Rwanda has resulted in numerous achievements in the first 3 years. By fully engaging Rwandan and U.S. health care professionals, the OB-GYN component of the HRH program has the opportunity to make significant progress in developing and increasing Rwanda’s healthcare capacity. There has been improvement in the quality, training and performance of medical students, residents and midwives. This model also shows what collaboration between African and other worldwide Ministries of Health, U.S. academic medical centers and universities in Rwanda can accomplish in together to improve maternal health care.

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FCS11.5 CONDOM CATHETER CAN PREVENT HYSTERECTOMY AND AVERT MORTALITY IN OBSTETRIC AND GYNAECOLOGICAL BLEEDING. A RETROSPECTIVE CASE STUDY OF NEAR-MISS MORTALITY DUE TO MASSIVE VAGINAL BLEEDING (OBSTETRIC AND GYNAECOLOGICAL) IN 26 PATIENTS WITH HEMORRHAGIC SHOCK P. Khalatkar, A. Khalatkar. Khalatkar Hospital, Nagpur Maharashtra, India Objectives: 1. Study of near-miss mortality due to vaginal bleeding. 2. Use condom catheter, to arrest vaginal bleeding. 3. Primary care of patient in PPH before shifting to tertiary centres. 4. Avoid postpartum hysterectomy and avert mortalities. Haemorrhage is leading cause of death in women. When patient looses 30–40% (2–2.5 lit) of blood, internal compensatory mechanism start failing and patient has risk of imminent death If medical management and uterine massage fails to control bleeding, use of condom catheter arrests bleeding and prevent patient from going into multiple organ failure, DIC (Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation) and death. Method: When traumatic cause for bleeding was ruled out and medical management failed to control bleeding, balloon tamponade was done with condom catheter. It was made by tying condom snugly to Foleys catheter by thread and inserted into the uterine cavity. In case of post partum haemorrhage (PPH) condom filled by 350–400 ml saline. In non-obstetric cases Foleys catheter parse used and filed with 6–7 cc of saline. Patients were observed for half an hour to monitor arrest of haemorrhage and vitals. If vitals improved device was kept for 12–18 hrs and then removed. Results: • All patients required blood transfusions. Out of 26 patients 22 (84%) patients with PPH, two (7.6%) with massive bleeding due to fibroids (Hb%-1.5gm%) and two (7.6%) bleeding post MTP (arterovinous malformation). • Out of 22 obstetric patients,5 (22%) placenta privia with placental bed bleeding and 17 (77%) atonic PPH. All went into shock stage III -IV but responded to balloon tamponade. • 14 normal labour and 8 caesarean sections. • 9 (34%) patients shifted to ICU due to DIC and Shock with condom catheter in situ. • No mortalities reported. • 1 (3.8%) required postpartum hysterectomy (lower segment atony). Conclusions: Condom catheter by pressure and by clot formation helps to control beading in patient where medical line fails to control beading. It gives time in those golden hours of PPH where every minute, action and drop of blood is precious. It can be done easily at low resource setting, without any special training. Foleys catheter can be used in gynaecological or post MTP bleeding for balloon tamponade. It gives time to send patient to Tertiary care centre or Interventional Radiotherapy centre for further management with condom catheter in situ. It averts postpartum hysterectomy and mortalities. FCS11.6 KNOTLESS EPISIOTOMY – A BETTER OPTION. A COMPARATIVE STUDY FROM PRIVATE HOSPITAL, NAGPUR, INDIA P. Khalatkar. Khalatkar Hospital, Nagpur, India Objectives: • To reduce pain of episiotomy. • To improve post labor comfort. • To prevent complications of episiotomy. • To find a cost effective suturing technique. • To promote early comfortable breastfeeding. Method: Comparative study of Knotless episiotomy (n=200) contin-


uous suturing and control group (n=200) interrupted sutures over 3yrs. Knotless episiotomy started from apex at vaginal mucosa to vulva, from vulva to transverse perinei muscles in continuation, sutured in two layers with deep chunks. Care taken not to leave any dead space. Edges of bulbocavernosus approximated. Skin-suturing in continuation of muscle done subcutaneously from base to apex of episiotomy. The tip of episiotomy suture was brought out of skin and left leaving 1.5 cm. Chromic catgut 1–0 used. Statistical analysis was done by Chi Square & Fisher exact test. Pain scale (1–10) applied. Results: Knotless episiotomy is easy technique with no complications as compared to interrupted suture technique. There was significant reduction in indurations p=0.032 (S), superficial gaping p=0.007 (S), pricking sensation of knots p=0.0002 (S) with early and comfortable resumption of breast feeding p=0.001 (S). Median score for pain was lower amongst study group (4 range) compared with control (8 range). Complete gaping (p=0.06) and sepsis (p=0.5)were NS (not significant). Analgesics were needed for 8–10 days in control compared to 3–4 days in study group. Amount of analgesics & length of suture material required were less. Conclusions: Knotless episiotomy is easy to perform for doctors, safe and comfortable for patient too. Women resume breastfeeding early and comfortably due to less pain. As there are no knots, no nidus for infection. Mucosal apex to skin forms single compact compartment giving adequate pressure and homeostasis and so no gaping. No hematoma formation as no dead space is available. As there are no knots there is no prickly or pain sensation to the patient. Less analgesic, less antibiotics, less suture material and less time to suture make knotless episiotomy cost effective procedure. FCS11.7 MATERNAL MORTALITY DUE TO POSTPARTUM HAEMORRHAGE – FROM DELAYS TO ADVANCES: TOO LITTLE TOO LATE N. Ehsan 1,2 , S. Sami 1,2 , T. Ashraf 1,3 , A. Siddiqa 1,2 , N. Ghaffar 1,3 . 1 Bolan Medical College, Quetta, Balochistan, Pakistan; 2 Sandeman (Provincial) Hospital, Quetta, Balochistan, Pakistan; 3 Bolan Medical Complex Hospital, Quetta, Balochistan, Pakistan Objectives: To: 1. determine the major causes of delays in maternal mortalities due to Postpartum Haemorrhage (PPH); 2. discuss the latest advances in management of PPH for each level of delay identified in PPH mortalities. Method: It was a prospective cross-sectional study design, with data collected over duration of one year from 1st July 2013 to 30th June 2014, involving all four Units of Department of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, Bolan Medical College, comprising two tertiary teaching Hospitals of the Province. Nonprobability purposive sampling was employed. Specifically designed SOGP’s Maternal Mortality proformas were used & duly filled in by attending obstetricians for all maternal mortalities and analysed by SPSS version 17. Kirkpatrick’s model of evaluation was employed over modified 4-Delays’ model to recommend measures for reduction in PPH mortalities in view of advances in PPH management. Results: For total number of 24,736 deliveries, 23,813 live births, the MMR was 201 per 100,000 live births. PPH was the leading direct obstetric maternal killer (n=34; 70%), occurring in women with parity of ≥5 (58.82%), in ages of 31–40 years (55.88%) and mean gestational age at delivery being ≥37 weeks (47%). In PPH mortalities, 97% had one or more (modified) delays; first delay in 3 (8.82%), second delay in 16 (47%), third delay in 12 (35%) and fourth delay in 3 (8.82%) cases. Furthermore, 55.88% were hospital vaginal deliveries with mean duration of stay at hospital of 6–12 hours (44%). Conclusions: Majority of PPH mortalities due to delay in making decision to seek treatment implies the need for concerted efforts towards improvements in women’s health education and care, investments in referral hospitals providing emergency obstetric care with improvements in training of healthcare personnel.


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FCS11.8 MOBILE OBSTETRIC MONITORING: A MODEL FOR COMMUNITY BASED ANTENATAL CARE DELIVERY IN A LOW RESOURCE SETTING I. Sini 1 , A. Polim 1 , H. Thabrany 2 , D. Djanas 1 , M. Oehinsjah 1 , S. Ulman 3 , S. Ray 3 . 1 Indonesian Reproductive Science Institute, Jakarta, Indonesia; 2 University of Indonesia, Jakarta, Indonesia; 3 Philips Research, Bangalore, India Objectives: Indonesia’s Maternal Mortality Rate (MMR) remains among the highest in S-E Asia, with 190 maternal deaths for 100,000 live births. Governmental and non-Governmental groups have attempted various interventions to reduce MMR with varying degrees of success. We tested this unique team based model in the community facilitated by tele-health technology, to overcome issues of lack of human resources and Indonesia’s vast demography. One of the most important elements of team based care in a community setting is the philosophy of a practice focused on overcoming barriers to access to healthcare services. Method: A case-control study with a cohort of 656 pregnant ladies was undertaken in Padang, with its population demographics representative of Indonesia. The participants were assigned to 6 GPs and midwives in their respective Puskesmas (Primary Care Centres). They teamed up with obstetricians from the Bunda Hospital to provide antenatal care facilitated by the MoM tele-health solution. This tool allows the midwives and obstetricians to access patient data anytime and anywhere, thus helping them to provide 24/7 ante-natal services, including home visits. The controls are pregnant ladies who were treated at the same primary care centres in the previous year. Results: Our tele-health, team based model of care, is benchmarked against the current clinical practice on a number of indicators such as maternal mortality and morbidity, infant mortality and morbidity and patient engagement. No maternal death was found in this group comparing to 8 in 7000 deliveries of the same population. 14% of the ladies were identified as very high risk, and most were identified in early stage of pregnancy. Reduction of severe anaemia was significant and this was a major contributor in reduced incidence of postpartum haemorrhage. 94% of babies delivered had APGAR score of 8 and above. Conclusions: Good antenatal care delivery model requires a service which is available 24/7, affordable, able to effectively screen high risk pregnancies and refer them to a higher center appropriately. Our model is scalable and can effectively address barriers which can help Indonesia to reach the MDG 5 goals of reducing maternal and infant mortality rates. Leveraging a tele-health platform to effectively offer high quality, “patient-centric” antenatal care has been demonstrated in this pilot study. The model also demonstrated its effectiveness in strengthening the referral system and also increasing the quality of care delivered by exploiting public-private partnerships. FCS11.9 EVALUATION OF VACUUM DELIVERY TRAINING IN SUB SAHARAN AFRICA C. Ameh 1 , S. Webster 2 , R. McQuivey 3 . 1 Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Liverpool, UK; 2 National Health Service, Newcastle, UK; 3 Clinical Innovations, Salt Lake City, USA Objectives: Assisted vaginal delivery (AVD) is one of the least available Emergency Obstetric and Newborn care (EmONC) signal functions performed in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). This is due to lack of training opportunities at both under-graduate and post-graduate levels. A competency based training workshop in vacuum delivery (VD) was conducted and evaluated at the 1st African Federation of Obstetrics and Gynaecology (AFOG) scientific conference in Nairobi Kenya. The workshop provided a Continuous Professional Development (CPD)

opportunity for skilled health professions, to improve their skills in vacuum delivery. Method: Two trainers conducted three 2.5hour workshops for 18 participants per workshop, using short lectures, audiovisual materials and hands-on skills sessions. 44 participants from 6 SSA countries (Somalia, Somaliland, Uganda, Rwanda and Kenya) participated in the workshops. The participants consisted of 17 (39%) consultant obstetricians, 14 (32%) obstetric and gynaecology residents, 7 (16%) nurse/midwives, 1 reproductive health clinical officer and 3 medical officers (medical doctors not in post-graduate training). Evaluation of the training was conducted at Kirkpatrick level 1 (reaction) and 2 (knowledge) using self-administered semi quantitative feedback sheets and multiple-choice questions administered before and after the workshop. Results: 21 (51%) participants had less than 1 year experience, 5 (13%) had more than 10 years experience (all consultants), and only 6 (14%) residents had more than 1 year of experience with VD. Only 3 participants had any experience with obstetric forceps delivery. 77% (34) participants provided written feedback, common themes were high appreciation and satisfaction with the training, strong desire to use new skills and knowledge acquired, request for regular training, dissatisfaction with pre-training enquiry handling and appreciation of the potential impact VD training. The mean pre and post-workshop scores (n=33) were 56% and 75% respectively (33% improvement SD=20.3%). Conclusions: Consultants (n=14) had the lowest average pre-training scores (53%, SD=17%) while obstetric residents (n=12) had the highest average pre-training score of 61% (SD=14%). Consultants (n=13) had the highest improvement score (35%, SD=21%) compared to 30% (SD=17%) for obstetric residents (n=11) and 27% (SD=11%) for nursemidwives (n=6). Specialist conferences are useful in providing CPD accredited training for obstetricians and gynaecologists. Training in VD needs to be strengthened at post-graduate level in SSA, this will likely increase safe delivery options for women and reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with difficult caesarean sections.

FCS12. Addressing Maternal Mortality FCS12.1 THE SPATIAL EPIDEMIOLOGY OF MATERNAL DEATHS IN THE GAZA AND MAPUTO PROVINCES IN MOZAMBIQUE P.T. Makanga 1 , N. Schuurman 1 , C. Sacoor 2 , T. Firoz 4 , T. Lee 3 , F. Vilanculo 2 , K. Munguambe 2 , H. Boene 2 , U.V. Ukah 3 , M. Vidler 3 , P. von Dadelszen 3 , E. Sevene 2 . 1 Health Geography research group, Simon Fraser University, Vancouver, Canada; 2 Manhica Research Centre, Manhica, Mozambique; 3 Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, and the Child and Family Research Unit, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada; 4 Department of Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada Objectives: The social and physical environments of a woman have an effect on her maternal health. The social determinants of health framework has been proposed as the paradigm through which this assertion is explored. However, operationalizing this framework in a manner that links these determinants to actual maternal health outcomes has been a challenge. This study aimed to explore the associations between maternal deaths and social and environmental risk factors in 36 localities in Gaza and Maputo Provinces in southern Mozambique. Method: Socio-economic variables were collected using a census of all households with women of reproductive age (aged 12–49). Women suspected to have died in pregnancy or postpartum were identified during the process. Geographic Information Systems was

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used to calculate environmental variables including driving times to health facilities and major roads, and the seasonal impact of floods on transport. Delphi consensus was conducted to prioritize all variables. Least Squares Regression was used to identify the statistically significant associations between the chosen variables and maternal mortality ratio for each locality. Geographically Weighted Regression was used to explore spatial non-stationarity of these associations. Results: 14621 pregnancies were reported as having occurred in the 12 months preceding the census and there were 83 deaths suspected to have occurred in pregnancy or postpartum, pending a verbal autopsy. Five socio-economic and environmental factors, aggregated for each locality, showed a statistically significant association with maternal deaths. These factors are: 1) absent head of household; 2) unavailability of private transport; 3) marital status; 4) driving time to the nearest major road; and 5) driving time to the nearest primary health centre. Geographically weighted regression showed the spatial variation of the effect of each of these characteristics on maternal mortality. Conclusions: The socio-cultural and physical environment influence the likelihood of maternal-related death. The framework used in this study is a contribution to operationalizing the measurement of social determinants of health and the effect they have on maternal outcomes. Showing the changing effect of environmental factors on maternal outcomes across space has potential to better target interventions, an approach that is especially crucial for low-resource settings. FCS12.2 MOBILE PHONES AS A MONITORING TOOL TO IMPROVE OBSTETRIC HEMORRHAGE MANAGEMENT IN PRIMARY CARE FACILITIES IN TANZANIA R. Tillya 1 , M. Skaer 2 , Z. Mtema 1 , R. Godfrey 1 , I. Kinyonge 1 . 1 Ifakara Health Institute, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania; 2 University of California San Francisco, California, USA Objectives: The widespread availability of mobile phones provides a new tool for monitoring public health interventions conducted in rural areas that are otherwise difficult to supervise. The mobile phone surveillance system was established across eight districts of Tanzania to provide an alternative method of monitoring the use of the Non Pneumatic Anti-Shock Garment which was introduced as a means of improving management of obstetric hemorrhage. The system also enables mid-level providers working at primary care level to seek clinical support from specialized hospitals and facilitates referral processes including the dispatch of ambulances. Method: As a component of the Ifakara Health Institute’s EMPOWER II maternal health project, 650 closed user group (CUG) phones were distributed to 277 rural facilities across four districts in Tanzania. These included 259 primary care facilities and 18 CeMOC referral facilities. Phones were equipped with forms for immediate reporting of the occurrence of obstetric hemorrhage. EMPOWER II also distributed Non-pneumatic Anti-Shock Garments (NASGs) to keep hemorrhaging women stable during second and third delays. Data is sent from a java-enabled phone via GRPS to a central server, at a cost of USD 0.007. Results: In the first three months of implementation, 24 women were reported to have used the NASG and information on the hemorrhage etiology, time intervals between the start of hemorrhage and receipt of treatment, transport information, treatments received and outcomes were able to be recorded on the form, which is then available in a live database. The sites are able to report shortages of uterotonics and blood for transfusion, two issues associated with maternal mortality. The phones also allow providers to make free calls to other sites in the network to facilitate referrals and to request an ambulance or advice. Conclusions: The use of phones allows timely clinical management of patients through phone clinical support, expedites referral pro-


cesses, allows for shared record keeping across the sites, reduces delays for data collection from field sites, and allows for timely identification of stockouts or problems relating to the use of NASG. Sitespecific challenges to the appropriate management of obstetric hemorrhage were identified quickly, allowing for immediate correction and supplemental training on NASG usage to improve care. FCS12.3 RAPID REDUCTION OF MATERNAL MORTALITY IN UGANDA AND ZAMBIA THROUGH THE SAVING MOTHERS, GIVING LIFE INITIATIVE: RESULTS OF YEAR 1 EVALUATION F. Serbanescu 1 , H. Goldberg 1 , I. Danel 1 , T. Wuhib 2 , L. Marum 3 , W. Obiero 2 , J. McAuley 3 , J. Aceng 4 , E. Chomba 5 , P. Stupp 1 , C. Morrissey Conlon 6 . 1 Division of Reproductive Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA; 2 Uganda Country Office, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Entebbe, Uganda; 3 Zambia Country Office, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Lusaka, Zambia; 4 Uganda Ministry of Health, Kampala, Uganda; 5 Zambia Ministry of Community Development, Mother and Child Health, Lusaka, Zambia; 6 United States Agency for International Development, Washington DC, USA Objectives: The 2015 Millennium Development Goals (MDG) deadline is fast approaching and reaching the MDG5 lags behind. Meeting this goal requires accelerating the pace of annual decline in maternal mortality to a level 17 times greater than the current rate of 2.9% per year. A new initiative introduced in Uganda and Zambia has proved highly effective in averting preventable maternal deaths. The impact of Saving Mothers, Giving Life (SMGL), a multi-partner initiative designed to reduce maternal mortality rapidly in high mortality settings through community and facility evidence-based interventions and district-wide health systems strengthening, is examined after its first year of implementation. Method: An evaluation employing multiple data sources and methods was used to compare baseline maternal outcomes (June 2011May 2012) to those documented at the end of Year 1 (June 2012May 2013) in SMGL districts in Uganda and Zambia. Sources included health facility assessments, individual pregnancy outcome monitoring records, enhanced maternal mortality detection in health facilities, and an investigation of all reproductive-age female deaths and maternal deaths reported by communities using verbal autopsies. The impact of the initiative was assessed by examining population-based and facility-based maternal mortality ratios (MMR) per 100,000 live births and core emergency obstetric and newborn care (EmONC) indicators. Results: The population-based MMR declined by 30% in Uganda (from 452 to 316). The MMR in facilities declined by 35% in each country-from 534 to 345 in Uganda and from 310 to 202 in Zambia. Institutional deliveries increased by 62% and 35%, respectively. The number of EmONC facilities rose from 10 to 25 in Uganda and from 7 to 11 in Zambia. All EmONC indicators improved: C-section rates increased by 23% and 15%, respectively; the proportion of births with severe obstetric complications attended rose by 25% and 23%; case fatality rates fell from 2.6% to 2.0% and 3.1% to 2.0%. Conclusions: Maternal mortality fell significantly in one year in eight pilot districts in Uganda and Zambia following the introduction of the SMGL model. This decline was accomplished through a comprehensive district system strengthening approach that led to reductions in the “Three Delays”. Maternal mortality reductions of such a magnitude in one year show that it is possible to greatly accelerate progress in saving mothers’ lives. The lessons learned from SMGL can inform policymakers and program managers in other low and middle income settings where similar approaches could be utilized to rapidly reduce preventable maternal deaths.


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FCS12.4 ANTIOXIDATIVE CAPACITY AND INFLAMMATION IN RETAINED PLACENTA: PROTEIN AND GENE EXPRESSION OF GLUTATHIONE PEROXIDASE AND NUCLEAR FACTOR κB M. Endler 1 , H. Åkerud 2 , S. Saltvedt 3 , M. Eweida 1 . 1 Karolinska Institutet, Södersjukhuset, Department of Clincal Science and Education, Stockholm, Sweden; 2 Uppsala University, Department of Women’s and Children’s Health, Uppsala, Sweden; 3 Karolinska Institutet, Department of Women’s and Children’s Health, Stockholm, Sweden Objectives: Retained placenta is associated with severe blood loss, irrespective of access to emergency obstetric care. Despite the severity of the disorder, its etiology is largely unknown and no studies of its biochemical profile are to our knowledge published. The aim of this study was to investigate levels of oxidative stress and inflammation in retained placenta compared to non-retained placentas. Increased oxidative stress and inflammation is seen in pregnancies complicated by preterm delivery, small for gestational age birth, preeclampsia as well as recurrent miscarriages. Studies have indicated that the risk of retained placenta is increased in women with these disorders. Method: Retained (n=29) and non-retained (n=31) placentas were collected after manual placental removal or delivery between January 2013 and September 2014. Peripheral and periumbilical decidual biopsies were frozen at −70°C. All placentas came from live fullterm singleton births and pregnancies without pre-eclampsia, diabetes or fetal growth restriction. Concentrations of the antioxidative enzyme Glutathione Peroxidase 1.1 (GPX 1.1) were assessed by ELISA. RNA expression of GPX 1.1 and the transcription factor Nuclear Factor κB (NFκB) and its inhibitor IκB was assessed by real-time-PCR, expressed as fold change normalized to YWHAZ house-keeping gene. Median differences were compared using the Mann-Whitney-U test. Results: Periumbilical GPX 1.1 median concentrations were 13.32 ng/ml in retained placentas and 17.96 ng/ml in non-retained placentas (interquartile range, IQR: 9.8 and 12.95, p=0.22), peripheral concentrations were 13.37 ng/ml and 19.09 ng/ml (IQR 16.72 and 8.85, p=0.08). Median periumbilical GPX 1.1 RNA expression was 1.13 for retained placentas and 0.88 for non-retained placentas (IQR: 1.13 and 0.88, p=0.08), peripheral expression was 1.32 and 1.18 (IQR: 0.91 and 1.12, p=0.46). Median periumbilical NFκB RNA expression was 1.02 for retained placentas and 0.99 for non-retained placentas (IQR: 0.42 and 0.42, p=0.71), peripheral expression was 1.22 and 1.04 (IQR: 0.61 and 0.42, p=0.17). Conclusions: Retained placental tissue showed a tendency of lower median concentrations of GPX 1.1 and higher GPX 1.1 and NFKB RNA expression although the differences were borderline to not statistically significant. Large inter-sample variability in enzyme concentrations and RNA expression underlie the uncertainty of the differences seen. The results are however similar to the pattern of GPX and NFκB expression seen in several studies of preeclamptic placentas. This may warrant further investigation into the association between retained placenta and this disorder as well as a discussion of the role of oxidative stress and inflammation in the pathophysiology of retained placenta. FCS12.5 ENHANCING ACCESS TO EMERGENCY OBSTETRIC CARE THROUGH SURGICAL TASK SHIFTING IN SIERRA LEONE; PROGRESS REPORT OF THE FIRST 4 YEARS M. Milland 1,2 , A. van Duinen 3,2 , H. Bolkan 3,2 . 1 Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark; 2 CapaCare, Trondheim, Norway; 3 St Olavs Hospital, Trondheim, Norway Objectives: To train 60 medical doctors and community health officers to handle surgical and obstetrical emergencies at district hospitals in Sierra Leone within 2019. Method: Seven students are enrolled twice a year in a surgical train-

ing program, run in collaboration between Sierra Leonean Ministry of Health and Sanitation, United Nation People Fund (UNFPA) and the Non-Governmental organization CapaCare. Initially the students receive six months of training in basic surgery and obstetrics followed by three times six-month rotations at partner hospitals throughout the country. If passing the examination after 24 months, they continue with one year junior medical training at tertiary governmental teaching hospitals. Curriculum is based on World Health Organization programme for Emergency and Essential Surgical Care. Results: 31 students have been enrolled between January 2011 and August 2014. Eleven have passed their examination, of whom seven are in junior medical training posts, two are working in district hospitals, one is in surgical specialist training, and one have died from Ebola. 14 are in their initial two years of training; six have dropped out of the program due to slow progress in acquiring skills, or death from Ebola. Clinical rotations have been on hold since August 2014. By then the students had participated in 15 847 major surgeries. Almost half of the procedures have been emergency obstetric procedures. Conclusions: Short course training to manage surgical and obstetrical emergencies is feasible in Sierra Leone and can contribute to enhance access to emergency obstetric care. The program is temporary suspended due to the Ebola epidemic. FCS12.6 POINT OF CARE ULTRASOUND USE FOR THE EVALUATION OF BLEEDING IN PREGNANCY IN A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL IN RWANDA S. Rulisa 1 , T. Rurangwa 1 , K. Lewis 3 , M. Small 1,2 . 1 University of Rwanda, Kigali, Rwanda; 2 Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC, USA; 3 University of Texas-Houston- School of Public Health, Houston, Tx, USA Objectives: Bleeding in pregnancy is a potential obstetric emergency. Ultrasound is recognized as an essential diagnostic tool for the identification of life threatening conditions such as placental abnormalities and ectopic pregnancy. Few studies, however, examine the use of ultrasound for the evaluation of pregnancy related bleeding in a low resource setting. Method: We prospectively reviewed all patients admitted to the Kigali University Teaching Hospital (CHUK) for bleeding in pregnancy from 10/2014 through 2/2015. CHUK is the largest tertiary care teaching hospital. We assessed maternal demographics, presenting complaints prior to ultrasound, ultrasound findings, post ultrasound findings, treatment and maternal outcomes. Pre and post scan diagnoses were analyzed using SPSS. Results: 386 patients were admitted during the time of the study. Of those, 51 (13%) presented with bleeding in pregnancy. All patients (100%) received ultrasounds in the obgyn triage. The primary indications for ultrasound evaluation were: suspected abortion 19 (37%), suspected ectopic 17 (33%), gestational trophoblastic disease 8 (16%), and fetal well being 7 (13%). Six patients presented for fetal well being and were diagnosed with placenta previa. One patient presented with a prescan diagnosis of suspected abortion and was noted to have a ruptured ectopic pregnancy. All seven patients received surgery and recovered. Conclusions: Preliminary findings suggest that ultrasound can be a useful adjunct to the clinical exam in this low resource setting. Ultrasounds performed in the triage unit identified life-threatening conditions that may have gone undiagnosed or experienced delayed diagnoses.

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FCS12.7 MEDICAL ABORTION PROVIDED BY NURSE-MIDWIFES OR PHYSICIANS IN A HIGH RESOURCE SETTING: A COSTEFFECTIVENESS ANALYSIS S. Sjostrom 1 , H. Kopp-Kallner 1,4 , E. Simeonova 2 , A. Madestam 3 , K. Gemzell-Danielsson 1 . 1 Department of Women’s and Children’s Health, Division of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; 2 John Hopkins University, Carey School of Business, Baltimore, MD, USA; 3 Stockholm University, Department of Economics, Stockholm, Sweden; 4 Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Department of Clinical Sciences, Danderyd Hospital, Karolinska Intsitutet, Stockholm, Sweden Objectives: To calculate the cost-effectiveness of early medical abortion performed by nurse-midwifes compared to physicians in a high resource setting where ultrasound is part of the protocol, thus providing evidence to influence policy and clinical practice toward task shifting in termination of pregnancy. Method: The cost-effectiveness of medical TOP performed by physicians or nurse midwifes was calculated based on the clinical outcomes from a previously published randomized-controlled equivalence study of 1180 women seeking early termination of pregnancy in an outpatient family planning unit at a University Hospital in Stockholm, Sweden. The average direct costs of the intervention employing nurse-midwifes and the standard procedure using physicians, and indirect costs of complications were calculated. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) was calculated for direct and total costs. Results: The average direct costs per procedure were EUR 44 for the intervention compared to EUR 58 for the standard procedure. Costs of complications were EUR 11 less in the intervention group. Both the cost and the efficacy of the intervention were superior to the standard treatment resulting in a negative ICER at EUR −9 using direct costs and EUR −18 for total costs per additional percent increase in efficacy associated with the intervention. Women randomized to nursemidwifes (290/532) were significantly more likely to have a longacting reversible contraception than women randomized to physicians (241/528, 95% CI: 3.2–15–2% P=0.004) which reduces society’s total cost for unintended pregnancies. Conclusions: Medical termination of pregnancy provided by nurse midwifes is cost-effective in a high resource setting where ultrasound is part of the protocol. In the longer perspective, society’s total cost for unintended pregnancies could be further reduced by the intervention as nurse midwives prescribed higher proportions of long acting reversible contraception. FCS12.8 THE KNOWLEDGE AND SKILLS RETENTION STUDY: HOW FREQUENT SHOULD IN-SERVICE EMONC TRAINING BE CONDUCTED IN SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA? C. Ameh, F. Dickinson, S. White, N. van den Broek. Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Liverpool, UK Objectives: The quality and availability of Emergency Obstetric and Newborn Care (EmONC) depends on skilled and knowledgeable health care providers (HCP) working within functional health systems that provides an enabling environment (drugs, supplies, referral system and supportive policies). The “Making it Happen” (MiH) programme implemented EmONC training, quality improvement and maternal and newborn health data improvement interventions in 11 sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) and Asia countries. A 3.5-day competency based, multidisciplinary EmONC training programme was delivered and evaluated. The objective of this multi-country study was to determine the frequency EmONC training of skilled health care workers in SSA. Method: 611 HCPs from six African countries (Ghana, Nigeria,


Malawi, Kenya, Sierra Leone and Tanzania) participated in the study. Assessments of skills and knowledge were carried out with a randomly selected target group of 585 HCPs immediately before and after the training (baseline and then at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months following the courses. The knowledge and practical skills improvement index (KII and SII) defined as the ratio of absolute improvement to maximum potential improvement as percentage) after the training were determined. Both indicators were compared by cadre (Medical doctors – MDs, Nurse/midwives – NMs), country and by assessment period. Results: The average KII for MDs at baseline was 28%-(n=36, SD=15%), decreasing to 22%-(n=26, SD=11%) at 3 months. The average practical SII for MDs at baseline was 64%-(n=26, SD=28%), decreasing to 45%(n=36, SD=28%). The average KII for NMs at baseline was 20%-(n=434, SD=9%), increasing at 3, 6 and 9 months to 38%-(n=343, SD=15%), 41%-(n=333, SD=155), 40%-(n=346, SD=14%) respectively. The KII decreased to 29%-(n=325, SD=28%) at 12 months post-training. The average practical SII for NM at baseline was 64%-(SD=4%) decreasing (but still significant at 9 and 12 months) to 49%-(SD=14%), 52%(SD=11%), 56%-(SD=15%) and 61%-SD=12%) at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months respectively. Conclusions: Medical doctors demonstrated a higher KII at baseline compared to NMs but the SII was the same as for MWs at baseline. The results of this study suggest that midwives would benefit from refresher EmONC training every 12 months while medical doctors may require frequent training. This would ensure that skills infrequently used would be maintained and that they could be kept updated with current best evidence to inform their practice. The impact of institutionalised regular skills and drills within health care facilities should be assessed as a potential mechanism to sustaining the effect of initial comprehensive EmONC training.

FCS13. Addressing Violence Against Women FCS13.1 NATIONAL CLINICAL GUIDELINES (PROTOCOLS) FOR THE HEALTH SECTOR ON VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN DURING PREGNANCY IN LATIN AMERICA AND CARIBBEAN PAHO MEMBER COUNTRIES A. Han 1 , R. Aviles 2 , H. Macmillan 3,4 , A. Guedes 5 , D.E. Stewart 6,7 . 1 Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Division of Global Health Equity, Boston, Massachusetts, USA; 2 Toronto General Research Institute, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; 3 Department of Pediatrics, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada; 4 Department of Psychiatry, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada; 5 PAHO, Washington DC, USA; 6 University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; 7 University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada Objectives: Intimate partner violence during pregnancy (IPV-P) is highly prevalent in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) with poor obstetric-related outcomes. Health-care providers have been identified as likely the first and most trusted professional contact for survivors (2013 Responding to IPV and Sexual Violence against Women: WHO Clinical and Policy Guidelines). Evidence-based national guidelines can play an important role in informing health-care providers on how to respond to intimate partner violence and sexual violence against women. This presentation surveys the prevalence of national policies and clinical guidelines on violence in LAC against women during or associated with pregnancy. Method: Twenty-seven English, Spanish or Portuguese speaking countries were queried by email or telephone through PAHO focal points, internet searches, personal contacts or UN Women website. Results: Out of 27 countries we obtained 15 national policies on violence against women, all of which addressed physical, emotional and sexual violence. We also obtained 12 clinical guidelines, all of which mentioned the importance of privacy, confidentiality and


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safety, while 6 addressed violence during pregnancy. Topics associated with IPV were addressed by differing numbers of guidelines: documentation of the risk of pregnancy (8), emergency contraception within 5 days of sexual violence (8), referral for abortion (where legal) for unwanted pregnancy (4). In-service health-care training was mentioned in 6 guidelines but did not mention frequency, duration or many essential topics. Conclusions: It appears there are gaps in developing national policies and clinical guidelines on violence against women during and associated with pregnancy in LAC, including in the essential training of health-care providers. Notably only half of the obtained clinical guidelines included IPV-P. All PAHO member countries should develop and implement clinical guidelines (which include violence associated with pregnancy) reflecting the 2013 Responding to Intimate Partner Violence and Sexual Violence Against Women: WHO Clinical and Policy Guidelines. FCS13.2 MENTAL HEALTH OF SURVIVORS OF DOMESTIC VIOLENCE IN RURAL NORTHERN INDIA. A QUALITATIVE, INTERSECTIONAL APPROACH E. Gahleitner. Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria Objectives: Domestic violence is a serious public health concern in India, having a devastating effect on women’s mental health. Due to socioeconomic factors, and gender discrimination rural women are marginalized and have negligible access to mental health care. It is therefore that the burden of mental disorders in rural survivors of domestic violence is presumably underrated, lacking adequat diagnosis and treatment facilities. This study aims to investigate the complex phenomenon of domestic violence on a community level by focusing on mental health in rural marginalized survivors of violence in district Kangra, Himachal Pradesh, North India, following a critical, intersectional approach. Method: A qualitative approach was used, primarily utilizing participative methods, foremost in-depth interviews with 23 women facing domestic violence. Additionally, stakeholders from nonprofit organizations, physicians and social workers were involved from the beginning. Written informed consent was obtained from every participant. Results: The overall findings indicate serious mental health challenges are present amongst rural marginalized women who face domestic violence. Mental health is found a neglected and stigmatized issue amongst survivors of domestic violence. The intersectional analysis highlights the simultaneous interaction of multiple forms of violence and underscores the need for including marginalized women’s voices and realities on the ground. Conclusions: It is therefore essential and indespensible to build on future strategies for community mental health care and develop a methodology for sustainable prevention of domestic violence. FCS13.3 PREVALENCE OF AND RISK FACTORS FOR DOMESTIC VIOLENCE AMONG PREGNANT WOMEN IN NIGERIA B. Olofinbiyi 1 , A. Akintayo 1 , B. Olagbuji 1 , I. Ade-Ojo 1 , A. Olaleye 2 . 1 Ekiti State University, Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria; 2 Babcock University, Inishan, Nigeria Objectives: To assess the assessed the prevalence, pattern and background factors precipitating domestic violence in a population of antenatal clinic attendees. Method: This was a cross-sectional questionnaire-based study. A structured questionnaire was used to assess pregnancy related violence among 439 patients during their postnatal visit between July and December 2012. Analysis was done using statistical software SPSS 17.0. Logistic regression was performed to assess the impact of factors that affect experience of violence.

Results: The prevalence of domestic violence was 13.7% before pregnancy; 17.5% in the recently concluded pregnancy. Domestic violence had a decreasing order from first trimester to puerperium (p<0.0001). Adolescent pregnancy (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 49.25; 95% confidence interval [CI], 7.60–319.07) and experience of violence within the 12 months prior to pregnancy (aOR 98.99; 95% CI, 35.47– 276.30) were significantly related to domestic violence in pregnancy. Conclusions: Domestic violence is prevalent in the obstetric population of southwestern Nigeria. Screening for violence should become a component of comprehensive maternity care to enable early identification and management. Given the independent association of adolescent motherhood, efforts to reduce adolescent pregnancy should be intensified. FCS13.4 CAN WE REDUCE SEX CRIMES IN MALAYSIA? M. Najimudeen, K. Sachchithanantham. Manipal medical College, Melaka, Malaysia Objectives: Malaysia is committed to United Nations Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW) and Rights of the Child (UNCRC) but the sex crimes are continued to escalate in the peninsula. The rape was only 1.0% of all the crimes from 2005 to 2011, but within 2012 to 2014 it had increased to 2.1%. The incidence of rape in the year 2000 was 1,217. In 2005 it had increased to 1,931 and in 2010 it increased to 3,595 Ten women are raped daily. Can we reduce the sex crimes in Malaysia? Method: This is the retrospective study of articles published between the year 2000 to 2015 pertaining to sex crimes in Malaysia. Reports of Parliament, Royal Malaysian police, government departments and non governmental organizations were analysed. Sex crime is a spectrum from sexual harassment (repeated unwelcomed verbal, non-verbal, visual, psychological or physical conduct of a sexual nature), molestation, sexual assault (includes forced anal sex, insertion into vagina, mouth) to rape (insertion of the penis into vagina against will, sex with under 16 years of age with or without consent). The study focus at reported cases of rapes. Results: In the year 2013, out of the 2,767 cases reported, 398 victims were under 12 years. 591 (21.3%) offenders were under 18 years. The median age of the Malaysian culprit was 41.7. In united States, 80% of the offenders were below 30 years. Among the 11,493 rapes reported from 2000 to 2006, surprisingly 9654 (84%) were committed by known people and 1839 (16%) by unknown persons. Between 2000 to 2005, the reported cases were 9064. Out of which 1541 (17%) were by very close relatives. Molestation had also escalated from 1,234 in the year 2000, to 2,054 in 2010. Conclusions: 484 human trafficking victims were rescued from February 2008 to July 2010, Among these, 291 were sex trafficking victims and 25 were below the age of 18. From March 2010 to February 2011, eleven people were convicted of sex trafficking. The offenders should be managed with cognitive-behavioral, psycho -educational and pharmacological treatment. Community based mass media awareness and health education group seminars with involvement of religious,social leaders and strict enforcement of law can reduce sex crimes in Malaysia. The goal of sex offender policies is to prevent future victimization.

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FCS13.5 PREVALENCE, INSTIGATING FACTORS AND HELP SEEKING BEHAVIOR OF PHYSICAL DOMESTIC VIOLENCE AMONG MARRIED WOMEN OF HYDERABAD, SINDH, PAKISTAN S.B. Qureshi. Liaquat University of Medical & Health Sciences, Jamshoro, Pakistan Objectives: To find out prevalence, instigating factors and help seeking behavior of physical domestic violence against married women. Method: A total of 378 married women who were attending Department of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, Liaquat University Hospital, Hyderabad, Pakistan from January 1, 2013 to March 31, 2013 for different obstetrical & gynaecological problems were randomly selected and interviewed. After informed consent, required information was collected on predesigned performa including demographic details, prevalence, instigating factors, help seeking behavior for physical domestic violence. Results: 31% (120) of women reported lifetime physical domestic violence. Husbands and in-laws were perpetrators in 70% (84) and 30% (36) cases respectively. Wives being disobedient and making arguments were the most common instigating factor for violence followed by husband’s drug addiction, extra marital relationship and infertility. It was severe enough to require medical care in 24% (29) cases. Only 2% (2) women sought social and legal aid. Conclusions: Domestic violence was quite common among Pakistani married women, however help seeking was minimal. There is need to identify and address this menace effectively in order to decrease the sufferings of women. FCS13.6 FEMALE SEXUAL FUNCTION 6 MONTHS AFTER SEXUAL ASSAULT L. Helström, A. Möller, C. Göransson. Dept of Clinical Science and Education, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden Objectives: Prior studies have addressed associations between sexual assaults and sexual function and compared to nonvictimized women. However, no studies have been conducted trying to prospectively follow women after the rape and examine possible risk factors for the development of sexual dysfunction. Method: Hundred thirty six women were recruited from the Emergency Clinic for Raped Women at Stockholm South Hospital acute after a sexual assault and 79 women completed the 6 months follow up. Completers were evaluated regarding their sexual function before and after the rape by using the FSFI (Female Sexuality Function Index) where an extra question had been added about the function before the rape, Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (using a structured interview) and demographics. Results: Impaired sexual function was reported by 71%, while 20% reported improvement, and 9% no difference compared to before the rape. The women (34%) who developed PTSD women scored lower on FSFI (17 vs. 23, p=0.01) and more often reported their sexual function becoming worse (89% vs. 62%, p=0.01). Having a partner at the time of the rape was associated with improved sexual function (OR 3.6, p=0.04) and having a psychiatric treatment history (OR 2.9, p=0.06) was associated with an impaired function. Severity of the assault, mode of action, or use of violence were not associated with changes in sexual function. Conclusions: Not all women experience loss of sexual function av sexueal assault. Post Traumatic Stress Disorder and depression has negative impact on sexual function while supporting partner is a positive prognostic factor.


FCS13.7 ADDRESSING HEALTH SECTOR RESPONSE TO GENDER-BASED VIOLENCE (GBV) IN EGYPT M. Khaled, G. Haddad, B. Shawkat. United Nations Population Fund/UNFPA, Cairo, Egypt Objectives: Assist the Government of Egypt in integrating effective institutionalized health response to gender based violence in Egypt. Method: UNFPA coordinated a consultative process based on environmental scanning, stakeholders’ analysis, government engagement and interaction and involvement of civil society. Evidence based data on GBV, policy dialogue and advocacy among senior policy makers to protect the rights and dignity of Egyptian women survivors of GBV and coordination among concerned partners and the UN community were the key interventions of this innovative initiative. Results: The production of the Medical guideline to manage cases of GBV was the central milestone in a larger Ministry of Health (MOH) – United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) program aiming at integrating a GBV service package within all the general hospitals in Egypt, building capacities of health services providers and equipping health care settings/facilities to deliver adequate GBV services. The program piloted in 2014 in 50 hospitals of Greater Cairo, Assiut and Sohag and 84 service providers were trained as trainers on the guideline. Integration of GBV services is planned to extend to cover the remaining governorates in 2015. Conclusions: Looking beyond the specifically medical sections of this guideline, it has effectively set the blueprint for coordination within the networks of protection, law enforcement, safety and related support services to respond to gender based violence. UNFPA will continue to support the MOH and relevant ministries and entities in Egypt in scaling up GBV response services and effective surveillance over GBV service delivery. Reference: [1] Study on Violence against women in Egypt – NCW, 2009. FCS13.8 RISK FACTORS FOR POSTTRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER (PTSD AFTER RAPE A. Tiihonen Möller 1 , H.P. Söndergaard 1 , T. Bäckström 2 , L. Helström 1 . 1 Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; 2 Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden Objectives: It is a well known fact that victims of rape encounter increased risk for re-traumatization and that psychiatric morbidity is common after rape. Rape has been found to be the trauma most commonly associated with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) among women. It is therefore important to be able to identify those women at greatest risk of developing PTSD. The aims of the present study were to analyze the PTSD prevalence six months after sexual assaults and identify the major risk factors for developing PTSD. Method: Participants were 317 female victims of rape who sought help at the Emergency Clinic for Raped Women at Stockholm South Hospital, Sweden. Baseline assessments of mental health were carried out and followed up after six months. Results: Thirty-nine percent of the women had developed PTSD at the six month assessment, and 47% suffered from moderate or severe depression. The major risk factors for PTSD were having been sexually assaulted by more than one person, suffering from acute stress disorder (ASD) shortly after the assault, having been exposed to several acts during the assault, having been injured, having co-morbid depression, and having a history of more than two earlier traumas. Further, ASD on its own was found to be a poor predictor of PTSD because of the substantial ceiling effect after sexual assaults. Conclusions: Development of PTSD is common in the aftermath of sexual assaults. Increased risk of developing PTSD is caused by a combination of victim vulnerability and the extent of the dramatic nature


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of the current assault. By identifying those women at greatest risk of developing PTSD appropriate therapeutic resources can be directed.

FCS14. Addressing Violence Against Women FCS14.1 DOMESTIC VIOLENCE IN PREGNANCY S. Pandey 1 , D. Awasthi 1 , A.S. Srivastava 2 , L. Pandey 2 . 1 Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Institute of Medical Sciences, Varanasi, UP, India; 2 Department of Psychiatry, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India Objectives: Domestic violence represents a serious public health issue. Women experience physical or mental abuse throughout their lifecycle. Pregnancy may increase the risk of violence, and the pattern of assault may alter, with pregnant women being more likely to have multiple sites of injury and to be struck on the abdomen. Method: A cross sectional study in Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology, University Hospital, Varanasi. The study population included 1000 pregnant women or in postpartum period. All interviews were conducted orally in an identical fashion by screening questions. The Abuse Assessment Screen (AAS) was used to identify cases of abuse. Data was analysized using SPSS software, Student T test and Chi square were used. Results: Out of 1000 women interviewed 290 reported domestic violence, 253 had psychological violence, 211 physical violence, 108 economic violence, and 197 sexual violence either alone or in combination. Higher incidence of domestic violence was found lower educational status 38.6%, no antenatal care 11%, working women 14.1%, lower socio-economic status 49.3%, multigravida 19.9%, husband working outside 42.2%, addiction 80.3%, STDs 24.4%, and no use of contraception 95.8%. There was higher incidence of complication of pregnancy, low birth weight, and miscarriages with domestic violence. Conclusions: By ensuring universal screening, identification and treatment of victims’ possible. Tough new laws are one way to reduce domestic violence and sexual assault. FCS14.2 EXPOSURE TO DISRESPECTFUL PATIENT CARE DURING TRAINING: DATA FROM MIDWIFERY STUDENTS AT 16 MIDWIFERY TRAINING SCHOOLS IN GHANA C.A. Moyer 1 , S. Rominski 1 , E.K. Nakua 2 , V.M. Dzomeku 2 , J.R. Lori 1 . of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA; 2 Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana

1 University

Objectives: Maltreatment during labor and delivery has been shown to be a significant barrier to increasing rates of facility-based delivery in low- and middle-income countries. Previous research has suggested that maltreatment is often perpetrated by older nurses, midwives, and providers who may not have learned alternative methods to encourage what they perceive to be appropriate behavior by laboring women. This study sought to determine what young midwifery trainees throughout Ghana were witnessing, perceiving, and learning with regard to respectful care during labor and delivery. Method: 16 public midwifery schools throughout Ghana agreed to participate in this study. Informed consent was obtained from second or third-year trainees at each school, after which they were asked to complete a self-administered computerized survey. All survey data were entered directly and anonymously into the computer using Sawtooth software with trained facilitators available to answer questions. Data were extracted for analysis using Stata 13.0. Frequencies and descriptive statistics were calculated, and bi-variate analyses were conducted using t-tests and Chi Square analyses. All p-values were set at p<0.05.

Results: 853 trainees completed the survey: 72.0% said maltreatment was a problem in Ghana and 77.4% said women are treated more respectfully in private vs. public facilities. Trainees reported witnessing providers: telling women to stop making noise (78.5%), shouting at women (68.8%), scolding women if they didn’t bring birth supplies (54.5%), treating educated/wealthy women better than less educated/poor women (41.5%/38.9%), and detaining women who couldn’t pay (37.9%). Trainees also reported providers being overworked (76.5%) and working without adequate resources (64.1%). Where students performed their clinical training was not associated with perceptions of maltreatment. Conclusions: A majority of midwifery students in training throughout Ghana are witnessing disrespectful care as a part of their midwifery education. While some attribute such treatment to providers working in under-resourced, stressful settings, it is clear that trainees perceive disrespectful care as a problem in facility deliveries. Policy implications include the need to address educational gaps in provider curricula addressing psychosocial elements of care, as well as the need to improve monitoring, accountability, and consequences for maltreatment within facilities. FCS14.3 SEXUAL AND PHYSICAL VIOLENCE IN CHILDHOOD IS ASSOCIATED WITH ADULT INTIMATE PARTNER VIOLENCE AND NON-PARTNER SEXUAL VIOLENCE IN A REPRESENTATIVE SAMPLE OF RURAL SOUTH AFRICANS S. Treves-Kagan 1 , A.M. El-Ayadi 2 , J.L. Morris 1 , J. Grignon 3,4 , L. Ntswane 4 , J.M. Gilvydis 5 , S. Barnhart 3 , S.A. Lippman 1 . 1 Center for AIDS Prevention Studies, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA; 2 Bixby Center for Global Reproductive Health, Dept. of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA; 3 Dept. of Global Health, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA; 4 International Training and Education Center for Health (I-TECH) South Africa, Pretoria, South Africa; 5 Global Action Consulting, Seattle, WA, USA Objectives: Intimate partner violence (IPV) and non-partner sexual violence is a significant public health issue in South Africa. The country also experiences high rates of physical and sexual violence against children. Theories on cycles of violence suggest that experiencing violence in childhood plays a role in propensity to perpetrate violence or vulnerability to be subjected to violence again. Most research to date on this topic has been conducted in high-resource countries or within delimited populations. We explore the relationship between violence in childhood and adulthood in a sample of 18–49 year old adults in rural South Africa. Method: We conducted a population-based survey (n=1044) using a multi-stage cluster sample in two sub-districts in Northwest Province in 2014. We measured childhood violence before age 15 (forced sexual touching, forced sex and serious physical violence) and IPV victimization and perpetration in the last 12 months, using a modified version of the WHO violence against women instrument. Experience of non-partner sexual violence since age 15 was also measured. The associations between exposure and outcome variables were evaluated with multivariate logistic regression, controlling for education and relationship status. All estimates are weighted to the sub-district population and stratified by gender. Results: More women (2.7%) than men (0.8%) reported childhood forced sex, whereas men reported higher rates of childhood physical violence (7.9% vs. 2%). Men and women reported similar rates of IPV (5.4% vs. 6.8%), IPV perpetration (4.8% vs. 3.3%), and non-partner forced sex (1.2% vs. 1.6%). For men, childhood forced touching was associated with IPV perpetration (AOR: 10.7; CI: 2.9–39.9). For women, childhood forced sex was associated with subsequent experience of IPV (AOR 5.02; CI: 1.1–22.9). Childhood sexual touching (AOR 40.7; CI: 5.1–322.1), forced sex (AOR 173.1; CI: 32.9–910.6) and physical

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violence (AOR 28; CI: 4.2–186.7) were all highly associated with nonpartner forced sex for women. Conclusions: Our findings support the theory that childhood experiences of violence can make individuals more vulnerable to violence and more likely to perpetrate violence as an adult. These results align with the literature from other settings and population groups. While our limited sample size precluded precise estimations of the magnitude of these relationships, our results from a low-income, rural community in South Africa contributes to a growing evidence-base. Longitudinal research is needed to explore factors that mediate this relationship, such as alcohol use and mental health, in order to help identify mechanisms to interrupt these cycles of violence. FCS14.4 RESPONDING TO THE RISK OF SEXUAL AND GENDER BASED VIOLENCE FOR ABDUCTED GIRLS FROM CHIBOK, NORTHEASTERN NIGERIA A. Isah 1 , J. Ruminjo 2 , F. Verani 2 , K. Beattie 2 . 1 EngenderHealth, Fistula Care Plus, Sokoto, Nigeria; 2 EngenderHealth, Fistula Care Plus, New York, USA Objectives: More than 200 girls and young women were abducted by an insurgent militant group in North Eastern Nigeria in April 2014. Additional intermittent abductions of smaller groups continued since then. There is great potential risk to them as well as their care givers in the community with regard to reproductive, social and mental health, as well as physical integrity and security. The objective of this activity was to map out the needs of the abductees and to help develop management guidelines to address the need. Method: EngenderHealth developed and implemented a rapid needs assessment tool for key individuals and institutions at the forefront of fighting sexual and gender-based violence in Nigeria. The Federal Ministry of Health then formed a collaborative national partnership“Chibok Girls Support Group” for key stakeholders. EngenderHealth worked with one of the Support Group sub- committees and developed algorithm that would guide healthcare providers in the management of escaped or rescued abductees, as well as a tracking tool, to document their socio-demographics and health status. Results: Through collaborative efforts with the Federal Ministry of Health and the Chibok Support Group Members (UNFPA, WHO, UNWOMEN, FHI360, IPAS, and others), EngenderHealth developed and produced two vital tools - “Algorithm for Providing Care Treatment and Referral” and “Tracking Tool”. It is expected that the tools will guide healthcare providers’ at various levels on proper documentation and management of survivors of sexual and gender- based violence in Nigeria and beyond. Conclusions: Many of the abductees are still in captivity, reportedly married off to the abductors. Even for the small proportion that have achieved freedom, access to mental, emotional and reproductive health in an ethical framework of privacy, confidentiality and quality services continues to be fraught with difficulties. However, these tools - alongside many other program and humanitarian interventions by Chibok Support Group members (and by the Government of Nigeria) - mark an important step in addressing the needs of the abductee Chibok girls and their communities. FCS14.5 FEMALE GENITAL MUTILATION: AFRICAN WOMEN SPEAK. A QUALITATIVE SYSTEMATIC REVIEW W. Elamin, A. Mason-Jones. University of York, York, UK Objectives: We aimed to synthesis evidence on the experiences of female genital mutilation on African women’s lives. The objective was to understand why female genital mutilation is continuously practised among African women and their daughters despite its hazardous effects.


Method: A systematic review of qualitative studies was conducted utilising a meta-ethnography approach. A number of electronic databases were used to identify studies for inclusion. EMBASE, Medline, Maternity and Infant Care, CINAHL, PsycINFO and the Social Sciences Citation Index were searched from January 1990 until June 2014. 17 qualitative papers matched the inclusion criteria and 727 circumcised women and girls were represented in these studies. The codes were manually coded and a conceptual framework was used to identity a final “line of argument”. Results: Marriage was reported to be the most important form of social and financial security for the women in these African societies. To help secure their daughter’s future parents, continued to support the practice. This is done in an effort to preserve their virginity and therefore marriageability. However in immigrant populations this perception changed over time. African Immigrant families began to accept and adopt western perspective where emphasis was placed on female education and offered the women job security. In these populations women felt more confident to speak out about its harmful effects. Conclusions: Interventions are needed that break the cycle of female genital mutilation in practising countries. However they need to consider the social aspects of the practise. FGM is a source of pride and a mark of honour for its people. Interventions shouldn’t victimise the local women. Implementing projects that offer young African girls opportunities where they no longer need to rely on male provision for survival, through marital ties, is a possible solution to the problem within the African countries. This would give women higher statuses within their society and gradually help the community acknowledge its harmful effects. FCS14.6 PHYSICAL INTIMATE PARTNER VIOLENCE AGAINST PREGNANT WOMEN F. Abdollahi 1 , F. Rezaie Abhari 2 , M. Agajani Delavar 3 . 1 Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran; 2 Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran; 3 Fatemezahra Infertility and Reproductive Health Research Center, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Babol, Iran Objectives: Intimate partner violence (IPV) in prenatal period is a global health problem among women. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of physical IPV during pregnancy, to identify characteristics associated, and to explore the impact of physical violence on pregnancy outcomes. Method: This study was a prospective cohort study of 1,461 pregnant women attending urban primary health care clinics in north Iran from February 2010 to September 2010. The modified standard World Health Organization Domestic Violence Questionnaire was used to classify pregnant women with domestic violence. The sociodemographic factors, reproductive history, and pregnancy outcome were assessed using face-to-face interview during pregnancy and after birth. Logistic regression was performed to analysis the data. Results: A total of 1461 pregnant women were selected using cluster sampling. Of these, 206 (14.1%) (CI=12.3–15.9) reported physical IPV during pregnancy. The adjusted odds ratio for physical IPV in women with lower educational status, decreased household income and living in rental house were significantly higher. After adjusting for suspected confounding factors, the women with a history of partner violence had 2.1 fold risk of abortion, a 1.6 fold risk of being premature rupture of membrane, and a 2.6 fold risk of low birth weight compared to women without partner violence. Conclusions: The results of this research may help inform primary healthcare centers about factors associated with physical IPV and gives some support to women with physical IPV during pregnancy.


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FCS14.7 FEMALE GENITAL MUTILATION: KNOWLEDGE, CONFIDENCE, AND APPROACH TO CARE IN CLINICAL PRACTICE OF MIDWIVES AND NURSES IN THE UK E. Nash, P. Ranka. Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Darlington Memorial Hospital, Darlington, County Durham, UK Objectives: The aim of this study was: (a) to assess medical, legal and safeguarding knowledge, and confidence of midwives and nurses (gynaecology, paediatrics, and the emergency department) in providing care for patients with Female Genital Mutilation (FGM); (b) to gain insight into whether these healthcare professionals feel adequately prepared by their training to help them fulfil their roles in managing patients with FGM - as set out by the UK Intercollegiate Guidelines; (c) to gauge the response of these healthcare professionals with their current training to clinical scenarios that they may face in practise. Method: An anonymous, structured questionnaire of 19 questions (medical, legal, safeguarding and clinical) was distributed to 75 midwives and nurses at a District General Hospital in the North East of England over 2 months, approved by the trust Research and Development Department. This was based on the UK Intercollegiate guidelines on FGM and a questionnaire previously distributed amongst UK Obstetrics and Gynaecology trainees. Paper and electronic copies were distributed to participants on the wards and subsequently collected. Data was then summarised by calculating percentages of individual responses and analysed using Pearson’s Chi-squared test. Qualitative data was analysed for themes and trends. Results: Of 72 completed questionnaires, 16 (22.2%) had cared for patients with FGM. 12 (16.7%) felt confident caring for patients, 4 (5.6%) felt sufficiently trained, and 56 (77.8%) would inform a child protection officer of a child at risk. Of all participants, 58 (80.6%) were aware that FGM is completely illegal in the UK. Health sequeale identified included: chronic pain (94.4%), difficulty passing urine & faeces (90.3%), HIV & hepatitis (73.6%), pelvic infection (88.9%) and post-traumatic stress disorder (94.4%). 2 (2.8%) participants correctly identified all sequeale. Conclusions: Fear and anxiety surrounding admission to hospital in women with FGM is exacerbated by lack of confidence in their care, including perceptions of insensitivity and incompetence of healthcare professionals. Our results demonstrate lack of knowledge and confidence of frontline healthcare professionals surrounding FGM. Available guidelines will not facilitate effective care without integration of the subject into basic training providing the skills to implement these guidelines. Poor quality care after FGM may lead to catastrophic consequences. It is imperative that the curriculum of these frontline healthcare professionals is developed to equip them with the necessary skills to care for these women. FCS14.8 AUDIO COMPUTER-ASSISTED SELF-INTERVIEWING (ACASI) METHOD TO DETERMINE PREVALENCE OF INTIMATE PARTNER VIOLENCE AMONG LATINA WOMEN IN A LOW INCOME CLINIC IN NEW YORK CITY V. Ades 1 , K. Mendez 1 , L. Duenas-Bianchi 2 , N. Ryan 2 . 1 NYU Langone Medical Center, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, New York, NY, USA; 2 New York Univeristy, New York, NY, USA Objectives: Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a known public health concern and growing problem. Prevalence may be higher within Latino communities than the general population, which has a number of barriers to reporting IPV. The objective of this study is to determine the prevalence of intimate partner violence among Latina women at Gouverneur Health using ACASI, and to elicit reasons why women do not report domestic violence. Method: Subjects were approached in the waiting room of a women’s

health clinic of Gouverneur Health, a Medicaid and low-income clinic in New York City. A research assistant demonstrated use of the ACASI on an iPad, which included simple yes/no questions and read the questions aloud as well as displayed them on a screen. Subjects were anonymous and filled out the questionnaire independently. Data was collected automatically from the iPad questionnaire using Google analytics into a csv database, and analyzed using Stata v.13. Results: Physical violence by a current partner has occurred for 16.7%, while 55.5% reporting physical violence by a part partner, though only 37.5% characterized this as physical abuse. Past sexual abuse was reported by 37.5%. Most common reasons for not reporting to a doctor included concerns about being judged and hope that the situation would improve, though 57.1% said that they would have reported if asked. Common reasons for not reporting to police include concerns about being judged, fears about deportation, and financial concerns for the family. Forty percent reported knowing a friend or family member who suffers from domestic violence. Conclusions: Prevalence of intimate partner violence is high, though women may not recognize certain acts by their partners as physical, emotional or sexual abuse. Women would like to report to an authority figure like a doctor, but concerns about being judged by others, as well as practical concerns of deportation and financial concerns, prevent them from reporting the abuse. The ACASI method is a feasible and acceptable method of screening for domestic violence.

FCS15. Antenatal and Postnatal Care FCS15.1 CLINICAL PROTOCOLS AND POLICY FORMULATION FOR MISOPROSTOL USE IN AJK, BALOCHISTAN, KP AND FATA S. Shahzad, F. Naz. Mercy Corps, Pakistan, Pakistan Objectives: The objective is to develop clinical protocols and policy formulation for the use of Misoprostol in Pakistan, as no policy guideline and clinical protocols were available in the country in order to implement its usage. Pakistan has very high MMR 276 per 100,000 with 39% deliveries conducted by SBA. Accessibility of MCH care and emergency obstetric services is important factor of maternal mortality in Pakistan. In Pakistan estimated 890,000 induced abortions are performed annually; with many serious health complications as a result of unsafe abortions. 27% maternal deaths occur due to PPH and most of which can be prevented. Method: Mercy corps engaged policy and opinion makers at provincial and district level for the development and endorsement of policy and clinical protocols on the use of Misoprostol with the funding RAF. Process of consultation was initiated after formation of Technical Working Groups (TWGs). The process was participatory in nature and several meeting were held including face to face meeting which were augmented by document exchanges. Comments were sought from all stakeholders regarding these documents. Final draft of the protocols and policy recommendations were approved by TWG and submitted to MNCH Provincial Steering Committees and DG health for final approval. Results: The main recommendations of the policy formulation for Misoprostol included: 1. Putting PPH and PAC in overall health strategy of AJK, Balochistan, KP & FATA and development of essential health services packages for all levels of health care delivery. 2. Inclusion of Misoprostol in Essential Drug List and ensuring the budgetary allocation for purchase of Misoprostol. 3. Comprehensive trainings of health workers for safe and effective use of Misoprostol for the prevention and treatment of PPH and PAC. Conclusions: 1. Disseminating clinical protocols and guidelines for all levels of

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health service delivery and mandatory trainings of community health workers. 2. Ensuring consistent supplies of Misoprostol at primary health level through LHVs in BHUs and CMWs in the community setting. 3. Building community awareness and encouraging community participation for prevention and treatment of PPH and for PAC. 4. Appropriate packaging of Misoprostol to ensure correct usage and clear mentioning of side effects of the drug must be maintained by the pharmaceuticals. Marketing ethics pharmaceuticals is important so as to strictly discourage the misuse of Misoprostol for inducing abortions. FCS15.2 POSTPARTUM HEMORRHAGE SECONDARY TO PSEUDOANEURYSM OF THE UTERINE ARTERY – A CASE REPORT V.M. Lim, T. Elio. St. Luke’s Medical Center, Quezon City, The Philippines Objectives: In the Philippines, there is only one reported case of delayed postpartum hemorrhage due to ruptured uterine artery pseudoaneurysm. Thus, experience with these kinds of vascular abnormalities is limited in any single institution. We present such a case with immediate results. Method: A case report of a 26-year old Gravida 2 Para 1 (1011) eight weeks post cesarean section with profuse vaginal bleeding. After resuscitation, transvaginal ultrasonography with color doppler and Pelvic Angiography were done with subsequent Superselective Coil Embolization of the left uterine artery. Post-operatively, repeat transvaginal ultrasonography with color doppler done to monitor the presence/persistence of the uterine artery pseudoaneurysm. Results: Transvaginal ultrasonography with color doppler revealed arterio-venous malformation of the cervix with note of high arterial pulsations. Pelvic angiography revealed brisk contrast extravasation and contrast pooling at the fundal branch of the left uterine artery consistent with pseudoaneurysm for which she underwent superselective coil embolization of the left uterine artery. Repeat transvaginal ultrasonography with color doppler after one week showed absence of arterial pulsations on the cervical echogenicity. Follow-up transvaginal ultrasound five weeks after embolization on the third day of menses revealed previously noted hypoechoic structure no longer appreciated. Conclusions: Uterine artery pseudoaneurysm still remains to be a rare cause of unexplained postpartum hemorrhage, which requires a high index of clinical suspicion for diagnosis. Pelvic angiography and subsequent left uterine artery pseudoaneurysm coil embolization was performed successfully in the case presented, with no shortterm complications and regular menses resuming after five weeks. Hence, the diagnostic and therapeutic treatment of choice is still pelvic angiography with embolization. However in hemodynamically unstable patients, a life-saving hysterectomy should be done. FCS15.3 FACILITATORS AND BARRIERS TO UTILISE THE ANTENATAL CARE CLINIC IN SUB SAHARAN AFRICA S. Singh, D. Nnadi. Usmanu Danfodiyo University Teaching Hospital, Sokoto, Sokoto State, Nigeria Objectives: To determine facilitators and barriers for the utilization of ANC clinic in Usmanu Danfodiyo University Teaching Hospital Sokoto. Method: In a descriptive cross-sectional study, information was obtained (utilizing a semi-structured questionnaire) from 270 pregnant women selected from the Antenatal Clinic (ANC) of UDUTH. Data analysis was done using frequency table and Chi-square statistic test was used to explore associations. Level of significance was p<0.05. Results: Mean age of respondents was 27.63±6. 516 years, 56.6% were among the age group 25 to 34 years. Majority of the respon-


dents (80%) had formal education while 56.7% were housewives who were not gainfully employed. About two third respondents were multipara. The main facilitator was the positive attitudes of the health personnel. However, the main barriers for the utilization of the facility were long waiting periods to see the doctor 66.7% of respondents. About 40% of the women also commented on toilet facility and cleanness and the distance to the facility as a barrier. Conclusions: Majority of respondents assessed the overall quality of care received as satisfactory; the barrier to utilization of facility is the length of time spent and poor facility in the ANC. FCS15.4 PERINATAL MORBIDITY AND MORTALITY FOR EXTREMELY LOW-BIRTH-WEIGHT INFANTS: A POPULATION-BASED STUDY OF REGIONALIZED MATERNAL AND NEONATAL TRANSPORT M. Kaneko, R. Yamashita, K. Kai, N. Yamada, H. Sameshima, T. Ikenoue. University of Miyazaki, Miyazaki, Japan Objectives: The aim of this study was to clarify the mortality and long-term outcomes of extremely low-birth-weight infants according to the process of maternal or infant transport and indications for maternal transport. Method: We conducted a population-based study between 2005 and 2009. The collected data included the process and indications for maternal or neonatal transport, and the prognosis of extremely lowbirth-weight infants. We used the Mann-Whitney U test, the KruskalWallis test followed by the post-hoc paired t-test according to the Dunn procedure, and a Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and the logrank test in statisticl analysis. Results: The subjects included 195 infants from 189 mothers following 50,632 deliveries. Thirty two infants died and 33 infants had handicaps. The rates of mortality and handicaps among the infants in the maternal transport were 15.2% and 23.2%, respectively, compared to 25% and 44%, respectively, in the neonatal transport. There were no differences in the prognosis of the infants according to the process of maternal transport. There were no differences in the cumulative survival rates based on the institution. The incidence of a poor prognosis was higher among the infants born from mothers transported to the tertiary center due to bulging membranes. Conclusions: The morbidity and mortality of extremely low-birthweight infants demonstrated a low incidence following the regionalization of high-risk pregnancies in our region. Further reductions in severe neonatal morbidities may depend on reducing the rate of neonatal transport. FCS15.5 DOES CERVICAL CERCLAGE AFFECT THE RATE OF CAESAREAN SECTION? I. Babic, F. Washahi, M. AlNemer. King Faisal Specialist Hospital & Research Center, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Objectives: We sought to determine the relationship between cervical cerclage and delivery by Caesarean section in general and secondary due to cervical dystocia. Method: This is a retrospective cohort study of patients who were high risk for preterm birth and some of them underwent cervical cerclage and others did not, over a six year period (January 2006- December 2011) in settings of major tertiary referral center, King Faisal Specialist Hospital & Research Center, Saudi Arabia. Results: Our study included 144 women who underwent cerclage and 152 who had no cerclage. There was significant difference in the overall emergency Caesarean sections between the groups (RR 2.02, 95% CI: 1.33–3.07). Cervical dystocia as an indication for emergency Caesarean section was more prevalent in cerclage group (RR 3.08, 95% CI: 0.81–11.61). BMI has no significant impact on the rate of emergency Caesarean section for cervical dystocia in cerclage group.


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Primigravida women with cerclage had a significantly higher rate of emergency Caesarean section and these decrease as the number of pregnancies increase (p<0.05). Conclusions: In our study we found that women who underwent cervical cerclage had higher risk of emergency Caesarean section in general. We did not find positive correlation between cervical dystocia and cerclage. Low parity may play important factor in higher rate of caesarean section after cerclage. As the parity increases, the risk for surgical delivery decreases. BMI has no influence on caesarean section rate in pregnancies with cerclage. Whether cerclage indeed influence the rate of cervical dystocia should be further evaluated by larger studies. FCS15.6 DIAGNOSTIC PERFORMANCE OF TRANSABDOMINAL VERSUS TRANSVAGINAL SONOGRAPHY IN DETECTING SHORT CERVIX K. Kongwattanakul, P. Saksiriwuttho, R. Komwilaisak, J. Thinkhamrop, P. Lumbiganon. Dept. of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand Objectives: To determine the diagnostic performance of transabdominal sonography compared with transvaginal sonography in the second trimester for detecting short cervix in general obstetric population. Method: This prospective cohort study evaluated a 307 pregnant women between 18 to 23 weeks and 6 days who attended antenatal care were offered ultrasound scan to screen for fetal anomaly and approached to participate transabdominal and transvaginal cervical length measurements were carried out by a single experienced sonographer. The correlation of both measurements and diagnostic performance of transabdominal sonography for detecting cases with a cervical length ≤2.5 cm were evaluated. Results: The diagnostic performance of transabdominal measurement when using cut-off point of ≤2.5 cm for detecting short cervix (≤2.5 cm) on transvaginal ultrasound was 100% sensitivity (95% CI: 69.2%–100%), 99.3% (95% CI: 97.6%–99.9%) specificity, 83.3% (95% CI: 51.6%–97.9%) positive predictive value (PPV) and 100% negative predictive value (95% CI: 98.8%–100%). The mean of transabdominal cervical length was 3.33 cm (SD 0.46 cm) and the mean transvaginal cervical length was 3.46 cm (SD 0.49 cm). The 5th percentile transabdominal cervical length was 2.6 cm and the transvaginal cervical length was 2.7 cm. The mean difference of measurement was 0.14 cm and the correlation coefficient being 0.92 (P <0.01). Conclusions: Transabdominal sonography assessment had high performance compared to transvaginal sonography and could be used initially for cervical length screening together with fetal anomalies screening. Then, if transabdominal cervical length is more than 2.5 cm, it is very unlikely to be short cervix and no need to measure transvaginal sonography and transvaginal sonography could be confirmed if the cervical length less than 2.5 cm or not clearly visualisation.

FCS16. Antenatal and Postnatal Care FCS16.1 THE TOCOLYTIC ROLE OF NIFEDIPINE IN PREVENTING PRETERM LABOUR PAIN: A STUDY IN A DEVELOPING COUNTRY LIKE BANGLADESH I. Bina. Khalishpur Clinic, Khalishpur, Khulna, Bangladesh Objectives: This study was undertaken to evaluate the efficacy of oral nifedipine to reduce preterm labour pain, to complete the doses of steroids in lung maturity and in utero transfer to Neonatal Intencive Care Unit (NICU), and also to evalute maternal adverse effects if the medicine and neonatal outcome.

Method: Diagnosed cases of preterm labour (between 24 to 34 weeks) were randomly selected. Among those 200 patients were given oral nifedipine (n=200) and 200 patients were observed with placebo (n=200). There were no significant differences in age, race, parity, pretem delivery risk factors between the two groups. At first the labour pain was monitored through Contonuous CTG in first hour, then intermittent CTG was done. Results: The patients in the nifedipine group can prolong the pregnancy time 36.0±3.2 weeks than 30.6±3.1 weeks in the control group (p<0.05), as well as neonatal admission to NICU with reduced neonatal morbidity and mortality. Conclusions: Oral nofedipine used as tocolytic therapy in patients with preterm labour pain has significantly prolonged pregnancy with fewer neonatal problems and lesser maternal adverse effects. FCS16.2 IMPROVING THE QUALITY OF ANTENATAL CARE USING A MOBILE APPLICATION F. Jega 1 , M. McNabb 2 , H. Salami 1 , Y. Ojo 1 . 1 Pathfinder International, Abuja, FCT, Nigeria; 2 Pathfinder International, Watertown, MA, USA Objectives: To assess the effects of using a mobile decision support tool on the quality of antenatal care (ANC) services rendered. Method: In 2012, Pathfinder built a mobile application that guides health workers through ANC protocols and collects client data in real-time, with embedded health education audio-clips for standardized counseling. Ten facilities were equipped with phones/tablets and 150 community health extension workers (CHEWs) trained to use the app. Pre-intervention exit interviews were conducted with 266 clients aged 18+ attending their first ANC visit. Endline exit interviews were conducted with the same sample size one year after the intervention began. A 25-indicator quality score covering technical and counseling elements of ANC was developed and data was analyzed to assess change in overall score. Results: Overall, the ANC quality score increased from 13.3 at baseline to 17.2 at endline (p<0.0001), out of a total possible score of 25, with the most significant improvements related to health counseling. For technical elements, the quality score increased from 7.77 at baseline to 8.44 (p<0.0001). The health education domain of the quality score had the highest increase from 5.45 to 8.67 points (p<0.001). Conclusions: Introducing a decision support ANC mobile application had a significant positive impact on the quality of ANC offered by CHEWs in Nigeria. Further research using a more rigorous experimental design will allow determination of the impacts of the application on health outcomes. FCS16.3 A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY OF FACTORS AFFECTING THE SUCCESS RATE OF EXTERNAL CEPHALIC VERSION (ECV) AT BASE HOSPITAL POINT PEDRO, SRI LANKA S. Sheyamalan. Base Hospital Point Pedro, Point Pedro, Northern Province, Sri Lanka Objectives: With the publication of term breech trial caesarean section incidence for breech presentation has increased markedly. Successful ECV may half the incidence of non-cephalic presentation at delivery. This study was conducted to assess the success rate of ECV against variables such as age, parity, body mass index (BMI), gestational age, type of tocolytic usage, technique of ECV, estimated fetal weight (EFW) and placental location by ultrasound scan. Method: It is a retrospective observational study at obstetric unit of Base Hospital Point Pedro, Sri Lanka for 2 years from January 2013 to January 2015. Data were collected in a data collection sheet from patient records of 49 mothers. Data were analysed by Student’s Ttest for continuous variables and by Chi-Squad/Fisher’s exact test for categorical variables.

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Results: Of the 49 ECV procedures, 22 (44.8%) were successful and among the successful cases 20 mothers (91%) delivered by vaginal birth. There was no significant effect of nulliparity (P=0.08) or age of the mother (P=0.97) on ECV success rate. However, the success rate was significantly lower in mothers with BMI >25 (P=0.047). Gestational week (P=0.52) or EFW (P=0.53) did not have any significant impact on ECV success. Neither nifedipine nor salbutamol had a superior effect among each other on ECV success. Similarly, the success rate was not significantly altered by placental location (P=0.68) or by the technique of ECV (P=0.1). Conclusions: Success rate ECV appeared to be more promising and reversion rate was very low. High BMI (>25) had a negative influance on ECV success while other factors had no significant effect. There were no immediate maternal or fetal complications after ECV except one case of cord prolapse with the onset of labour 3 weeks after successful ECV. ECV is a very safe procedure and the practise should be continued including amniotic volume and attitude of breech as additional variables in future studies. FCS16.4 RECURRENT OBSTETRIC MANAGEMENT MISTAKES IDENTIFIED BY SIMULATION E.A. Abdelhafid. Montreal University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada Objectives: To develop a simulation-based curricular unit for labor and delivery teams involved in obstetric emergencies to detect and address common mistakes. Method: A simulation-based curricular unit for hands-on training of four obstetric emergency scenarios was developed using high-tech mannequins and low-tech simulators. The scenarios were eclamptic seizure, postpartum hemorrhage, shoulder dystocia, and breech extraction. The obstetric teams consisted of at least one resident and two midwives. Checklists of actions expected from the teams were handed out to the course’s tutors who observed the “event”. All sessions were videotaped and then reviewed and analyzed by the trainees themselves, who were guided by two experienced tutors. We identified the most commonly occurring mistakes by summing up checklists and by watching the recorded sessions. Results: Between February 2010 and April 2014, 60 residents in obstetrics and gynecology and 88 midwives underwent the simulationbased course. Forty-two labor and delivery teams completed all four sessions. The most common management errors were delay in transporting the bleeding patient to the operating room (82%), unfamiliarity with prostaglandin administration to reverse uterine atony (82%), poor cardiopulmonary resuscitation techniques (80%), inadequate documentation of shoulder dystocia (80%), delayed administration of blood products to reverse consumption coagulopathy (66%), and inappropriate avoidance of episiotomy in shoulder dystocia and breech extraction (32%). Conclusions: A curricular unit based on simulation of obstetric emergencies can identify pitfalls of management in labor and delivery rooms that need to be addressed. FCS16.5 PREINDUCTION CERVICAL RIPENING: A PROSPECTIVE RANDOMISED COMPARISON OF INTRACERVICAL FOLEY CATHETER VERSUS PGE2 GEL S. Deo. K.G.Medical university, Lucknow, UP, India Objectives: Aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of intracervical foley catheter and PGE 2 gel in preinduction cervical ripening for successful induction of labour. Method: A randomised prospective study conducted in Deptt of Ob/Gyn, KGMU Lucknow India. Inclusion criteria was term singleton gestation, cephalic presentation, & Bishop score <6. Exclusion criteria was PROM, placenta praevia. Each woman was randomly as-


signed to receive transcervical foleycatheter or PGE2 gel (dinoprostone). Women assigned to transcervical foley catheter, a 16 F Foley catheter with 30 mL balloon inserted into the endocervical canal. The women assigned to PGE2 gel, received maximum of 3 doses of PGE2 gel in post fornix once every 6 hours. After 6 and 12 hours post induction bishop score was noted. Results: 206 women enrolled & two excluded because of deviation from entry criteria. According to randomization, all women divided into two groups. Group I (n=100) received Foley catheter, Group II (n=104) received PGE2 gel (Dinoprostone). No significant difference in mean age, parity, gestational age, Bishop score at entry seen. Both group showed changes in bishop score after 6 hours & 12 hours. It was 5.87+1.27 (6hr), 7.12+1.60 (12hrs). In Group I and in Group II it was 4.97+1.33 (6hrs) & 6.79+1.34 (12hrs) respectively (p<0.001). Mean induction to delivery time was in group I 19.16=+2.12 hours as compared to Group II it was 20.16+1.22hrs (p<0.001). Conclusions: Cervical ripening with foley catheter has the advantage of low cost, simple, safe and lack of systemic and serious side effects and has significant effect on ripening of cervix. FCS16.6 PREVALENCE OF POSTNATAL DYSPAREUNIA AND ASSOCIATION OF SHORT-TERM AND PERSISTING DYSPAREUNIA WITH MODE OF DELIVERY E. McDonald 1 , D. Gartland 1 , R. Small 3 , S. Brown 1,2 . 1 Murdoch Childrens Research Institute, Parkville, Victoria, Australia; 2 General Practice and Primary Health Care Academic Centre, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia; 3 Judith Lumley Centre, La Trobe University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia Objectives: To investigate the association between mode of delivery, perineal trauma and dyspareunia at 6 and 18 months postpartum in a prospective pregnancy cohort of 1244 women. Method: 1507 nulliparous women were recruited in the first and second trimester of pregnancy from six maternity hospitals in Melbourne, Australia. 1244 women completed the baseline and all postnatal questionnaires (3, 6, 12 and 18 months). Data were analysed using descriptive statistics and univariable and multivariable logistic regression assessing the association of mode of delivery with dyspareunia. Results: 1244/1507 (83%) women completed the baseline and all four postpartum questionnaires to 18 months postpartum. 961/1122 (86%) experienced pain during the first vaginal sex after childbirth. At 6 months postpartum 496/1144 (43%) reported dyspareunia. By 18 months postpartum 289/1211 (24%) women reported dyspareunia. Compared to women who had a spontaneous vaginal delivery with an intact perineum or unsutured tear, women who had an emergency caesarean section (aOR 2.41, 95% CI 1.4–4.0; p=0.001) or vacuum extraction (aOR 2.28, 95% CI 1.3–4.1; p=0.005) had increased odds of reporting dyspareunia at 18 months postpartum, adjusting for maternal age and other potential confounders. Conclusions: Obstetric intervention is associated with persisting dyspareunia to 18 months postpartum. Greater recognition and increased understanding of the role of mode of delivery and perineal trauma in contributing to postpartum maternal morbidities, and ways to prevent postpartum dyspareunia where possible, is warranted. FCS16.7 PREDICTORS OF POSTPARTUM ANAEMIA AMONG RURAL WOMEN IN UGANDA S. Ononge 1 , F. Mirembe 1 , O. Campbell 2 . 1 Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda; 2 London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, London, UK Objectives: To determine magnitude and factors associated with


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postpartum anaemia (Hb<12.0 g/dl) in women in Mpigi, Uganda. Method: We assessed Hb levels of 1406 women in the postpartum period (within 6 weeks after delivery) who had participated in a trial of antenatal distribution of misoprostol (for self-administration after home birth or when oxytocin is not available). Women were administered a questionnaire and their blood haemoglobin was examined using portable HemoCueR Hb 301 system. Predictors of postpartum anaemia were estimated using linear and logistic regression analysis. Results: The mean Hb was 11.4 (+1.76) g/dl and prevalence of anaemia (Hb<12.0 g/dl) was 60.2% (95% CI 57.6%, 62.8%). After adjusting for measured confounders, factors associated with increased risk of postpartum anaemia were prenatal anaemia (OR: 2.27, 95% CI: 1.74, 2.94), Human Immuno-deficiency Virus infection (OR: 1.74, 95% CI: 1.15, 2.65) excessive bleeding at birth (OR: 1.71, 95% CI: 1.06, 2.75) and caesarean section delivery (OR: 2.11, 95% CI: 1.26, 3.52). Conclusions: The high prevalence of anaemia in pregnancy in our setting highlights the need to put more effort in the fight against prenatal anaemia and HIV, and also ensure that pregnant women access uterotonic at birth for postpartum haemorrhage prevention.

FCS17. Antenatal and Postnatal Care FCS17.1 EFFECT OF ANTENATAL PERINEAL MASSAGE ON PERINEAL TRAUMA DURING CHILDBIRTH IN ENUGU, NIGERIA: A RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL E. Ugwu 1 , E. Iferikigwe 2 , S. Obi 1 . 1 Department of Obstetrics/Gynaecology, University of Nigeria Enugu Campus/University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Ituku/Ozalla, Enugu, Enugu state, Nigeria; 2 Department of Obstetrics/Gynaecology, University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Ituku/Ozalla, Enugu, Enugu state, Nigeria Objectives: The study was aimed at evaluating the effectiveness of antenatal perineal massage at reducing perineal trauma during childbirth. The specific objectives were to evaluate the effectiveness of antenatal perineal massage at reducing the rate of episiotomy, spontaneous perineal tear and postpartum faecal and/or flatus incontinence. Method: A randomized controlled trial of 108 primigravidae at the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu, Nigeria, was conducted from January 2013 to May 2014. The intervention group received antenatal perineal massage while the control group did not receive antenatal perineal massage. Statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) computer software version 16 was used for data analyses. Continuous and categorical data were compared using Student’s t test and Fisher’s exact test, respectively. Relationships were expressed using relative risks and confidence intervals. All tests were two sided, and statistical significance was considered to be at probability value of <0.05. Results: The intervention group was more likely to have intact perineum after childbirth: 27 (27/53) versus 29.1% (16/55); RR: 1.75, [95% C.I: 1.07–2.86; p=0.02]. Similarly, the incidence of episiotomy was less in the intervention group: 37.7% (20/53) versus 58.2% (32/55); RR: 0.65, [95% CI: 0.43–0.98; p=0.03; NNT = 3]. Furthermore, women in the intervention group were less likely to develop flatus incontinence after childbirth: 8.3% (4/53) versus 26.0% (13/55); RR: 0.32, [95% CI; 0.1123–0.9114; p=0.03]. However, the incidence of premature rupture of membranes, pre-term labour, and birth asphyxia were similar between the two groups. Conclusions: Antenatal perineal massage reduces the incidence of episiotomy and increases the incidence of women with intact perineum after vaginal delivery without increased maternal or neonatal complications. Women should therefore be counselled on the likely benefits of antenatal perineal massage and the information on the procedure provided during antenatal care. Obstetricians should consider the technique as routine prenatal care for primigravidae so as

to reduce the incidence of perineal trauma after vaginal birth in this group of women in our environment. FCS17.2 EFFECT OF OLIVE OIL ON NULLIPAROUS’ STRIAE GRAVIDARUM DURING 18th–40th WEEKS OF PREGNANCY: A RANDOMIZED CLINICAL TRIAL S. Taavoni 1,2 , F. Soltanipour 2 , H. Haghani 2 , H. Ansarin 2 . 1 PhD Student in Medical Education, Faculty of Medicine Tehran University of Medical Sciences, (TUMS), Tehran, Iran; 2 Senior Lecturer, Iran University of Medical Sciences (IUMS), Tehran, Iran; 3 Researcher, Research Institute for Islamic & Complementary Medicine (RICM, IUMS), Tehran, Iran Background Striae gravidarum (SG) major etiology is unknown, its rate arising during pregnancy with a high prevalence of %50- %90 and it may result lack of self- confidence, and personal perceptions of sexuality. There are many requests for its prevention and treatment. Objective: To evaluate effect of olive oil on occurrence of striae gravidarum during 18–40 weeks. Method: This is a randomized clinical trial. 100 healthy volunteer nulliparous, with age 20–30, (50 subjects in each group) were enrolled in their 18th to 20th week of gestation till 38th–40th week. Study groups divided to experimental group (using twice in day olive oil on abdominal area skin without massage) and control group. The questionnaire was completed via interview, observation and taking photo. All ethical points were considered. Results: The rate of SG at the end of the second quarter of pregnancy was 45.7% in intervention group and 62.9% in control group but referring to Chi-square test there were no significant difference. Also at the end of 38–40 weeks SG occurred in 72% of participants, which were mild, moderate, and severe in 32%, 26%, and 6% and in 60% of control group, which were mild, moderate, and severe in 22%, 24%, and 14%. Although rate of severe SG in Olive group were less than control group, there were no significant differences between two groups. Conclusions: This study showed that olive oil did not have any role in reducing of stria gravidarum. While there are few studies investigating olive oil as a preventing element for striae, just one retrospective study mentioned about its Positive effect. Acknowledgments: The authors would like to thank Research chancellor of Tehran University of Medical Sciences for support and grants of this study. FCS17.3 PERINATAL VARIABLES AND ASSOCIATION WITH VERY LOW BIRTHWEIGHT NEWBORNS IN A BRAZILIAN HOSPITAL E.A. Figueiró-Filho, C. Munaretto-Ferreira, V.M. Oliveira. Faculty of Medicine - Federal University of Mato Grosso do Sul (FAMED/UFMS), Campo Grande, MS, Brazil Objectives: The aim of the study was to investigate the association of perinatal variables with the birth of very low birth weight preterm newborns. Method: A retrospective study was undertaken based on data collected from clinical records of infants born after spontaneous preterm labor in the period from January 2003 to June 2017. Preterm infants were divided in very low birth weight (VLBW) group (weight <1,500 g) and low birth weight (LBW) group (weight ≥1,500 g and <2,500 g). The variables: maternal complications during pregnancy, childbirth/peripartum and fetal/neonatal complications were analyzed using the chi-square (χ2 ) test with the Yates correction or Fisher’s Exact Test; and the Student t test for comparison of group means; P<0.05 was considered significant. Results: Hemorrhagic comorbidities (P<0.05; RR 1.2) and hypertension (P<0.05; RR 1.5), surgical delivery (P=0.001; RR=0.5), gestational

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age <33 weeks (P<0.001; RR 16.7) and Apgar score at 1st and 5th minute (P<0.05; RR 1.6; P<0.05; RR 1.9) were associated with the occurrence of VLBW. Infants with VLBW had a significant association with the occurrence of metabolic comorbidities (P<0.05; RR 1.8), neurological (P<0.05; RR 1.7) and infectious diseases (P=0.001; RR 1.9), hospitalization >4 weeks (P<0.05; RR 1.8) and early neonatal death (P<0.001; RR 2.9). Conclusions: Hypertension and bleeding comorbidities during delivery and gestational age of less than 33 weeks were associated with the birth of VLBW newborns. This group of infants also showed higher RR for the occurrence of early neonatal death. FCS17.4 UMBILICAL CORD COILING INDEX IN WOMEN OF SOUTH-EASTERN NIGERIA P. Feyi-Waboso 1 , L. Omo-Aghoja 2 . 1 Abia State University, Uturu/ Southeast, Nigeria; 2 Delta State University, Abraka/Southsouth, Nigeria Objectives: Abnormal Umbilical Cord Coiling Index (UCI) is associated with adverse pregnancy and perinatal outcomes. This study was therefore conceptualized to determine the UCI values of parturients, and to identify the clinicodemographic variables and associated pregnancy outcomes in those at risk of having an abnormal UCI, as it is believed that this will help identify relevant interventions that will improve pregnancy and perinatal outcomes. Method: It was a cross-sectional comparative study undertaken over a six months period in a Nigerian tertiary hospital to determine the appropriate UCI values for parturients of Aba and neighboring states of South-Eastern Nigeria in West Africa. Results: The mean UCI for normal pregnancies was 0.13+ 0.06. The 10th and 90th percentile UCI values were 0.06coils/cm and 0.21 respectively. The prevalence of abnormal UCI was 19.8% and 80.2% were normocioiled. There was preponderance of hypercoiling (7.8%) and hypocoiling (7.8%) as compared to the non-coiled cases (4.2%). Abnormal UCI is strongly predictive of caesarean section (OR= 4.33 [0.24–79.59]), PROM (OR=4.09 [2.22–7.53]), retained placenta (OR=3.74 [1.89–7.4]), and PPH (OR=3.63 [45–9.17]). Other are maternal weight >90kg (OR=2.64 [1.37–5.06]), fetal death (OR=2.35 [0.87– 7.54]) and ABD (OR=1.82 [0.71–4.69]). GDM and hypertension’s significant association in the univariate model were attenuated on logistic regression analysis. Conclusions: The mean UCI was 0.13+ 0.06 and the 10th and 90th percentile values were 0.06coils/cm and 0.21coils/cm respectively, and these are lower than the previously reported values for both normal and complicated pregnancies. Adverse pregnancy and perinatal outcomes are associated with abnormal values of UCI. FCS17.5 CALCIUM SUPPLEMENTATION PROGRAM FOR PREVENTION OF PRE-ECLAMPSIA AND ECLAMPSIA LOOKING AT COVERAGE, COMPLIANCE, ACCEPTABILITY AND FEASIBILITY IN A HILL DISTRICT OF NEPAL K. Thapa, H. Sanghvi, B. Rawlins. Jhpiego, Kathmandu, Nepal Objectives: The primary objective of this operations research study was to assess the coverage, compliance, acceptability and feasibility achieved by the antenatal calcium supplementation program for the prevention of pre-eclampsia and eclampsia in one hill district of Nepal. Method: Capacity was built among antenatal care providers to distribute calcium to pregnant women after completion of the third month of pregnancy. A post-intervention cluster household survey was conducted among women who had given birth in the last six months (recently delivered women) in the intervention district. Secondary data analysis was performed using monitoring data from health facilities and female community health volunteers (FCHVs).


Results: A total of 1,240 recently delivered women were interviewed. 94.6% attended at least one ANC visit and received calcium. Full course of calcium (1gm daily for 150 days) was provided to 82.3%. Full compliance was 67.3% of calcium recipients. Significant predictors of completing a full course were gestational age at first ANC visit and number of ANC visits during their most recent pregnancy (p<0.01). 99.2% reported they took it as instructed with respect to dose, timing and frequency. Over 97% of reported their willingness to recommend calcium to others, and would like to use it during a subsequent pregnancy. Conclusions: Calcium distribution through ANC was feasible and effective, achieving 94.6% calcium coverage of pregnant women in the district. Around 80% women attended ANC early enough in pregnancy to receive the full course and benefit from the intervention. High coverage, compliance, acceptability among pregnant women and feasibility were reported, suggesting this intervention can be scaled up through ANC in other areas of Nepal. FCS17.6 DOES OBESITY CONFER A RISK OF LOW SERUM PROGESTERONE LEVEL IN EARLY PREGNANCY? A PROSPECTIVE COHORT STUDY T.C. Tan 1,2 , S. He 2 , J.Y. Goh 3 , J.C. Allen 4 , R. Malhotra 5 . 1 KK Women’s and Children’s Hospital, Singapore, Singapore; 2 Duke-National University of Singapore Graduate Medical School, Singapore, Singapore; 3 Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore; 4 Office of Clinical Sciences, Duke-National University of Singapore Graduate Medical School, Singapore, Singapore; 5 Health Services and Systems Research, Duke-National University of Singapore Graduate Medical School, Singapore, Singapore Objectives: Progesterone is an important biomarker of early pregnancy failure. However, literature is limited regarding factors that influence progesterone levels in early pregnancy. Maternal obesity has been associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes such as miscarriages. We assessed association of body mass index (BMI) with serum progesterone levels in early pregnancy. Method: We investigated association between maternal BMI and serum progesterone level in first trimester singleton pregnancies for 194 women at a tertiary maternity hospital in Singapore, from January 2012 to February 2014. Maternal characteristics and study outcomes were retrieved from clinical records. Results: Multivariate analysis demonstrated an inverse relationship between first trimester maternal BMI category and serum progesterone concentration (p=0.012). Obesity, defined as maternal BMI ≥30 kg/m2 , conferred an increased risk for low serum progesterone <35 nmol/L (adjusted OR: 9.14; 95% CI: 2.12–39.5; p=0.003). Conclusions: This study indicates that obesity is associated with low first-trimester maternal serum progesterone, which confers increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes. The results suggest that pre-pregnancy weight optimization may be beneficial in the regulation of serum progesterone level and thus the maintenance of healthy pregnancy. FCS17.7 ORAL MISOPROSTOL PRIOR TO INSERTRION OF AN INTRAUTERINE DEVICE IN WOMEN WHO DELIVERED BY CESAREAN SECTION: A RANDOMIZED CLINICAL TRIAL A. Bahaa 1 , M. Elmandooh 1 , A. Elbohoty 1 , D. Saied 2 , A. Aboulnoor 1 . Shams University Maternity Hospital, Cairo, Egypt; 2 Electricity hospital, Cairo, Egypt

1 Ain

Objectives: To evaluate the efficacy of oral misoprostol to facilitate IUCD insertion in women who delivered only by cesarean section. ease of insertion was the primary outcome. secondary outcome measures were pain, side effects and insertion related complications. Method: We conducted a double blinded randomized controlled


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trial. Four hundred women who delivered only by cesarean section requesting an intrauterine device were randomly allocated to receive orally two tablets (400 microgram) misoprostol (misoprostol group) or two tablets of placebo (control group) 30 minutes prior to IUD insertion. Results: Insertion was significantly easier in the misoprostol group (P<0.001, RR 0.27, 95% CI 0.14–0.51). Pain was significantly less in the misoprostol group (P<0.001, RR 0.25, 95% CI 0.13–0.39). The overall side effects did not differ. However, abdominal cramping was more in the misoprostol group (P=0.001, RR 0.25, 95% CI 0.13–0.39). Conclusions: Using misoprostol at a dose of 400 microgram administered orally thirty minutes prior to intrauterine device insertion in women who delivered only by cesarean section increased the ease of insertion and reduced the incidence of pain during the procedure, although the frequency of abdominal cramps increased. So we recommend standard pretreatment with misoprostol in those who delivered only by cesarean section.

FCS18. Antenatal and Postnatal Care FCS18.2 DEATH OF ONE TWIN DURING THE PERINATAL PERIOD: A QUALITATIVE STUDY S. Meaney 1 , P. Corcoran 1 , K. O’Donoghue 2 . 1 National Perinatal Epidemiology Centre, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland; 2 Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland Objectives: Perinatal death is one of the most difficult bereavements due to the shock and profound grief experienced by parents. It has been established that such bereavement has life-lasting impact. Twin pregnancy is associated with increased perinatal risk with higher rates of perinatal mortality than singleton pregnancies. To date, few studies have examined the effect of the loss of one twin in the perinatal period. This study aims to gain insight into parent’s views in order to explore the impact of death of one twin in the perinatal period. Method: In-depth qualitative interviews are being undertaken with parents who have experienced the loss of one baby in a twin pregnancy using purposive sampling from a large tertiary level Irish maternity hospital. To date five parents; comprising of three mothers and two fathers, have undertaken interviews and four parents are scheduled for interview. In this study an interpretative phenomenological analysis was undertaken in order to identify superordinate themes through the close examination of parent’s experiences of the loss of one twin. Results: Termination of pregnancy is only lawful in Ireland in pregnancies where the mother’s life is at risk. Parents expressed anger that this procedure was not available to them, especially with a diagnosis of fatal fetal abnormality in one twin as the parents perceived the risk of the co-twin dying in utero was greater. After the loss of one twin, parents recalled difficulties in discussing their bereavement. Mothers felt they were encouraged to focus on the surviving twin and that their opportunity to grieve was diminished. Mothers conveyed feelings of deep sadness because one child would always be missing. Conclusions: Parents recounted how distressed they were when initially informed that there was a complication with their twin pregnancy. Consideration should be given to how to optimise the provision of clear and appropriate information to parents on the possible care pathways for these pregnancies. Although these parents have one surviving twin the level of grief they experience should not be minimised. Healthcare professionals should ensure efforts are made to provide supportive information sensitively following the death of one twin.

FCS18.3 PARENTS EXPERIENCES OF MISCARRIAGE; A QUALITATIVE STUDY S. Meaney 1 , P. Corcoran 1 , K. O’Donoghue 2 . 1 National Perinatal Epidemiology Centre, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland; 2 Dept. of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Cork, Ireland Objectives: Miscarriage is the most common adverse outcome in pregnancy. Studies indicate the need for familial and social support, following miscarriage, due to the negative impact of miscarriage on women emotionally. Half of women experience high levels of psychological morbidity after miscarriage, particularly elevated levels of anxiety and depressive symptoms. Such psychological morbidity may endure for up to a year after miscarriage. Studies also indicate that men have similar level of stress and anxiety as women following miscarriage. This study explores the experiences of parents who have had experience of two or more miscarriages. Method: In-depth qualitative interviews were undertaken with parents who had experience of two or more miscarriages. A purposive sample of sixteen parents; comprising of ten mothers and six fathers, were recruited from a large tertiary level Irish maternity hospital. The following criteria of; age, parity and area of residence (urban/rural) were utilised for sampling purposes. In this study an interpretative phenomenological analysis was undertaken in order to identify superordinate themes through the close examination of parent’s experiences of miscarriage. Results: Parents felt that there should have been better communication with clinical staff as they felt unprepared for the physical trauma of the miscarriage. Fathers indicated that while they were not physically involved, they still experienced distress. Parents expressed frustration that medical investigations, such as karyotyping, would not be undertaken unless they experienced recurrent miscarriage. This frustration was heightened in women who felt that other risk factors, such as advancing maternal age, should be considered. In subsequent pregnancies parents highlighted the value of reassurance scans early in pregnancy and the importance of continuity of care to alleviate feelings of anxiety. Conclusions: This study highlights that thorough investigation of the underlying causes of miscarriage and continuity of care in subsequent pregnancies are priorities for parents who experience miscarriage. The provision of appropriate clinical information as well as supportive information when counselling individuals who are experiencing a miscarriage is important. Consideration should be given to the manner in which women, who have not experienced recurrent miscarriage but have other potential risk factors for miscarriage, could be followed up in clinical practice. FCS18.4 ANTENATAL CARE AND FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH SKILLED DELIVERY IN A REPRESENTATIVE SAMPLE OF MOTHERS IN WESTERN KENYA M. Young 1 , T. Irwin 2 , W. Jaoko 3 , F. Adera 4 , S. Nordstrom 1 , S. Mehta 1 . 1 University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA; 2 University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA; 3 University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya; 4 Nyanza Reproductive Health Society, Kisumu, Kenya Objectives: Adequate antenatal care and delivery with a skilled provider are vital to improving maternal and infant health outcomes. In 2009, 44% of deliveries in western Kenya were facility-based. Government sponsored free delivery services were announced in 2013. The Kenyan Ministry of Health policy discourages home deliveries and the use of traditional birth attendants (TBAs). We assessed the demographic and antenatal care patterns associated with health facility vs. non-facility delivery (in the home or on the roadside) in a sample of peri-urban and rural women in Rachuonyo, western Kenya. Method: Between July and November 2013 we interviewed a representative cross-sectional sample of 613 mothers (median age 24,

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17% HIV positive) of baby boys accessing first oral polio vaccine (OPV1) services at 16 health facilities in Rachuonyo District, Kenya. Consenting participants completed a questionnaire administered by a research assistant. We assessed the relationship between delivering outside a facility and demographic characteristics and antenatal care (ANC) measures using chi-square tests or the Wilcoxon MannWhitney test. We adjusted for confounding using multivariable logistic regression. Results: Nearly all (98%) women received some ANC. Of these, half (53%) initiated ANC in the first trimester and 82% had at least four visits. One quarter of women (27%) delivered outside a facility. In an adjusted model, factors associated with delivering outside a facility included: age (aOR one year increase 1.04, p=0.05), receiving antenatal care from a TBA (aOR 2.92, p=0.01), the mother participating in the decision about where she delivered (aOR 3.97, p<0.01), and HIV negative serostatus (aOR 2.42, p=0.01). Women with more education and higher socioeconomic status were less likely to deliver outside a facility. Conclusions: One quarter of women (27%) delivered outside a health facility. Cost, time to reach the facility, mode of transport, adequacy of prenatal care, and parity were not associated with home delivery. Barriers to facility-based delivery are complex and may change over time. Our results suggest that working with TBAs to encourage facility-based delivery and targeting women with lower education and SES will have the biggest impact on improving uptake of safe delivery services. FCS18.5 ALLOPREGNANOLONE LEVELS RELATES TO WEIGHT GAIN DURING PREGNANCY – A LONGITUDINAL STUDY A. Lundqvist 1 , H. Sandström 1 , T. Bäckström 2 . 1 Dept. of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine, Umeå, Sweden; 2 Dept. of Clinical Sciences, Obstetrics and Gynecology, Umeå, Sweden Objectives: Large weight gain during pregnancy is a great riskfactor for complications. Excessive weight gain is partly due to the physiological weight increase of the foetus, body water but mainly due to fat increase caused by overeating. Hunger and satiety is regulated in hypothalamus were the Gamma-amino-butyric acid system (GABA) have an important role. Allopregnanolone is a progesterone metabolite and a potent GABA-A receptor modulating steroid. Allopregnanolone has been shown to induce overeating in rodents and increases substantially during pregnancy. The objective in this study is to investigate if there is a relationship between weight increase and allopregnanolone concentrations during pregnancy. Method: In this study, 59 women were recruited among women in a larger study. Blood samples for allopregnanolone analysis were taken in the 59 women at two times during pregnancy, gestational week 12 and 35. The women were divided into two groups, those with the highest (n=30) or lowest (n=29) weight gain through a median split at 11 kg. Allopreganonolone analyses were made in at Umeå Neurosteroid Research Center, Umeå University using an earlier described method (Timby et al 2006). Data were analysed using descriptive and nonparametric statistics. Results: There was no difference in weight or allopregnanolone concentrations at the onset of pregnancy. The group of women who gain more weight during pregnancy showed significantly higher serum concentration of Allopregnanolone at 35th gestational week compared to the woman who gained less weight (p=0.006). The change in serum Allopregnanolone from week 12 to week 35 was significant larger in the group of women with higher weight gain compared to the women with a lower weight gain (p=0.011). Conclusions: The results show a relationship between weight gain during pregnancy and increase in serum allopregnanolone concentrations. This finding suggests that allopregnanolone may have an influence on weight gain during pregnancy.


FCS18.6 CHILDBIRTH EXPERIENCE QUESTIONNAIRE: VALIDATING ITS USE IN THE UNITED KINGDOM K. Walker 1 , P. Wilson 3 , G. Bugg 3 , A. Dencker 2 , J. Thornton 1,3 . of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK; 2 University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; 3 Nottingham University Hospitals NHS Trust, Nottingham, UK

1 University

Objectives: The Childbirth Experience Questionnaire (CEQ) has been validated in 920 primiparous women in Sweden in 2010 but has not been validated in the United Kingdom. Measuring the impact of an intervention on a woman’s childbirth experience is arguably as important as measuring its impact on outcomes such as caesarean delivery and yet surprisingly is rarely done. The lack of a robust validated tool for evaluating labour experience in the UK is a topical issue, NICE state “a standardised method to measure women’s ... birth experiences is urgently required.” Method: The CEQ and the Care Quality Commission Maternity Survey (2010) was sent to 350 women at one month postnatal. The CEQ was sent again two weeks later. The CEQ was tested for face validity among 25 mothers. Demographic data and delivery data was used to establish construct validity of the CEQ using the method of knowngroups validation. The results of the scored CEQ sent out twice were used to measure test-retest reliability of the CEQ by calculating the quadratic weighted index of agreement. Criterion validity was measured by calculating the Pearson correlation coefficient for the CEQ and Maternity Survey scores. Results: Face validity of the CEQ in a UK population was demonstrated with all respondents stating it was easy to understand and complete. A statistically significantly higher CEQ score for subgroups of women known to report a better birth outcome demonstrated construct validity of the CEQ. A weighted kappa of 0.68 demonstrated test-retest reliability of the CEQ. A Pearson correlation co-efficient of 0.73 demonstrated a strong correlation between the results of the CEQ and the results of the “gold standard” assessment of childbirth experience in the UK: the Maternity Survey and hence criterion validity of the CEQ. Conclusions: The Childbirth Experience Questionnaire is a valid and reliable measure of childbirth experience in the UK population. FCS18.7 PATTERNS OF PSYCHOTROPIC MEDICINE USE IN PREGNANCY IN THE UNITED STATES FROM 2006 TO 2011 G. Hanley, B. Mintzes. University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada Objectives: Psychiatric disorders are equally common during pregnancy as among non-pregnant women, and many of these conditions are treated with psychotropic medicines. Relatively little is known about patterns of use of many these agents during pregnancy, and specifically of how rates may have shifted during the last decade. We aimed to quantify the rate of pregnancy related exposures to categories of psychotropic medicines stratified according to the primary indication for use (antidepressants, antipsychotics, anxiolytics, and psychostimulants), trimester of pregnancy, and trends over time and region. Method: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of pregnancies among women in the Truven Health MarketScan database (source population 70 million), which captures person-specific clinical use and includes detailed information on filled prescriptions, hospitalizations and outpatient visits for all privately insured employees and their dependents. We classified psychotropic medicines of interest using ATC level 3 accordingly: antipsychotics (N05A); anxiolytics (N05B); antidepressants (N06A); psychostimulants, agents used for ADHD and cognitive enhancement (N06B). We also examined temporal and regional trends in use.


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Results: We included 343,299 women who had a live birth between Jan 1, 2006 and Dec 31, 2011, of whom 10.3% were dispensed one or more psychotropic medicines during pregnancy. This rate varied from 6% to 15% between states. The most commonly used psychotropic medicines were selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (5.1%) and benzodiazepine medicines (3.9%). Among psychotropic users, the most commonly associated psychiatric diagnosis was depression (25.0%), followed by anxiety disorders (24.4%). Approximately 1.6% of women used more than one category of psychotropic medicine in pregnancy, most commonly an antidepressant and an anxiolytic medicine (1.2%). Conclusions: Given this relatively high rate of use, the lack of evidence that the most frequently used medications improve birth outcomes and the safety concerns associated with both early and late pregnancy use for many frequently-used medications, there is a need for further study of factors driving psychotropic medication use during pregnancy. FCS18.8 MEASURING CORRECTNESS IN ASSESSING MATERNAL COMPLICATIONS USING A HANDHELD ULTRASOUND DEVICE BY TRAINED MID-LEVEL PROVIDERS AT DISPENSARY AND HEALTH CENTRE LEVELS IN RURAL TANZANIA: A LONGITUDINAL STUDY S. Mbuyita, R. Tillya, R. Godfrey, I. Kinyonge, J. Shabani, G. Mbaruku. Ifakara Health Institute, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania Objectives: While health systems in low income countries are obliged to continue delivering quality health care, constraints are many including availability of skilled personnel. Filling in the gap of human resources for health has proved slower than the pace at which world advancement in medicine and technology has happened. We conducted a longitudinal study to measure if health personnel with no background training of radiology or sonology are able to conduct ultrasound scanning using the Vscan and produce correct interpretation and diagnosis compared to that of expert sonologists. Method: A total of 227 women were scanned and 428 digital images taken. Initial reading, interpretation and diagnosis were made by the health providers in rural health centres and dispensaries in one rural district of Tanzania. The images were later re-read, re-interpreted and diagnosis were made by two independent expert sonologists and results compared with the initial readings of the associate providers. Results: Eighty one per cent of the images were correctly taken, interpreted and diagnosed by the newly trained mid-level health providers. The quality of images and their corresponding interpretation and diagnosis bettered with practice among the mid-level providers over time through the study. Conclusions: Following short term training, mid-level providers are able to conduct ultrasound scanning using the portable hand-held ultrasound device and produce quality images, correct interpretation and correct diagnosis. This has a potential for widening up use of ultrasound in routine ANC at primary care level in the Tanzanian health system.

FCS19. Antenatal and Postnatal Care FCS19.1 INTRAVENOUS IRON ISOMALTOSIDE 1000 (MONOFER® ) ADMINISTERED BY A HIGH SINGLE-DOSE INFUSION OR STANDARD MEDICAL CARE FOR THE TREATMENT OF FATIGUE IN WOMEN AFTER POSTPARTUM HAEMORRHAGE: A RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL C. Holm 1,2 , L.L. Thomsen 2 , A. Norgaard 3 , J. Langhoff-Roos 1 . of Obstetrics, Juliane Marie Centre, Copenhagen University Hospital, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark; 2 Pharmacosmos A/S, Holbaek, Denmark; 3 Section for Transfusion Medicine, Capital Region Blood Bank, Copenhagen University Hospital, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark

1 Department

Objectives: Efficacy and safety of 1200 mg high single dose intravenous infusion of iron isomaltoside 1000 versus standard medical care in treatment of women after postpartum haemorrhage to demonstrate superiority of iron isomaltoside 1000 measured by a patient reported clinical outcome i.e. the Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory (MFI). Method: Single centre randomized open-label trial including 200 healthy women with a singleton delivery and postpartum haemorrhage exceeding 700 mL within 48 hours after delivery allocated to either a single dose of 1200 mg intravenous iron isomaltoside 1000 or standard medical care. Participants completed the MFI at inclusion and at five visits the following 12 weeks. The primary outcome was the aggregated change in physical fatigue within 12 weeks postpartum. Sample size assumptions were based on 80% power, a minimal clinical relevant difference set to 1.8 for clinical superiority on the physical fatigue subscale of MFI and a SD of 4.2. Results: Of the 200 women randomized, 196 (intravenous iron n=97; standard medical care n=99) were included in the full analysis set. The difference in aggregated change in physical fatigue score within 12 weeks postpartum was −0.97 (95% confidence interval: −1.65; −0.28, P=0.006), in favour of intravenous iron. We found across visits statistically significant differences in red blood cell and iron related biochemical parameters already within the first week, all in favour of intravenous iron. There were no overall difference in laboratory safety including phosphate, and there were no serious adverse drug reactions. Conclusions: A high single-dose infusion of intravenous iron isomaltoside 1000 was associated with a statistically significant aggregated change of approximately 1 point on the 16 point MFI physical fatigue subscale, suggesting less fatigue within 12 weeks after postpartum haemorrhage. Iron isomaltoside 1000 treatment demonstrated a fast haematopoietic response and had a good safety profile with no serious adverse drug reactions and no clinical significant hypophosphatemia. FCS19.2 CROSS-COUNTRY SURVEY OF WOMEN’S KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDES AND PRACTICES (KAP) ON ANTENATAL CARE (ANC) AND IRONFOLIC ACID SUPPLEMENTATION (IFA) TO INTEGRATE NUTRITIONRELATED ACTIVITIES INTO PRIMARY CARE AND IMPROVE MATERNAL AND NEWBORN OUTCOMES IN ETHIOPIA, KENYA AND SENEGAL A. Verney, J. Kung’u, E. Gold, C. Ndedda, G. Bogale, C. Niang, M. Roche. Micronutrient Initiative, Ottawa, ON, Canada Objectives: Annually, ∼287,000 women die because of complications such as post-partum hemorrhage, hypertensive disorders, sepsis, and obstructed labour. These conditions are often linked with poor neonatal outcomes including low birth weight, premature birth and death. Increasing ANC access and IFA use help improve maternal and newborn outcomes. A multi-country study was conducted to

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and 39.99±17.78 mg/L (P<0.001) in the two groups respectively. One week after intervention the mean iron in maternal milk respectively was 46.75±16.81 mg/L and 44.21±25.23 mg/L (P>0.05). Conclusions: The results provide information about safety of high single-dose iron isomaltoside 1000 in the lactation period. Treatment with high dose iron isomaltoside 1000 resulted in a transient raise in iron content in maternal milk. The increase disappeared one week after treatment. All measured means of iron in maternal milk were within the normal range of iron content in breast milk.

strengthen the capacity of local health systems and increase uptake and quality of maternal and newborn health services and nutrition interventions. The baseline survey including KAP, focus group discussions (FGD) and key-informant interviews (KII) aimed to determine barriers and enablers to guide program design. Method: Using mixed methods, women’s KAP surrounding ANC and nutrition during pregnancy were assessed. Ethical approval was obtained from each country and/or partner organization’s review boards. Women with children 0–11 months were randomly selected from hard to reach communities in Kakamega, Kenya (n=464), Afar, Ethiopia (n=998), and Kolda, Senegal (n=1444). FGDs (Kenya and Senegal=3 groups each) and KII (Ethiopia= 19 women), identified women’s knowledge and attitudes regarding barriers and enablers for seeking ANC and using IFA during pregnancy. Findings guided the development of community based interventions and will be used to measure the impact of the overall multi-country programs. Results: Attendance at 4 ANC visits was 4.8% in Ethiopia, 43% in Kenya, and 18.6% in Senegal; 20.7%, 18.5%, and 30.2% of women, respectively, attended ANC in the first trimester, and 3.4%, 36.7% and 55.6%, respectively, had taken ≥90 IFA tablets. Qualitative data found lack of family support, misperceptions around the purpose of ANC and low perception of facility care as some of the main reasons for not attending ANC visits or taking IFA. Identified barriers to service accessibility included policy excluding misoprostol through community-level health facilities (Senegal) and frequent stock-outs of IFA (Ethiopia and Kenya). Conclusions: Findings helped identify intervention adaptations to potentially increase access to ANC and IFA, among other essential interventions, for each unique context. In Ethiopia, family and community actors are being engaged to strengthen health facility referrals. In Kenya, fathers are being involved in ANC discussions and traditional birth attendants’ role is changing to “birth companion” at facilities. In Senegal, communities have access to misoprostol and free IFA. These data have enabled the development of evidence-based projects, facilitating national support, with all three governments now playing an active role in identifying components of the program that can be scaled-up.

Objectives: a: Saving expense in gynecological & Obstetric practice. We are suffering from so many scarcities in our day to day practice like – 1. Expert Manpower, 2. Money, 3. Time & also 4. Religious obstacle. b: Misoprostol (Prostaglandin E) has the advantage over other methods of abortion completion - it requires no anaesthesia no medical persons. Patient remained ambulant with normal activities. Method: It is a retrospective study, was done by using misoprostol 200 μg 3 tabs per vaginally start and after 24 hours 1 tab thrice daily by mouth for 2 days and combined oral contraceptive along with last day of misoprostol. Trails were undertaken in the department of Gynae & Obs. General Hospital Sirajganj from 12th May 2012 upto 11th April 2013. Patient’s No. 186 were randomized into group that were treated by misoprostol and control group no. 194 treated by ancient method in 2011. Results: Data were analyzed between the groups A p-Value of <0.05 was considered as significant. Patients parameters like heart rate, Blood Pressure were not statistically significant between groups. Patient satisfaction were significantly high (100% app.) by misoprostol. Conclusions: By using misoprostol patient’s satisfaction were better achieved with enforcement of COC.



C. Holm 1,2 , L.L. Thomsen 2 , A. Norgaard 3 , J. Langhoff-Roos 1 . of Obstetrics, Juliane Marie Centre, Copenhagen University Hospital, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen; 2 Pharmacosmos A/S, Holbaek; 3 Section of Transfusion Medicine, Capital Region Blood Bank, Copenhagen University Hospital, Rigshopitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark

S.I Nazarova, S.M. Mukhamadieva, F.M. Abdurahmanov, S. Kasymova. Tajik Scientific Research Institute of Obsterics & Gynecology, Dushanbe, Tajikistan

1 Department

Objectives: To measure the concentration of iron in maternal milk after treatment with a high single-dose iron isomaltoside 1000 compared to iron content in maternal milk in women treated with standard medical care after postpartum haemorrhage. Method: We conducted a sub-study of women included in a single centre parallel randomized open-label trial performed at the Department of Obstetrics, Copenhagen University Hospital - Rigshospitalet. Healthy women with a singleton delivery and postpartum haemorrhage exceeding 700 mL within 48 hours after delivery were allocated to either a single dose of 1200 mg iron isomaltoside 1000 or standard medical care. Randomization was carried out by a central computer system. Between February 2014 and September 2014 we collected maternal milk samples from participants three days and one week after inclusion in the trial. Results: Maternal milk samples were collected from 65 women; 30 participants from the intravenous iron group and 35 participants from the standard medical care group. Mean (± SD) iron content in maternal milk three days after intervention was 72.07±27.36 mg/L

FCS19.4 MISOPROSTOL AS MEDICAL METHOD OF ABORTION COMPLETION A. Ishag Adam 1 , D.C. Dutta 2 , S. Begum 3 . 1 Dawadmi Provincipal General Hospital, Riyad, Saudi Arabia; 2 Dutta DC, India; 3 Tangyl Dhaka Hospital, Bangladesh

Objectives: Improving the quality of health care for women with gestational diabetes mellitus. Method: Analisis of medical documentation. In order to improve the quality of health care for women of reproductive age, patients with diabetes mellitus, a network of specialized cabinets at the national and regional levels were established as part of the “National Program for the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of diabetes in the Republic of Tajikistan for 2012–2017”. Results: The main role of the cabinets is to ensure the continuity between the centers of reproductive health, family medicine, obstetrics and endocrinological hospitals; verification of risk factors on development of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) on primary stage of health care. As a result of the review of the diabetes mellitus cabinets it was found, that among modern population of women of reproductive age in Tajikistan, the most common risk factors for GDM are: age of 30 years and above, burdened obstetrical history, obesity, large fetus and polyhydramnios. Conclusions: New methodological and methodical approaches, an introduction of new organizational structures and mechanisms for


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continuous tactical organization of reproductive health care for women in Tajikistan is a key element in the implementation of the “National Programme for the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of diabetes in the Republic of Tajikistan for 2012–2017” mellitus (GDM) on primary stage of health care. Among modern population of women of reproductive age in Tajikistan, the most common risk factors for GDM are: age of 30 years and above, burdened obstetrical history, obesity, large fetus and polyhydramnios. FCS19.6 THE PREVALENCE OF HOOKWORM INFESTATIONS IN ANTENATAL CLINIC POPULATIONS FOR THE IMPLEMENTATION OF FOCUSED ANTENATAL CARE IN AHMADU BELLO UNIVERSITY TEACHING HOSPITAL ZARIA, KADUNA STATE, NIGERIA S.J. Ayanwuyi 1 , O.S. Shittu 1,2 , A.T. Olayinka 1,2 , A.K. Koledade 1,2 , A.O. Oguntayo 1,2 . 1 Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Zaria, Kaduna state, Nigeria; 2 Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Kaduna state, Nigeria Objectives: The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of hookworm infestation in antenatal clinic populations with a view to determining the appropriateness of the inclusion of preventive antihelminthic therapy in the package of focused antenatal care. Method: The study was a descriptive cross sectional survey that involved laboratory assessments of 194 subjects recruited from the four antenatal booking clinics of the Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospiatal, Zaria network of clinics by stratified sampling technique. Each study subject was recruited by systematic sampling technique after simple randomization of the first subject was done that met the inclusion criteria. Each prospective study subject was duly counseled and consent obtained before enrolment to participate. A structured questionnaire was administered before stool and blood samples were collected from each subject. Informations obtained were analyzed using SPSS statistical software version 20. Results: The prevalence of hookworm infestation in the antenatal clinic populations was 12.4%. The proportion of women with anaemia and infestation was 33.3%. The differenc. Ethnicity, education and occupation were found to be statistically associated with hookworm infestation (P value of 0.000, 0.000 and 0.002 respectively). Marital status, religion and parity did not have any statistically significant association with hookworm infestation (p value of 0.569, 0.104, 0.074 and 0.131 respectively). Also of statistical significance was the association between type of toilets, hand washing with soap after defecation and hookworm infestation (p values of 0.000 for each). Conclusions: The prevalence of hookworm infestation among ABUTH antenatal clinic populations in Zaria was considerable. The statistically significant relationship observed between hookworm infestation and anaemia, in this study, re-enforces the existing practice of compulsory investigation for hookworm infestation in all anaemic pregnant women. FCS19.7 STABILITY OF DEPRESSIVE SYMPTOMS OVER THREE MONTHS POST-PARTUM F. Abdollahi 1 , M. Zarghami 3 , M.-S. Lye 2 . 1 Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran; 2 University Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Malaysia; 3 Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran Objectives: Prolonged depression during the post-partum period is associated with maternal and infant mortality and morbidity. Less attention has been given to factors that predict the persistence of depression beyond the first three months post-partum. Method: From a longitudinal cohort of 2,279 women who attended Mazandaran’s primary health centers in 2009, 478 women with Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) of 12 or greater in the third

trimester of pregnancy were recruited in this study. Persistently depressed women (depressed at all three occasions: during pregnancy, and at 2 and 12 weeks postpartum) were compared with those without depression to determine demographical, cultural, obstetrical and bio-psycho-social predictors for persistence of depression. Data was analyzed using Chi-square test, T-test and logistic regression models. Results: The stability of depression was found in 193 (46.2%) of 418 depressed cases who followed-up the study period. Of those mothers who scored more than the threshold of 12 during third trimester of pregnancy, 277 (66.3%) and 221 (52.9%) had high EPDS at 2 and 12 weeks of post-partum. Psychological distress from General Health Questionnaire, low maternal parental self-efficacy based on Parental Expectation Survey and perceived social isolation based on Network Orientation Scale were independent predictors of persistent depression in this study. Conclusions: Fewer depressed mothers in the current study were found to recover during the first three months after giving birth. Psychosocial factors predicted sustained depression from pregnancy to three month’s post-partum in this study. The findings of this study proved the significant of support in enhancing maternal mental health. FCS19.8 A PROSPECTIVE COMPARATIVE RANDOMIZED STUDY OF EARLY DESTARVATION OF MOTHER VERSUS CONVENTIONAL DESTARVATION AFTER CESAREAN SECTION S. Garg, A. Soni, V. Raut. Dr L H Hiranandani Hospital, Mumbai, India Objectives: Our study aims to determine the effect of early initiation of oral feeding in women undergoing cesarean section under spinal anesthesia in terms of incidence of gastrointestinal complications, course of hospital stay and patient satisfaction. Method: This prospective comparative randomized study was conducted at our tertiary care hospital from 1st January 2014 to 28th February 2015. Women with an uncomplicated cesarean delivery under spinal anesthesia were divided into two groups of early destarvation (within two hours post cesarean) or conventional destarvation (12 hours post cesarean). Outcomes included gastrointestinal functions and complications, requirement of intravenous (IV) fluids, maternal ambulation and maternal satisfaction in terms of thirst, hunger and overall satisfaction. Results: In total, 460 women (n=230 per group) were included in the study and the final analysis. Gastrointestinal complications were not significantly different between the two groups. Lower intensities of thirst and hunger and a higher rate of satisfaction were observed in the early destarvation group (P<0.05) as assessed by the visual analog scores. There was no readmission, febrile morbidity and wound infection. Conclusions: Early destarvation after cesarean delivery resulted in early ambulation, lesser requirement of IV fluids, and greater maternal satisfaction with no adverse outcomes. Hence a very costeffective concept of day care cesarean delivery can be promoted in the future.

FCS20. Assessment of Fetal Wellbeing/Labor and Delivery FCS20.1 FETAL UMBILICAL ARTERY DOPPLER VELOCIMETRY STUDIES VERSUS CARDIOTOCOGRAPHIC MONITORING AS PREDICTORS OF ADVERSE PERINATAL OUTCOME IN IUGR FETUSES: A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY S.A. Suplido, V. de Jesus. University of the Philippines- Philippine General Hospital, Manila, NCR, The Philippines Objectives: A study done on 40 patients with IUGR admitted at the

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IMU,MFM Section, University of the Philippines-Philippine General Hospital from January-July 2008 compared the efficacy of Dopplers vs CTG in predicting adverse fetal outcome. Method: Doppler and CTG results within 1 week from delivery were considered. Lead time was calculated by determining the time interval (days) from the first abnormal Doppler and the development of an abnormal CTG result. The perinatal outcome parameters were AOG on delivery, indication for termination, mode of delivery, BW, length of stay at the NICU, APGAR score <7 and mortality. Results: There were 23 abnormal CTG and 12 abnormal Doppler results, 6 neonatal deaths and 1 antepartal death. Most perinatal deaths occurred in the group were both tests were abnormal. Lead time was 4 days. Conclusions: Both umbilical artery Doppler studies and CTG are useful predictors of adverse perinatal outcome; however Doppler studies is a better predictor as it recognizes fetal compromise earlier than CTG.Once an abnormal CTG result occurs following an abnormal umbilical Doppler, the worst perinatal outcome is anticipated. In IUGR fetuses wherein pulmonary maturity is already established, it is better to deliver before the CTG becomes abnormal. FCS20.2 COMPARING AN INNOVATIVE DOPPLER ULTRASOUND FETAL HEART RATE MONITOR TO A PINARD FETAL STETHOSCOPE USING CARDIOTOCOGRAPHY AS A STANDARD IN WOMEN WITH SINGLETON PREGNANCIES IN LABOUR AT MOWBRAY MATERNITY HOSPITAL, SOUTH AFRICA L. Chinula 1,2 , S. Fawcus 2 , D. Woods 3 . 1 Kamuzu Central Hospital/UNC Project, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Lilongwe, Malawi; 2 University of Cape Town, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Cape Town, South Africa; 3 University of Cape Town, Department of Child and Adolescent Health, Cape Town, South Africa Objectives: To assess the accuracy of an innovative Doppler ultrasound fetal heart rate monitor (DFM) and a Pinard fetal stethoscope (PFS) in determining fetal heart rates (FHRs), before and after uterine contractions in labor when compared to a cardiotocography (CTG). Method: Women with singleton pregnancies in the active phase of first stage of labor were enrolled. Women with multiple pregnancy and women with pregnancies which did not require fetal monitoring were excluded. Simultaneous measurements of FHRs were taken with a DFM, PFS and CTG before and after 2 preferably consecutive contractions. Proportion agreement of FHRs recorded with the DFM to the FHRs recorded with the CTG were determined and compared to proportion agreement of FHRs recorded with the PFS to the FHRs recorded with the CTG. Statistical significance of the proportion agreements was done using the Exact McNemar Significance probability testing. Results: We enrolled seventy six women in the study. The proportion agreement of FHRs recorded with the DFM to the FHRs recorded with the CTG ranged from 0.51 to 0.80. The proportion agreement of FHRs recorded with the PFS to the FHRs recorded with the CTG ranged from 0.36 to 0.51. The proportion agreement of FHRs recorded with the DFM to the FHRs recorded with the CTG were significantly greater than the proportion agreement of FHRs recorded with the PFS to the FHRs recorded with the CTG at 6 of the 8 observations points. Conclusions: The DFM was more accurate than the PFS in assessing the FHR in singleton pregnancies in the active phase of the first stage of labor when compared to the CTG. These data provide strong evidence for the routine use of a DFM rather than a PFS for monitoring the FHR during labor in low risk singleton pregnancies.


FCS20.3 UMBILICAL COILING INDEX -UCI BY USG AND ITS POSTNATAL CORRELATION H. Kirubamani. Saveetha Medical College, Saveetha University, Thanadalam, Tamil Nadu, India Objectives: To evaluate the correlation between prenatal Umbilical coiling Index by USG and post natal coiling of the umbilical cord and its relation to pregnancy outcome. Method: 150 antenatal women were scanned in second & third trimester at Saveetha medical College & followed till delivery. A distance of 22.6 mm was measured between the 2 pairs of coils from the inner edge of the artery to the outer edge of the same artery at the adjacent umbilical twist along the ipsilateral cord. Normal umbilical cord coiling is approximately 1 coil/5 cm or 0.20 to 0.24 coils/cm. of umbilical cord length & UCI correlated postnatally, calculated by dividing the total number of coils by the total length of the cord postnatally. Mode delivery, fetal outcome are noted. Results: Hypocoiling was seen in 12% hypercoiling 36%. Normal coiling 52%. Hypocoiling was associated with spontaneous preterm delivery (50%), LBW (38.3%), IUGR (11.1%). Hypercoiling was associated with oligohydramnios 14.8%,Intrapartum fetal distress 33.3%, meconium staining of liquor 16.6%, and NICU admission 1.8%. In Normal coiling no adverse perinatal outcome & had Normal delivery. LSCS 18% in abnormal coiling There was a positive strong correlation between antenatal UCI and post natal correlation and can predict adverse perinatal outcome. Conclusions: Antenatal UCI correlates with postnatal UCI. Both hypo coiling & hyper coiling had adverse pregnancy outcome. The umbilical coiling index has been found to be an effective indicator of perinatal outcome. FCS20.4 RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED STUDY COMPARING HAND HELD DOPPLER AND PINARD FETOSCOPE (PF) FOR FETAL HEART RATE (FHR) MONITORING IN TANZANIA P. Mdoe 1 , E. Mduma 1 , H. Kidanto 3 , R. Moshiro 3 , J. Perlman 5 , H. Ersdal 4 . 1 Haydom Lutheran Hospital, Manyara, Tanzania; 2 Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive CareStavanger University Hospital Norway, Stavanger, Norway; 3 Muhimbili National Hospital, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania; 4 SAFER Stavanger Acute medicine Foundation of Education and Research Norway, Stavanger, Norway; 5 Department of Pediatrics Weill Cornell Medical College, Newyork, USA Objectives: To compare adverse perinatal outcomes (admitted to a neonatal unit, 5 min Apgar score (AS <7)death, fresh stillbirth (FSB)) post-delivery between those intermittently auscultated with PF and those by Doppler in both rural and urban setting. Method: This is an ongoing randomized controlled study comparing the PF versus a hand-held Doppler (Free Play) at Muhimbili National Hospital (MNH; Urban) and Haydom Lutheran Hospital (HLH; rural) between March 2013 to July 2014. Entry criteria: Low risk women in active labor with singletons, cephalic presentation, normal FHR at admission, cervical dilatation of ≥7cm and with consent. Normal FHR was defined as 120–160, abnormal as <120 or >160 bpm or not detected. Results: A total of 1376 (9.2% of 14,985) at MNH and 1623 (23.8% of 6,822) at HLH were randomized. At MNH abnormal FHR was detected more often (30/689 vs. 17/684, p=0.057) with PF vs Doppler; at HLH no difference noted (41/786 vs. 37/837, p=0.842). At MNH AS at 5min <7 was more common among PF vs Doppler group (31/697 vs.1/697, p<0.0001); more needed bag mask ventilation (BMV) (34/685 vs.13/684 p=0.0008) adverse outcomes were higher (47/697 vs. 12/697, p=0.0001). At HLH, no differences in AS (9/836 vs. 7/786, p=0.70) BMV, 57/733 vs. 59/682 p=0.549) adverse outcome i.e.35/837 vs. 36/786, p=0.705.


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Conclusions: At the urban MNH, abnormal FHR was more often detected in the PF group, however, perinatal deaths and admission decreased in the Doppler group. At the rural HLH, no differences were found in the frequency of abnormal FHR detection and outcome.Human factors (nurses’ experience, knowledge, user preferences etc.) and timely obstetrical actions, may account for the observed differences. There is a need for more research. FCS20.5 COMBINATION OF DIRECT ECG AND CTG (STAN) VERSUS TRADITIONAL CTG IN LABOR: WHAT’S BETTER IN SUSPICIOUS CTG PATTERNS IN LABOUR? O. Eremina, O. Baev, R. Shmakov, A. Gus. Research Center for Obstetrics, Gynecology and Perinatology, Moscow, Russia Objectives: Fetal distress is one of the major complications during labor. Combined usage of direct fetal ECG and CTG can potentially reduce the rates of neonatal metabolic acidosis and operative deliveries. The main aim of the study was to compare sensitivity and specificity of direct fetal ECG+CTG and traditional CTG in diagnosing of fetal distress during labor. Method: 480 patients with a singleton pregnancy at term were examined during labor. They were randomly divided into two groups: combination of direct fetal ECG+CTG (n=215) and CTG alone (n=265). Fetal ECG analysis was performed by calculating of the T/QRS ratio and analyzing of the ST-events presence. FHR patterns were classified according to the FIGO guidelines. Patients in ECG+CTG were divided into 3 subgroups - with normal (n=138), suspicious (n=42) and pathological (n=35) cardiotocograms and in CTG group 160, 55 and 50 respectively. Fetal distress was verified by measurement of lactate level and pH in umbilical blood. Results: The augmentation of oxytocin was higher in subgroups of pathological CTG (RR 2.06, CI 1.1–3.8). The rate of spontaneous labor was higher in ECG+CTG group, than in CTG group: 87.0 vs 76.2%, rate of operative deliveries was lower in ECG+CTG group: 10.2% vs 18.9% respectively. The rate of neonatal metabolic acidosis was lower in ECG+CTG group (6.5% vs 17.1%) Overall sensitivity and specificity of direct ECG+CTG was higher, than CTG alone, especially in suspicious (97% vs 62%) and pathological (88% vs 70%) curves. We found high sensitivity and specificity of lactate level (98% and 79%) in verification of fetal distress. Conclusions: Usage of oxytocin correlates with pathological CTG. A direct ECG+CTG method of intrapartum fetal assessment is more effective in diagnostics of fetal distress. Fetal monitoring with STanalysis allows to reduce the rates of neonatal metabolic acidosis and operative deliveries. FCS20.6 AMNIOTIC FLUID GLUCOSE, LACTATE DEHYDROGENASE AND MATRIX-METALLOPROTEINASE-8 CONCENTRATIONS PREDICTS POSITIVE BACTERIAL PCR AND HISTOLOGICAL CHORIOAMNIONITIS IN WOMEN WITH CLINICALLY ASYMPTOMATIC PPROM V. Stefanovic. Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology & Fetomaternal Medical Center Helsinki University Hospital and University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland Objectives: To determine the performance of amniotic fluid glucose and lactate dehydrogenase in the diagnosis of intraamniotic infection in women with asymptomatic PPROM (<32 gestational weeks). Method: Retrospective analysis of 29 women with clinically asymptomatic PPROM (gestational age 24+2–31+6). All women received broad spectrum antibiotics after confirmed PPROM. Amniocentesis was performed to evaluate amniotic fluid glucose (Am-gluc), lactate dehydrogenase (Am-LD), matrix metalloproteinase 8 (MMP-8) and bacterial PCR. The diagnosis of IAI was established and delivery de-

cision was made if Am-gluc concentration was ≤0.8 mmol/l or/and Am-LD concentration was ≥419 IU/L or in presence of positive PCR. MMP-8 analysis was performed after delivery. Results: Nineteen samples were PCR positive for presence of bacteria in the amniotic fluid. Am-glucand Am-LD concentrations correlated with positive amniotic fluid PCR and histological chorioamnionitis (p=0.037 and p=0.042, respectively). MMP-8 concentrations showed the best performance in predicting positive amniotic fluid bacterial PCR and histological chorioamnionitis (p<0.001).Both Am-gluc and Am-LD highly correlated with MMP-8 concentrations (p<0.01). Conclusions: Amniocentesis is a safe and useful in asymptomatic patients with PPROM. Simple and rapid markers of IAI in the amniotic fluid (glucose and lactate dehydrogenase) have very good performance in predicting amniotic fluid positive bacterial PCR and histological chorioamnionitis. By adding MMP-8 determination in the amniotic fluid, the performance of these markers is clearly improved. In cases of PPROM, determination of Am-gluk, Am-LD and MMP-8 levels may improve IAI diagnostic and optimize delivery time. FCS20.7 NORMAL RANGE FOR UMBILICAL ARTERY DOPPLER CUSTOMIZED BY FETAL BIOMETRY F.M. Peixoto-Filho 1 , L. Migoswki 1 , L.G.C. Velarde 2 , R.A. Moreira de Sá 1,2 . 1 Instituto Fernandes Figueira - Fiocruz, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; 2 Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, Brazil Objectives: The objective of this study is to evaluate the performance of fetal biometry, as Biparietal Diameter (BPD), head circumference (HC), abdominal circumference (AC), to predict the pulsatility index (PI) in the umbilical artery (UA) Doppler in the second half of normal pregnancies and compare with the conventional standard of normality, gestational age (GA). Method: A retrospective study of 909 ultrasound scans in low risk patients were extracted for Fetal Medicine Sector database from January 2010 to January 2012. The exclusion criteria were the cases of fetal malformation, anomalies in amniotic fluid, Doppler or fetal growth. Biometrics of AC, HC, BPD, in millimeters, and the GA in weeks, were classified as independent variables, and the values of PI in the UA Doppler as the dependent variable. We developed predictive models for the PI of the UA from each independent variable. The adequacy of the developed models was analyzed and the coefficient of determination (R) were calculated. Results: The results in linear regression models for each parameter analyzed varied, but all were statistically significant (p<0.01). BPD presented the coefficient of determination (R) equal to 0.1408, as the HC was a R: 0.2714, while the AC coefficient of determination found was 0.3078, which means being able to isolated predict UA PI on 14, 27 and 30%, respectively. Gestational age as an independent variable had a coefficient of correlation of 0.2411, which means being able to predict the UA PI on 24%. Graphics were created to assist the analysis of the model. Conclusions: UA Doppler is a noninvasive method widely used in the evaluation of fetal well-being, especially in high-risk pregnancies. The use of biometric parameters to estimate fetal functional parameters can increase the accuracy of such estimates and potentially reduce diagnostic errors. Among the various developed models in this study, the variable that alone showed greater ability to predict the UA PI was the fetal abdominal circumference. The performance through linear regression model was superior to GA, the most used parameter in this correlation today. Further investigation in this topic is needed to confirm these findings in fetuses with growth deviations.

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FCS20.8 MEDICAL LIABILITY IN PERI-AND POSTNATAL CARE: THE MIDWIFE AND THE OBSTETRICIAN AS PARTNERS IN CRIME? M. Eggermont. Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium Objectives: Through a case study of judicial proceedings of Belgium, the Netherlands and France related to the delivery process, this paper addresses the risks of liability for the midwife and obstetrician during peri-and postnatal care. Every medical malpractice law suit necessitates an individual analysis, but similarities are frequent. These commonalities allow us to draw some conclusions. By assessing the risks involved in intrapartum care, juridical recommendations for avoiding medical liability can be developed. Method: A 146 closed cases (facts from 1968–2009) on medical negligence in maternity care in Belgium, the Netherlands and France, were analyzed in depth. Next to mostly legal databases, a minority of the cases were retrieved through contacts with insurance companies and courts. The first juridical analysis concerned the procedural aspects such as time of facts, civil/criminal procedure, the involved health care professional and qualification of liability (personal/vicarious). After the analysis of the medical aspects, the cases were categorized in domains of expertise and then subdivided into types of pathologies. The last analysis concerned the type of damage. Results: Most cases involved the performance of the midwife/obstetrician in recognizing a specific pathology in time. Two obstetric complications were well documented: uterine rupture and solutio placentae. The highest liability rate (more than eighty percent) was reflected in the category of interpreting fetal monitoring. In some cases an instrumental delivery was the direct cause of the obstetrician’s liability. The medical indication, the positioning of the instrument and the duration of the intervention were assessed. In cases without medical risk factors, shoulder dystocia was considered an obstetric complication, if maneuvers were performed to relieve the shoulders. Conclusions: Considering the conclusions of the case study four recommendations can be made: “CREATE LIFE”: 1. “Cardiotocography” neccesitates “LIFElong learning”: Achieving good skills in assessing the necessity for and interpreting continuous fetal heart rate monitoring is the first and most important recommendation. 2. “REcognize” pathology: Particulary placental abruption and uterine rupture require immediate response by the midwife and obstetrician. 3. “Act”: Respond to the first symptoms of obstetric complications. 4. “TEamwork”: the midwife and the obstetrician should work in team to provide high quality care. Reflect the teamwork and the obstetric policy in the patients medical file, which is very important in case of medical liability cases. FCS20.9 FEAR, BLAME AND TRANSPARENCY: CAREGIVERS’ RATIONALES FOR HIGH CAESAREAN SECTION RATES IN A LOW-RESOURCE SETTING H. Litorp 1 , A. Mgaya 1,2 , C. Mbekenga 1,2 , H. Kidanto 1,2 , S. Johnsdotter 3 , B. Essén 1 . 1 Department of Women’s and Children’s Health, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; 2 Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania; 3 Faculty of Health and Society, Malmo University, Malmo, Sweden Objectives: In light of a sharp increase in the CS rate at a university hospital in Tanzania, we aimed to explore obstetric caregivers’ rationales for their hospital’s high CS rate in order to identify factors that might cause an overuse of CS. Method: After participant observations, we performed 22 semistructured individual in-depth interviews and 2 focus group discus-


sions with 5–6 caregivers in each. Respondents were consultants, specialists, residents, and midwives. The study was inspired by naturalistic inquiry and we analyzed data using a thematic analysis. As a conceptual framework, we situated our findings in the discussion of how transparency and auditing can induce behavioral change and have unintended effects. Results: Caregivers had divergent opinions on whether the hospital’s CS rate was a problem, but most thought that some CSs were performed on doubtful indications. All caregivers rationalized the high CS rate by referring to circumstances outside their control. Residents often missed support from their senior colleagues when making decisions, and conflicts between residents and midwives sometimes led to unnecessary operations. Many caregivers stated that their fear of blame from colleagues and management in case of poor perinatal outcomes made them advocate for, or perform, CSs on doubtful indications. Conclusions: In order to lower CS rates, caregivers must acknowledge their roles as decision-makers and strive to minimize unnecessary CSs. Although auditing and transparency are important in order to improve patient safety, they must be used with sensitivity regarding any unintended or counterproductive effects they might have.

FCS21. Assisted Reproduction FCS21.1 THE EFFECTS OF SPERM DNA FRAGMENTATION ON THE INTERACTION OF SPERMATOZOA WITH THE ZONA PELLUCIDA OF HUMAN OOCYTES M. Ajina 1 , J. Ben Youssef 1,2 , O. Kacem 1 , H. Ben Mustapha 1 , A. Sallem 1 , I. Zidi 1 , F. Hachani 3,1 , A. Khélifi 3,1 , A. Saad 2 . 1 Unit of Reproductive Medicine, University Hospital F. Hached, Sousse, Tunisia; 2 Laboratories of Cytogenetic, Molecular Biology and Human Biology of Reproduction Farhat Hached Hospital, Sousse, Tunisia; 3 Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University Hospital F. Hached, Sousse, Tunisia Objectives: The objective of this work was to study the effect of sperm DNA fragmentation on the interaction of sperm with the zona pellucida (ZP) of human oocytes. Method: Our work focuses on 119 infertile patients. The oocytes were collected 48 hours after insemination in patient’s assigns failed at in vitro fertilization (IVF) or at intra-cytoplasm sperm injection (ICSI). The denuded oocytes were stored in saline until their use for binding to the ZP assay. The sperm was treated by centrifugation on density gradient prior to being inseminated in contact with oocytes. The sperm DNA fragmentation was performed by the TUNEL technique. Patients were divided into three groups: Group I (79 patients, IFA <15%), Group II (28 patients, 15% < AFI <30%), group III (patients 12, IFA>30%). Results: The number of sperm attached to the zona pellucida was positively correlated with the sperm count (r = 0.018, p=0.06), sperm motility (rp=0.07) and sperm morphology (p=0.05). The IFA was positively correlated with the % of sperm abnormal forms (r = 0.247, p=0.007), the % of sperm dead (r = 0.484, p=0.012), the % of sperm acrosome abnormalities (r = 0.389, p=0.001) but negatively correlated with sperm motility (p=0.033) and fixation test of spermatozoa to the zona pellucida (p = 0.018). Conclusions: The spermatic DFI was correlated with several sperm parameters: The % of sperm abnormal forms particularly with acrosome abnormalities, the % of sperm dead and the DFI elevation was originally the inhibition of sperm binding to the zona pellucida which became zero from a 30% of DFI.


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FCS21.2 LIFESTYLE AND OUTCOMES OF ASSISTED REPRODUCTIVE TECHNIQUES: A NARRATIVE REVIEW Z. Hamzehgardeshi 1 , Z. Shahhosseini 1 , K. Samadaee Gelehkolaee 2 . 1 Dept. of Reproductive Health and Midwifery, Nasibeh Nursing and Midwifery Faculty, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Mazandaran, Iran; 2 Dept. of Reproductive Health and Midwifery, Nasibeh Nursing and Midwifery Faculty, Student Research Committee, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Mazandaran, Iran Objectives: This review study aimed to identify an ideal lifestyle in assisted reproductive treatment cycle through review of relevant literature to infertile people’s lifestyle and its relationship with ART results. Method: In this study, researchers conducted their computer search in public databases Google Scholar general search engine, and then more specific: Science Direct, ProQuest, SID, Magiran, Irandoc, Pubmed, Scopus, cochrane library, and Psych info; Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), using Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) from 2004 to 2013. Firstly, a list of 150 papers generated from the initial search. 111 papers were included. Finally, quality assessment of full text studies was performed by two independent reviewers. Researchers reviewed summary of all articles sought, ultimately used data from 62 full articles to compile this review paper. Results: Review of literature led to arrangement of nine categories, including: The relationship of ART outcomes with physical health; The relationship between ART results and weight control and diet; The relationship of ART outcomes with exercise and physical activity; The relationship of ART results with psychological health; The relationship of ART outcomes with avoiding medication, drugs and alcohol; The relationship of ART outcomes with disease prevention; The relationship of ART outcomes with environmental health; The relationship of ART outcomes with spiritual health; and The relationship of ART outcomes with social health. Conclusions: The following was obtained from review of studies: since lifestyle is among important, changeable, and influential factors in fertility, success of these methods can be greatly helped through assessment of lifestyle patterns of infertile couples, and design and implementation of healthy lifestyle counseling programs, before and during implementing assisted fertility techniques. FCS21.3 CUMULUS CELL ROLE ON MOUSE GERMINAL VESICLE OOCYTE MATURATION, FERTILIZATION, AND SUBSEQUENT EMBRYO DEVELOPMENT TO BLASTOCYST STAGE IN VITRO A. Sobhani 1 , R. Mahmodi 2 , M. Abbasi 1 , P. Pasbakhsh 1 , F. Amidi 1 . University of Medical Science, Tehran, Iran; 2 Yasuj University of Medical Science, Yasuj, Iran 1 Tehran

Objectives: The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of cumulus cells on maturation, fertilization and subsequent development of mouse germinal vesicle oocytes. Method: A total of 470 G.V. oocytes were used in this project. Collected oocytes were divided into two groups; GV oocytes without cumulus cells and GV oocytes with cumulus cells. The oocytes in both groups were cultured in TCM-199 medium supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum in a humidified atmosphere of 5% CO2 in air at 37°C. To do in vitro fertilization, matured oocytes from each group were placed in T6 medium and capacitated spermatozoa were added. Then the fertilized oocytes were cultured to obtain blastocyst 120 h. after fertilization. Data was analyzed by chi-square test and differences in the values were considerable significant when p<0.05. Results: Maturation, fertilization, cleavage and blastocyst rates in denuded oocytes were: 76.32%, 57.49%, 51.15% and 19.14% respectively. In the cumulus-oocyte complex rates were: 89.41%, 80.76%, 75.58%

and 45.62% respectively; all in the cumulus-oocyte complex were significantly higher than those of denuded oocytes (p<0.05). Conclusions: The present study indicates that cumulus cells have important role during maturation, fertilization and subsequent embryo development to the blastocyst stage. FCS21.4 CAN SEMI-QUANTITATIVE PREGNANCY TESTS ASSIST WOMEN UNDERGOING IVF TO MONITOR HCG LEVELS OUTSIDE OF A CLINIC SETTING? W. Sheldon 1 , T. Shochet 1 , J. Blum 1 , N.T.N. Ngoc 2 , Y. Comstock 3 , L. Westphal 3 , L.T. Loc 4 , P. Blumenthal 1,2 , B. Winikoff 1 . 1 Gynuity Health Projects, New York, NY, USA; 2 Center for Research and Consultancy in Reproductive Health, Ho Chi Minh City, Viet Nam; 3 Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA, USA; 4 Hung Vuong Hospital, Ho Chi Minh City, Viet Nam Objectives: Semi-quantitative pregnancy tests (SQPT), that provide assessments of urinary hCG levels in bracketed ranges, have proven useful in assessing ongoing pregnancy following medical abortion. We postulated that the test may also be a useful tool in assisted fertility treatment, improving quality of care for women desiring to become pregnant. To that end, we conducted two pilot studies to examine the feasibility and acceptability of performing repeat SQPTs at home to monitor hCG levels following in vitro fertilization (IVF). Method: One hundred and one women presenting for IVF treatment (50 at Hung Vuong Hospital in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, and 51 at Stanford University Medical Center in Palo Alto, California) participated in these pilot studies. Women were asked to perform the SQPT at home up to 5 times in the U.S. and up to 6 times in Vietnam in the weeks following embryo transfer and to attend clinical visits, which included serum hCG testing. Results: There was high concordance between the urine SQPT results and the serum hCG results. Almost all SQPTs (99.1%, n=106/107) showing steady or increase in hCG had a corresponding serum result, and 87.8% (n=43/49) of SQPTs showing negative or decrease in hCG had a corresponding serum result. Three-fourths of all women (73.3%) reported being satisfied or very satisfied with using the SQPTs at-home. Almost all (96.5%) said that the SQPT was easy or very easy to use. Conclusions: Given its accuracy in assessing hCG trends compared to serum hCG and its high acceptability among participants, the SQPT could be added to standard IVF care as an at-home supplement to current serum testing protocols, or, eventually, to replace them. A home test to identify early pregnancy and its progress might improve the quality of care for infertility clients. FCS21.5 COMPARISON OF ASSISTED REPRODUCTIVE TECHNOLOGY OUTCOMES IN WOMEN WITH POLYCYSTIC OVARY SYNDROME: CONVENTIONAL IVF, MILD IVF AND IN-VITRO MATURATION (IVM) J.S. Yoon, H.Y. Kim, K.A. Pak, S.Y. Park. Agaon Fertility Clinic, Seoul, Republic of Korea Objectives: Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) are at risk of developing ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) during ovarian stimulation. Interventions to reduce the risk of OHSS in these patients include in-vitro fertilization (IVF) with minimal use of gonadotropin (mild IVF), and retrieval of immature oocytes followed by in-vitro maturation (IVM). The aim of this study was to compare the outcomes of conventional IVF, mild IVF and IVM in women with PCOS undergoing assisted reproductive technology (ART). Method: Records of women with PCOS who underwent ART between July 2012 and October 2014 were reviewed. In total, there were 51 conventional IVF cycles, 70 mild IVF cycles and 23 IVM (with/without gonadotropin priming) cycles. The treatment proto-

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cols were compared in terms of the number of oocytes retrieved, dose of gonadotropin administered, pregnancy, and incidence of OHSS. Results: The number of oocytes retrieved was not differ between groups (12.2±5.2, 11.6±7.1, and 13.3±8.9 respectively). Dose of administered gonadotropin was higher in conventional IVF compared to mild IVF and IVM group (1550.0±528.1, 771.1±248.1, and 192.4±187.6 respectively, P<0.001). Clinical pregnancy rate was lower in IVM group, but there was no statistically significant difference (56.9%, 45.7%, and 34.8% respectively, P=0.186). Five out of 51 women (9.8%) in conventional IVF group and 7 out of 70 women (10.0%) in mild IVF group developed moderate or severe OHSS, whereas none did in the IVM group. Conclusions: Mild IVF and IVM seem to be effective treatment regimens in women with PCOS with diminishing the use of gonadotropin and/or removing the risk of developing OHSS. FCS21.6 THE EFFECT OF INSULIN RESISTANCE ON IN VITRO FERTILIZATION-EMBRYO TRANSFER FOR WOMEN WITHOUT POLYCYSTIC OVARIAN SYNDROME K. Mekaru, K. Asato, C. Heshiki, H. Masamoto, Y. Aoki. Univercity of the Ryukyus, Nishihara/Okinawa, Japan Objectives: Insulin resistance (IR) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS); therefore, insulin-sensitizing agents are widely used to improve IR in women with PCOS. However, it remains uncertain whether IR in women without PCOS should be treated. This study aimed to clarify whether IR in women without PCOS affects the outcomes of in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer (IVF-ET) and pregnancy. Method: Between January 2010 and December 2012, we retrospectively recruited 116 non-PCOS women who underwent first IVF-ET cycle. IR was calculated using the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) [HOMA-IR = (insulin ×glucose)/405]. HOMA values >2.5 were used to indicate IR. Based on the HOMA index, 28 women were IR(+) and 88 women had normal insulin sensitivity. We retrospectively compared the response to controlled ovarian hyperstimulation, retrieved oocytes number, fertilization rates, pregnancy rate, live birth rates, and incidence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Results: There were no significant differences in HMG administration, peak E2, retrieved oocyte number, fertilized embryo number, good quality embryo number, implantation rate, clinical pregnancy rate, miscarriage rate, delivery rate, or OHSS and GDM incidence between groups. Conclusions: IR in non-PCOS patients has no effect on IVF-ET outcomes or perinatal prognosis. FCS21.7 NEW APPROACH OF PREVENTION AND TREATMENT OF PREGNANCY COMPLICATION AFTER IVF CONCEPTION V. Lazurenko 1 , T. Frolova 1 , O. Chernyak 2 , M. Antonyan 1 . 1 Kharkov Natioonal Medical University, Kharkov, Ukraine; 2 Regional Health Department, Kharkov, Ukraine Objectives: Nowadays numerous ongoing studies are trying to find out whether in the case of successful IVF attempt there is a high risk of complicated pregnancy or it corresponds to the pregnancy complication development in that particular couple regardless of the way of conception. Our research tried to find out likelihood of complicated pregnancy after IVF and reveal underlying causes of such complications and their relation to the way of conception. Also we looked for effective approach to prevent IVF pregnancy from developing complication. Method: In order to solve this goal 120 pregnant women within their 6–12 week gestation were examined including serum content of IL1, 6, 8, 10, TNF-α, IgA, Fas-ligand, VEGF, endothelin-1, nitric oxide,


lipid peroxidation. 30 women had concepted in natural way, others had fallen pregnant by using IVF (90). 45 of them were managed by usual treatment for IVF in the first trimester, for others 45 ones this treatment was accompanied by direct immunological correction (azoxymer’s bromid) together with ozone therapy. Results: By assessment of cytokine pattern, immune and endothelial activity the shift in favor of proinflammatory cytokines accompanied by T-cell abnormalities and low serum IgA was revealed. Comparatively to the women whose conception had occurred in natural way there was evidence of activated apoptosis by raised serum Fasligand in patients after IVF. The risk of haemostatic disorders in that case ensued from increase of VEGF (346.3±37.4 pg/ml), endothelin-1 (16.5±2.3 ng/ml), reduction of nitric oxide (0.77±0.03 mmol/l) and ratio NO and nitrites (25.4±1.1 mmol/l), activation of lipid peroxidation indicative to neoangiogenesis disturbances. Conclusions: Pregnancy after IVF conception has a raised risk for developement of complications due to shift to proimmflamatory activation and neoangiogenesis disturbances that could lead to affected implantation of fertilized egg. Comparatively to traditional treatment new approach clinical efficiency proved to have advantages. FCS21.8 OVARIAN HYPERSTIMULATION SYNDROME IN IN VITRO FERTILIZATION TREATMENT CYCLES AND EFFECT ON PREGNANCY RATES N.S. Okonkwo 1,2 , O.E. Abiara 2 , O.O. Odumade 2 , R.A. Ajayi 2 . 1 College of Medicine, University of Ibadan., Ibadan, Nigeria; 2 Bridge Clinic, Lagos, Nigeria Objectives: This study seeks to determine the effect of this potentially life threatening condition on the pregnancy rates of patients who develop this complication. Objectives were: 1) To compare the overall pregnancy rate with that of women who develop OHSS in their treatment cycle. 2) To compare pregnancy rates among women with varying severities of OHSS. Method: A retrospective cohort survey of women who had IVF treatment cycles between January and August 2014, an 8 month period, was conducted in The Bridge Clinic Lagos, Nigeria. Results: A total of 292 patients were recruited. The incidence of OHSS was 7.5%. 2.7% had mild OHSS while 4.8% had moderate OHSS. None had severe OHSS. The overall pregnancy rate was 32.2% while that among patients with OHSS patients 54.5% (p=0.0137). Higher pregnancy rates were noted with increasing severity of OHSS, 18.2% for mild and 36.4% for moderate OHSS. This was however not significant. (p=0.4285) Pregnancy losses were also higher among patients with OHSS 33.3% vs 19.1% (p=0.2539). Similarly, higher incidences of both early pregnancy losses and midtrimester losses were observed in the OHSS group which was also not significant. Conclusions: There is a highly statistically significant increase in pregnancy rates of patients who develop OHSS during their treatment cycle. Pregnancy rates seem to be higher with increasing severity of OHSS but this association was not statistically significant. Pregnancy losses also seem to be higher with OHSS. This association was also not statistically significant.


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FCS22. Assisted Reproduction FCS22.1 THE ROLE OF GNRH ANALOGUES IN IMPROVING OUTCOME AT SUPEROVULATION AND INTRA-UTERINE INSEMINATION (IUI) AFTER SURGICAL CORRECTION OF MILD ENDOMETRIOSIS – A RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL N. Malhotra, P. Bansal, V. Dadhwal, D. Deka, A. Sharma. Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, All India Institute of Medical sciences, New Delhi, Delhi, India Objectives: The etiology of infertility in mild endometriosis is an enigma. Surgical correction followed by superovulation (SO) and IUI improves pregnancy outcome. While GnRH analogues prior to invitro-fertilization (IVF) improves pregnancy outcome, their benefit in IUI is controversial. The objective of this study was to assess the benefit of GnRH analogue (Luprolide 3.75 mg) given post surgically in women with mild endometriosis undergoing superovulation and IUI. Method: Ninety women were randomized to receive GnRH-a, luprolide acetate, 3.75 mg (study group I, n=45) or no treatment (control group II, n=45) after surgical correction of mild endometriosis (rASRM). Superovulation with urinary hMG was followed by IUI in the next cycle in both groups. Women with PCOS, recurrent endometriosis, male factor infertility were excluded. Couples were offered up to three cycles, but analysis was done after one cycle to see benefit of GnRH-a. The primary outcome was clinical pregnancy rate (PR), and secondary outcome was doses and days of gonadotropins, number of follicles >18 mm, endometrial thickness and miscarriage rate. Results: Both groups were comparable in age, BMI, duration of infertility and surgical treatment at laparoscopy. Clinical pregnancy rate was 15.5% in group I and 17.7% in group II with difference in proportion of 2.2%, 95% CI of 13.2 to 17.6% (p=0.7). Overall PR was 21.9% in GnRH-a (group I) treated and 23.8% in non treated (group II), (p=0.8). The doses (1102.7 vs 802.5 IU; p=0.5) and duration (12.0 vs 11.2 days; p=1.0) of gonadotropins were comparable in both groups. The number of follicles >18 mm and endometrial thickness showed no variation between groups. There was no miscarriage in either group. Conclusions: GnRH analogue addition showed no improvement over surgical management in women with mild endometriosis undergoing SO and IUI. FCS22.2 PROTECTIVE EFFECT OF EPIGALLOCATECHIN-3-GALLATE (EGCG) ON EMBRYOS FERTILIZED WITH FROZEN-THAWED AND H2 O2 -INDUCED DNA DAMAGE SPERM Z. Li, M. Chen, W. Liu, W. Xiao. Reproductive Medicine Center, Shantou, Guangdong, China Objectives: Cryopreservation can induce damage in human spermatozoa, possibly through reactive oxygen species (ROS). To resolve the detrimental effects of oxidative stress-induced DNA damage associated with the sperm cryopreservation process, addition of an antioxidant to the assisted reproduction technology (ART) system may be beneficial. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), which is the principal active ingredient of green tea, is a particularly promising candidate for an ART antioxidant due to its robust anti-oxidation activity and protective effects on cells and DNA. Previous application to an ART system showed that EGCG is capable of promoting embryonic development, but the underlying mechanism of this effect remains unknown. Method: We first examined the effect of EGCG on embryos fertilized with both fresh and frozen-thawed sperm that collected from epididymis of Kunming mice, were exposed to various concentrations of EGCG in fertilization and/or embryo culture media. The optimal EGCG concentration was determined by comparing the rates of fertiliza-

tion, one-, four-cell embryos and blastocyst formation. Then, we used H2 O2 to simulate cryopreservation and established an DNA damage IVF model system, which resolved the low fertilization rate of frozenthawed sperm, to investigate whether EGCG could affect cell cycle. Finally, the potential EGCG-mediated effects on pSer1981-ATM were investigated in one-cell embryos by immunocytochemistry. Results: Optimum concentration of EGCG promoted embryonic development with fresh/frozen-thawed sperm was 10/17.5 μg/mL. These data implied that EGCG, used at the optimum concentration, is beneficial to IVF outcome. Temporal evaluation of cleavage rates of one-cell embryos (from 16.5 hpi to 23.5 hpi) revealed a significant difference at the 17.5 hpi (70% vs. 34%) and 18.5 hpi (83% vs. 68%), and the EGCG group required less time to achieve 50% cleavage. Stronger expression of pSer1981-ATM in zygotes fertilized with H2 O2 -treated sperm after EGCG addition, only a faint signal was detected in the nuclei of the control group (0.0196±0.0103 vs. 0.0083±0.0066, P<0.05). Conclusions: Our study indicates that EGCG supplementation at certain concentrations promote the development of embryos fertilized with oxidative stress-induced DNA damage sperm. There is a possibility that EGCG is exerting the beneficial effect through mediating the activation of ATM and moved up the time to enter into M phase. It may be an effective protectant agent for cryopreserved sperm used in IVF. Ongoing research on molecules involved in DNA damage repair is investigating. FCS22.3 CLINICAL EXPERIENCE OF RECURRENT MISCARRIAGE MANAGEMENT WITH MESENCHYMAL STROMAL CELL THERAPY G. Sukhikh, A. Savilova, N. Tetruashvili, Y. Rylova. Federal State Budget Institution “Research Center for Obstetrics, Gynecology and Perinatology” Ministry of Healthcare of the Russian Federation, Moscow, Russia Objectives: Habitual abortion often occurs in patients with inadequate endometrium with distorted functional activity and no other obvious causes of reproductive failures. Standard approach of hormonal treatment for enhancement of endometrial function in these patients is not universally benefitial, stimulating search of new therapies. The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of intrauterine administration of autologous endometrial mesenchymal stromal cells (eMSC) for restoration of the functional activity of the endometrium in patients with inadequate endometrium and habitual abortion. Method: Patients with a history of ≥3 spontaneous abortions, endometrial thickness ≤5mm and non-responsive to standard therapy were included. Genetic, infectious, hormonal, autoimmune causes of abortions and intrauterine adhesions were excluded. The pilot study was approved by the ethics committee, informed consent was signed by all patients. Cultures of eMSC were obtained from pipelle diagnostic biopsy of 11 patients, grown in vitro and characterized by flow cytometry (phenotype CD73+ /CD90+ /CD105+ /HLA-DR– /CD14– /CD45– ), their proliferative and differentiation potentials were determined, as well as the absence of bacterial and viral contaminations. The patients then underwent a single intrauterine administration of 100– 200 million of unmodified autologous eMSCs. Results: The most important results of study were absence of side effects (allergic, inflammatory reactions) for intrauterine administration of a given quantity of eMSCs in all patients. After eMSCs administration two patients discontinued the study, in 9 patients an endometrial thickness increases from 3–5 mm to 7–8 mm as was registered at US. Five patients from 11 spontaneously conceived, two have by now given birth to full-term infants, one woman is at over 20 weeks of gestation to date, the second - at 9 weeks, and in one case the miscarriage occurred at 7 weeks of gestation. Conclusions: We consider these results encouraging. Cell therapy with endometrial MSCs may be a new trend in clinical practice for in-

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adequate endometrium and recurrent miscarriage. As the main way for enhancing of cell therapy effectiveness we consider increasing the number of administered cells by 200–300 million and frequency of administration to 2–3 procedures, as well as a combination of local and systemic administration of MSCs. FCS22.4 BATCH IVF – IS IT A BOON FOR RESOURCE POOR COUNTRIES? L. Shrikhande. Shrikhande IVF & Surrogacy Centre, Nagpur, Maharashtra, India Introduction: A “Batch IVF” is an approach where the menstrual cycles of multiple women are programmed in such a way such that they all can undergo the process of stimulation, Ovum Pick Up and Embryo Transfer at the same time. This is done to get optimum utilization of lab resources and manpower without compromising the outcome. The day for initiating stimulation is calculated retrospectively from the day the visiting embryologist is available at the clinic (day of ovum pick-up). Objective: To study the success rate of IVF done in Batch IVF. Method: An observational study was conducted at an IVF and surrogacy centre from Nov 2011-Nov 2014 on women who underwent IVF treatment. Counting Ovum Pickup Day as day1 we stopped OCP in all women 19 days prior to OPU. We added a gonadotropin injection on 7th day of OCP stoppage and an antagonist was added on D6 of stimulation. On D11, trigger was given.D3 Embryo Transfer was done on all. Beta HCG was done on D13/D14 of ET. Results: 108 women were between 30–35 age group.Beta HCG was positive in 46 women and the success ratewas 42%. 57 women were in the 35–40 age group and Beta HCG was positive in 20 women with a success rate of 34%. 25 women were in the 40–45 age group.Beta HCG was positive in 5 women with a success rate of 20%. Among 10 women who were between 45–50 years, Beta HCG was positive in 1 woman with a success rate of 10%. Conclusions: Our success rate with batch IVF in all age groups is comparable with the success rate of IVF where batch IVF is not performed. This is of great importance for the IVF set ups who want to have optimum utilization of their logistics. In India we have the concept of visiting embryologist because of shortage of qualified experienced embryologist. This study clearly demonstrates that with batch IVF the success rates are not compromised. FCS22.5 THE INCUBATION PERIOD FOLLOWING THE WARMING OF EARLY DAY-5 VITRIFIED BLASTOCYSTS SIGNIFICANTLY IMPROVES CLINICAL PREGNANCY AND IMPLANTATION RATE M. Sakellariou, A. Koytsouni, E. Timotheou, G. Nikolopoulos, N. Bardis, G. Ntoutsoulis, D. Kostomenos, V. Athanasiou. IVF Athens Center, Athens/Marousi, Greece Objectives: Since first pregnancies were reported with vitrified/warmed blastocysts more attention has been given to the methodology of vitrification. Many papers deal with the composition of cryoprotectants, time of exposure or period of storage but there is no evidence about the effect of incubation period blastocysts should remain in culture before embryo transfer. Usually, the incubation after warming varies between two and four hours. The purpose of the study was to evaluate whether the prolonged incubation period of early day-5 vitrified blastocysts, for 12 hours before the embryo transfer affects the survival, pregnancy and implantation rate and the pregnancy outcome. Method: The study was conducted between January 2013 and August 2014. A total of 107 women who underwent the transfer of 214 (2 blastocysts/embryo transfer, ET) aseptically vitrified warmed blastocysts was randomized to either Group I (43 women) or Group II (64 women). Blastocysts were vitrified early on day-5, 115 hours post


ICSI, using standard vitrification protocol and closed system. In Group I blastocysts (n=86) were incubated for 4h whereas in Group II blastocysts (n=128) were incubated for 12h before ET. In all blastocysts, assisted hatching was performed prior ET. Survival, pregnancy and implantation rate and pregnancy outcome were evaluated. Results: The survival rate of vitrified blastocysts and the pregnancy outcome were similar in both groups. However, we found that the percentage of clinical pregnancies in Group II was significantly higher than those in Group I (75% versus 47%, P<0.01) and additionally, the implantation rate was enhanced, too (1.4 versus 1.1 respectively, P<0.05). Conclusions: To our knowledge, this is the first study which demonstrates that a 12h incubation period of warmed blastocysts statistically improves pregnancy and implantation rate. Our results strongly support that vitrified early day-5 blastocysts need a longer incubation period of more than 4 hours before ET. This prolonged incubation helps blastocysts gain a better level of growth which turns endometrium more receptive. However, since there is no study referring to the effect of an incubation period between 4 and 12h, incubation for approximately 6 to 8 hours is suggested to be further investigated. FCS22.6 INTRACYTOPLASMIC SPERM INJECTION OUTCOMES AFTER CONVENTIONAL IN VITRO FERTILIZATION FAILURE A. Sallem 1,2 , H. Ben Mustapha 1,2 , O. Kacem 1 , I. Zidi 1,2 , M. Harzallah 1,2 , F. Hachani 1 , S. Chachia 1 , A. Saad 2 , M. Ajina 1,2 . 1 Unit of Reproductive Medicine, Farhat Hached University Teaching Hospital, Sousse, Tunisia; 2 Cytogenetics and Reproductive Biology Department, Farhat Hached University Teaching Hospital, Sousse, Tunisia Objectives: Fertilization failure is a frustrating experience that occurs in 5–15% of couples undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF). The purpose of the present study was to determine whether ICSI could improve fertilization rate and enhance embryo quality in couples with non-male factor infertility having fertilization failure in the last IVF attempt. Method: The study population consisted of 45 infertile couples diagnosed with non-male factor infertility referred for an ICSI procedure after whether total fertilization failure (n=33) or low fertilization (n=12) in their previous IVF cycle. The last IVF attempt before ICSI was designated as the control cycle, so that each couple acted as its own control. Ovarian stimulation was similar between the two attempts. The main outcomes measures were number of retrieved oocytes and oocyte maturity. We also compared fertilization rate, segmentation rate, top embryos and pregnancy rate between the two attempts. Results: The mean of infertility duration was 7.11±4.22. Total number of retrieved oocytes was 5.75±3.53 in IVF cycle and 5.2±2.63 in ICSI (p=0.27). Mature oocytes were comparable among IVF and ICSI cycle. Both fertilization and segmentation rates were significantly higher in ICSI when compared to IVF cycle (p<0.001). The percentage of top quality embryos was 10±27.38% in IVF cycle and 36.21±36.76% when ICSI was performed (p<0.001). Out of 35 cycles that resulted in embryo transfer, 9 (25.71%) biochemical pregnancies were obtained. Out of 5 clinical pregnancies, missed abortion occurred in one. Conclusions: Our results support the use of ICSI to improve fertilization rate and embryo quality even in patients with apparently normal semen parameters but having a long past of infertility.


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FCS22.7 OOCYTE CRYOPRESERVATION (COMPARISON BETWEEN SLOW FREEZING AND VITRIFICATION IN MOUSE OOCYTES) S. Jadoon. Monash University, Melbourne, Australia; 2 Ayub Medical Complex, Abbottabad, Pakistan Objectives: Various approaches have been utilized in attempting to cryopreserve oocytes, beginning with slow cooling and more recently the technique of vitrification. Now it seems that oocyte cryopreservation is no longer an experimental technique and it is being increasingly utilized in clinics around the world. As successful outcome in oocyte cryopreservation can be assessed by survival through the freeze-thaw process, potential for fertilization, embryo development and dynamics of meiotic spindles. This study aimed to analyze these features in context of vitrification and slow freezing. Method: Mature MII mouse oocytes from F1 (C57BL6/J X CBA) mice (n=43) were divided randomly into two groups of equal numbers and were cryopreserved by slow freezing and by vitrification. Upon rewarming these oocytes were assessed for survival and for fertilization potential. Oocytes were fixed and stained to compare the effect of both protocols on spindle reassembly and chromosome configuration at 10min, 1h and 3h after warming. Unfrozen oocytes were used as controls. Results: A greater number of vitrified oocytes survived cryopreservation than slow frozen oocytes (70.3% vs 12.5%; p=0.024). After insemination, fertilization rates were higher for vitrified oocytes as compared to slow frozen oocytes (15.86% vs 4.6%; p=0.046). Morphology of the meiotic spindle was found to be disorganized in configuration in slow frozen oocytes at all time points 10mins, 1h and 3h), whereas in vitrified oocytes the spindles were found to be aligned at all time points. Chromosomes were seen to be displaced from equatorial region in both groups. Conclusions: Cryopreservation of mouse oocytes was conducted with greater success using vitrification, compared to slow freezing with survival, fertilization, and spindle assembly more favorable to a successful outcome in this model.

FCS23. Benign Conditions in Gynecology FCS23.1 CONTRIBUTIONS OF HISTOLOGY TO COMPLICATIONS OF EARLY PREGNANCY F. Ajibade, S. Hirsi-Farah, E. Kushanu, M. Fawaz. Royal Berkshire Hospital, Reading, UK Objectives: Histology has been at the forefront of medical diagnosis but advances in technology like ultrasound has led to changes in practise with complications of early pregnancy. The recent advocacy for conservative & medical management of early pregnancy complications may not provide histological confirmation. The presence of molar or partial molar features in the histological diagnosis makes a difference to the management. Likewise the absence of chronic villi in histology specimen of miscarriage may lead to suspicion of ectopic pregnancy. The study is to investigate the position of Histological diagnosis in modern management of complications of early pregnancy. Method: A retrospectively audit of the histological specimens from miscarriage of pregnancy and suspected ectopic pregnancy over a 12 months period in Royal Berkshire hospital, Reading. UK was done. Results: 420 surgical procedures were undertaken for miscarriages. Histology specimen obtained in 93% of ERPC, 3% of histology specimens with complete/partial molar pregnancies, 2% specimen with hydrophic degenerative features with no features of trophoblastic disease. One case which was complete trophoblastic disease was missed on ultrasound & CT scan. There were 84 surgical interventions

for suspected ectopic pregnancies. Histology specimen obtained on 55pts. 50 pts (91%) have positive histological confirmation, 5 pts (9%) cases with negative histological features. 34 pts (62%) have ectopic confirmed on the right side, 21pts (38%) including I cornual on the Left side. Conclusions: This study showed when scanning for ectopic pregnancy close attention should be on the patients’ right side. The study reiterates that negative histological feature is a recognised complication of surgical management of early ectopic. Patient must be informed pre-operatively as a complication and an appropriate follow up guideline must be in place for surgical managed unruptured ectopic pregnancies. Diagnosis of molar pregnancy has implication for patients’ care because approximately 0.2–5% of patients with partial mole (PM) and 15–25% of patients with complete mole (CM) developed persistent GTD. Histology still remains an important in distinguishing hydrophic changes on scan and partial molar pregnancy. FCS23.2 FRONTAL ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAM α-ASYMMETRY DURING THE LUTEAL PHASE OF THE MENSTRUAL CYCLE IN WOMEN WITH PREMENSTRUAL SYNDROME M. El-Gharib. Tanta Daculty of Medicibe, Tanta, Egypt Objectives: The aim of this work was to assess the resting frontal electroencephalographic patterns in females who meet criteria for PMS and PMDD. Method: This study conducted on 150 female participants recruited from attendants of the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Tanta University Hospital, during the period from May to November 2013. All cases were counseled about the procedure. Henceforth, a written consent was taken from every patient. The custom PMDD interview involved asking each woman a series of questions concerning PMDD symptoms. Women having PMDD were asked to complete a daily symptom rating checklist for three consecutive cycles. Results: Seventy percent of women reporting PMS and 75% of women with PMDD exhibited left frontal activity at rest during the luteal phase of the cycle (P<0.0001). Conclusions: We concluded that resting luteal phase EEG frontal asymmetry must be added to the research criteria for PMDD (DSMIV-TR). FCS23.3 A RARE CASE OF THE LARGEST PEDUNCULATED ANGIOMYOFIBROBLASTOMA OF THE VULVA K.M. Pacifico. St. Luke’s Medical Center, Quezon City, The Philippines Objectives: Introduction: Angiomyofibroblastoma (AMFB) is a rare, usually small, benign mesenchymal neoplasm of the female lower genital tract which was first characterized by Fletcher, et al, in 1992. As of 2012, only 71 cases of AMFB in literature have been reported and to our knowledge, only 8 cases are huge pedunculated AMFB of the vulva. Reported dimensions of the tumor range from 0.5 to 12 cm. Case report: We report a case of 67-year-old G2P1 (1011) with a 10year history of a gradually enlarging, nontender, huge pedunculated left vulvar mass, which measured 25 cm. Discussion: The working impression of angiomyofibroblastoma was made as guided by the patient’s comprehensive history and physical examination, imaging clues using transperineal ultrasound and CT scan and other laboratory tests, and its correlation with the histopathologic findings. On the other hand, aggressive angiomyxoma (AAM) was considered preoperatively based on the huge size of the mass, which was surgically important because this has no definite plane of dissection. Conclusions: It is important for a huge pedunculated vulvar mass exceeding 10 cm to be differentiated between AMFB and aggressive

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angiomyxoma (AAM), because the risk of recurrence and local invasion with contiguous structures such as the urethra, bladder and the rectum, is increased in the latter, should surgical excision be inadequate. FCS23.4 TO INVESTIGATE THE EXPRESSION AND THE MEANING OF MYOCARDIN IN HUMAN UTERINE SMOOTH MUSCLE L. Wanjun, Z. Yingjun, L. Yang. Tianjin Central Hospital of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Tianjin, China Objectives: To investigate the expression of myocardin in normal uterine smooth muscle,offering a new study direction in the diagnosis and treatment of gynecological disease. Method: Collect 30 pairs of human uterine leiomyoma tissues and myometrial tissue for primary cell culture.Western blot was used to detect the expression of myocardin in protein level, using real-time PCR to detect the expression of compared mRNA level. Results: The expression of myocardin in uterine leiomyoma were significantly lower than uterine smooth muscle.Under the concentration gradient of E2, myocardin have a high expression at 1nM E2, this promoter actin can be suppressed with the E2 antagonist. Conclusions: Myocardin may have the inhibited effect in the occur of uterine leiomyoma, E2 have the promoter actin of the myocardin expression in uterine smooth muscle. FCS23.5 MASTALGIA IN YOUNG WOMEN: INFLUENCE OF OTHER TYPES OF GYNECOLOGICAL PAIN AND FAMILY HISTORY OF BREAST CANCER C. Caetano, Z. Ferraz, C. Guerra, I. Torgal. Centro Hospitalar e Universitário de Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal Objectives: To analyse interactions between breast cancer phobia, dysmenorrhea and dyspareunia in the reporting frequency of mastalgia in young women. Method: An anonymous voluntary questionnaire was handed to female medical students of the University of Coimbra, to collect gynecological and obstetrical history information. Pain was recorded using the WHO numeric scale. All answers were recorded in a database and statistical analysis was made using IBM SPSS version 20. Results: 670 questionnaires were collected. Average age 21.4 years (18–35). Race was Caucasian in 98.8%. Dysmenorrhea was reported by 73.4%, dyspareunia by 26.5% and mastalgia by 40.8% of responders. Positive family history of breast cancer was reported by 19%. Statistically significant associations were found between mastalgia and dysmenorrhea (p<0.001), mastalgia and dyspareunia (p=0.046) and dysmenorrhea and dyspareunia (p=0.001). The relative risk of reporting mastalgia was 2.55 in patients with dysmenorrhea and 1.50 in patients with dyspareunia. A statistically significant correlation was found between dysmenorrhea and dyspareunia. A positive family history for breast cancer had no association with the frequency of mastalgia. Conclusions: This study strongly suggests that mastalgia is frequently co-reported with dyspareunia and dysmenorrhea. A positive correlation was found between the scores of dysmenorrhea and dyspareunia. A positive family history for breast cancer had no influence in the reporting of mastalgia. FCS23.6 AWARENESS OF FEMALE HEALTH WORKERS AND NON HEALTH WORKERS ON CERVICAL CANCER AND CERVICAL CANCER SCREENING: SOUTH-SOUTH, NIGERIA A.A. Ekine, G. Owoeye, W. Obaabo Levi. Niger Delta University Teaching Hospital, Okolobiri, Bayelsa State, Nigeria Objectives: The aim of the study is to promotion the benefits of early


detection by public awareness and knowledge of the diseases and factors; influencing the utilisation of the screening among non health and health workers in Rivers State and Bayelsa State, Nigeria. Method: This study measured the general public and the health workers awareness, screening, and preventive knowledge of cervical cancer and to sort for information about the condition and suggestive input for the future. To ensure clarity the questionnaire was pretested on medical students at the Niger Delta University Teaching Hospital, Okolobri, Bayelsa State, Nigeria, and University of Port Harcourt, Rivers Sate. Those who took part in the pre test were not included in the study. The data from the questionnaire were entered and analyzed using SPSS version 10. Results: The mean age of the non health workers was 29+ 9.2 years and 29±9.9 years for the health workers. Degree of awareness on cervical cancer 415 (80.9%) was high, where x2 = 25.366; p=0.000; df =1 and cervical cancer screening 382 (74.5%) where x2 = 26.371; p=0.00; df = 1. Mass media was the main source of information in non-health workers group 115 (56.1%) while health workers 202 (96.2%) received their information from Doctors and fellow health workers. Surprisingly; 232 (60.7%) aggreed that, cervical cancer screening is necessary for every sexually active woman. Despite that, only 71 (18.6%) had cervical cancer screening in life. Conclusions: This result is from a relatively highly educated class of the society, with certain level of economic stability, sill the outcome is poor. Therefore of the opinion that, outcome may be worst in the lower income and less educated class. This demands creation of health promotion and disease prevention policies, awareness campaigns and screening programs at all levels of the society. Integration of screening services into already existing programs, like family planning and reproductive health services, cancer and sex education awareness in all level of education. Would be an effective strategy in reducing preventable death in an enviroment with financial and resource constrains. FCS23.7 HYSTERECTOMY FOR BENIGN INDICATIONS IN ESTONIA IN 2004–2011 P. Veerus 3,4 , F. Kirss 1 , K. Lang 2 , K. Toompere 2 . 1 Tartu University Women’s Clinic, Tartu, Estonia; 2 Department of Public Health, University of Tartu, Tartu, Estonia; 3 West Tallinn Central Hospital Women’s Clinic, Tallinn, Estonia; 4 National Institute for Health Development, Tallinn, Estonia Objectives: To describe hysterectomy rates in different age groups, proportion of different operation types, and main indications for hysterectomies in Estonia from 2004 to 2011. Method: Central electronic database of the Estonian Health Insurance Fund was used to obtain data on hysterectomies from 2004 to 2011. On each woman diagnosis according to ICD-10, type of surgery according to NOMESCO, woman’s age, and time of operation was retrieved. Midyear female population statistics was obtained from Statistics Estonia. Results: The total number of hysterectomies was 12 336, with a yearly mean of 1542. The rate of hysterectomies per 100 000 women/year decreased from 239.1 to 204.9. The proportion of abdominal hysterectomies decreased from 86.0% to 56.1% and the proportion of laparoscopic hysterectomies increased from 6.3% to 34.7%, while the proportion of vaginal hysterectomies remained more or less stable (7.8–9.1%). Most hysterectomies (74.4%) occurred in the age group 35 to 54 years. The main indications for hysterectomies were leiomyoma (61.5% of cases), female genital prolapse (9.0%) and endometriosis (8.8%). Conclusions: Population rates for hysterectomies in Estonia were similar to those in other countries, but the proportion of abdominal hysterectomies was higher and that of the vaginal ones lower than elsewhere. The proportion of vaginal and laparoscopic hysterec-


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tomies should increase, and further studies on possible short and long term complications related to hysterectomies are needed. FCS23.8 SYSTEMATIC REVIEW OF MAGNETIC RESONANCE-GUIDED FOCUSED ULTRASOUND (MRGFUS) USE IN THE TREATMENT OF UTERINE LEIOMYOMA P.F.M. Peregrino 1 , M.d.L. Messina 1 , M.R. de Menezes 2,3 , J.M. Soares Jr 1 , R.d.S. Simões 1 , E. Zlotnik 1 , E.C. Pousada 1 , H.F. Brudniewski 1 , C.M. Siqueira Neto 1 , N. Bozzini 1 , E.C. Baracat 1 . 1 Disciplina de Ginecologia do Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da USP, São Paulo, Brazil; 2 Instituto de Radiologia do Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da USP, São Paulo, Brazil; 3 Disciplina de Radiologia Do Instituto de Câncer do estado de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil Objectives: To review systematically the use of MRgFUS in the treatment of uterine leiomyoma in symptomatic patients. Method: The keywords used were myoma, leiomyoma, fibroid, highintensity focused ultrasound ablation, ultrasonic therapy, HIFU, and MRgFUS. The entire composition of this review followed the PRISMA criteria. Selection Criteria: Inclusion: reproductive age women with uterine leiomyoma; women with complaints of menorrhagic cycles, dysmenorrhea, and increase in abdominal volume; and use of MRgFUS in the treatment of uterine leiomyoma. Exclusion: asymptomatic women, narrative reviews, case reports, cost assessment of therapy method; comparison of the different techniques of the MRgFUS method; evaluation or study of the MRgFUS technique; and studies with different protocols for MRgFUS use. Results: Twenty studies of MRgFUS-treated leiomyoma patients were selected. The data suggest tumor size reduction and symptom improvement in every case. Adverse effects such as abdominal or back pain, menorrhagia, were few and not severe. Conclusions: The review suggests MRgFUS is a safe and quite effective therapy technique. However, further studies with a higher level of scientific evidence are needed to be able to recommend this technique as an alternative in leiomyoma treatment.

FCS24. Benign Conditions in Gynecology FCS24.1 EXPLORING THE PATTERNS AND PRACTICE OF LACTACYD PRESCRIPTION FOR MINOR GYNECOLOGICAL CONDITIONS IN THE MIDDLE EAST H. Arab 1 , L. Almadani 5 , M. Tahlak 3 , M. Chawla 3 , A. Hkalil 2 , M. Abdulmoneim 4 . 1 Dr Arab Medical Center, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia; 2 American University of Beirut, Beirut, Lebanon; 3 Latifa Hospital, Dubai, United Arab Emirates; 4 Hamad Hospital, Doha, Qatar; 5 Procare Hospital, Alkhobar, Saudi Arabia Objectives: To determine the clinical practice pattern and women profile when Lactacyd is prescribed for Minor Gynecolopical Conditions (MGC) in the Middle East (ME). Method: 1181 women met the inclusion criteria of being over 18 years of age, sexually active, with no signs or symptoms of cervicitis or sexually transmitted disease, and used Lactacyd to manage MGC at least once within the last month from the data collection visit. Results: Reasons for prescribing Lactacyd were (A) Relief of symptoms such as itching, burning, and discharge (32%). (B) Treatment of vulvovaginitis (26%). (C) Genital hygiene (33%). Dominance of these indications varied in the ME: (A) in Gulf countries (51%), (B) in Lebanon (41%), and (C) in Saudi Arabia (47%). 981 women (78%) had physical examination, 339 (36.8%) of them required microbiological testing. Itching was the most commonly reported symptom (29%). One third of women tried alternative treatments in the past. Women

satisfaction scored 7–8 out of 10 on self-assessment questionnaire. Only 10 women (0.9%) discontinued Lactacyd because of lack of improvement. Conclusions: Genital hygiene is highly valued by women in this region and they found Lactacyd a better safe and effective alternative for managing their MGC with affirmative views and awareness of their physicians. FCS24.2 INDICATORS SUBPOPULATION OF T- AND B-CELLS IN WOMEN OF REPRODUCTIVE AGE DMC DEPENDING ON THE RESULTS OF HISTOLOGICAL EXAMINATION Z. Datkhayeva, S. Issenova. Kazakh National Medical University, Almaty, Kazakhstan Objectives: Dysfunctional uterine bleeding (DUB) – the most commonly observed menstrual dysfunction in women. The pathogenesis of bleeding in the reproductive age is associated with hyperestrogenemia, against which developing endometrial hyperplasia. However, not always with the MQM revealed endometrial pathology. Currently, there is evidence on the role of immune disorders in the pathogenesis of dysfunctional uterine bleeding. Objectives: study perfomance of subpopulations of T and B cells and the immunoglobulins in women with DMC depending on the results of histological examination of the endometrium. Method: The study included 60 patients of reproductive age with the menstrual cycle. About uterine bleeding all patients was made diagnostic scraping the mucosa of the uterus followed by histological examination and ELISA for immunological research. Identified common lymphocytes subpopulation of T and B cells, immunoglobulins G, M, A, E. Results: Group I with endometrial hyperplasia, group II with identified secretory endometrium transformation, group III with endometrial proliferation. Indicators of total lymphocytes and immunoglobulins in group I were as follows: general limfotcytes – 22.5±1.84, CD3 – 53,5±2,54%, CD4 – 26.1±1.24%, CD8 – 28.3±2.24%, CD16 – 10.8±1.45%, CD72 – 13.8±1.37%. Indicators immunoglobulins G, M, A, E respectively constituted: 13.7±1.40 mg/ml, 2.1±0.35 mg/ml, 1.9±0.23 mg/ml 11.4±3.09 mg/ml. Indicators of lymphocytes in group II were 19.8±1.53%, CD3 – 58.2±2.97%, SD4 – 27.0±1.43%, CD8 – 33.7±2.61)%, CD16 – 17.4±1.42%, CD72 – 10.8±1.26%, immunoglobulin G, M, A, E respectively 9.8±2.16 mg/ml, 6.7±2.8 mg/ml, 2.8±0.36 mg/ml, 47.5±6.9 mg/ml. In group III of the common lymphocytes accounted for 20.5±1.80, SD3 – 59.9±2.67%, SD4 – 27.7±0.92%, CD8 – 33.7±2.27%, CD16 – 14.9±1.45%, CD72 – 10.8±1.26)%. Conclusions: Changes in the content of subpopulations of Tlymphocytes and immunoglobulins were detected in patients with endometrial hyperplasia. They also noted irregularities in the secretion of IgE and M. In patients with uterine bleeding during the secretory transformation of the endometrium decreased IgM. In patients with uterine bleeding during proliferation of the endometrium is not marked changes in the immune system as compared to the abovedescribed groups. Thus, our findings suggest a role for imuunyh disturbances in the development of dysfunctional uterine bleeding. FCS24.3 INCIDENCE AND TREATMENT OF HEAVY MENSTRUAL BLEEDING IN PRIMARY CARE – DATA FROM A DYNAMIC COHORT IN THE NETHERLANDS M. van den Brink, A.L. Saaltink, F. Groenhof, M. Berger, Y. Lisman-van Leeuwen, J. Dekker. Department of General Practice, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands Objectives: Heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB) is a common problem in women of reproductive age. Less is known about the incidence of HMB in primary care and the treatment strategy used. Since the re-

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vision of the Dutch College of General Practitioners’ (GPs) guideline on Vaginal bleeding in 2008, the levonorgestrel intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) plays a more prominent role and is recommended as an equal treatment option to oral medication. Aim of this study was to investigate the incidence and treatment of women with HMB in primary care and to compare this treatment with the Dutch practice guideline on Vaginal bleeding. Method: The study used prospectively collected data from the Registration Network Groningen, The Netherlands. This research network consists of three health centers with 17 GPs. We selected data of women visiting their GP for HMB from January 2004 until January 2014. Incidence rates were calculated, descriptive analysis was used to present medication prescriptions, number of visits and referrals to specialist care. JoinPoint regression analysis and non-parametric tests were performed to investigate if there was a trend in the number of LNG-IUS prescriptions respectively the proportion of different medication prescriptions in this 10 year period. Results: In this dynamic cohort including 23.846 female patients, 881 women visited the GP for HMB in a 10 year period. The mean incidence of HMB per year was 6.5 (95% CI 5.9–7.1) per 1000 person years. Within three months of diagnosis, 46% of women were treated with hormonal medication, in 44% of cases no medication were started. Within one year of diagnosis, 15% of all women were referred to the gynecologist. There was a significant decrease in the proportion of oral progestogens prescriptions during 10 years (p<0.05), no trend was seen in the number of LNG-IUS prescriptions for HMB. Conclusions: The incidence of HMB in this cohort was comparable to the incidence found in other studies. Women were treated most often with hormonal medication, mainly the oral contraceptive pill and oral progestogens. No significant increase in LNG-IUS prescriptions for HMB was found in our study. However LNG-IUS are increasingly being inserted by Dutch GPs for indications such as contraception, in the past 10 years. Here is opportunity for improvement, since the LNG-IUS is an effective, relatively non-invasive treatment option for HMB, compared to alternative treatments performed by the gynecologist. FCS24.4 ANATOMICAL LANDMARKS OF THE INTRA-PELVIC SIDEWALL AS SOURCES OF PAIN IN WOMEN WITH PREGNANCY-RELATED CHRONIC PELVIC PAIN P. Kristiansson 1 , T. Torstensson 1 , S. Butler 1 , M. Peterson 1 , A. Lindgren 1 , L. Nilsson-Wikmar 2 , M. Eriksson 1 . 1 Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; 2 Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden Objectives: To compare pain provoked from anatomical landmarks of the intra-pelvic side-wall in women with pregnancy-related chronic pelvic pain and controls. Method: A case-control study. 36 parous women with chronic pelvic pain and 29 blindly selected parous women without low back or pelvic pain were collected from a physiotherapy department and a midwifery surgery. Pain was provoked by light manual pressure on 13 predetermined anatomical landmarks of the intra-pelvic sidewall. Perceived pain intensity was reported on a Likert scale and an individual sum score was calculated. Results: High intensity pain was provoked on several landmarks in women with chronic pelvic pain in contrast to low pain intensity provoked at fewer landmarks in women without low back or pelvic pain (p<0.0001). The highest pain intensity was provoked on the ischial spine (p<0.0001). The maximum individual sum of pain intensity scores among women without low back or pelvic pain was exceeded by all but 5 women with chronic pelvic pain. In a multiple regression analysis, pain intensity and number of pain locations reported at inclusion were independently associated with the pain intensity score but not age, smoking or education.


Conclusions: The pain intensity score can be valuable in the clinical setting to discriminate women with chronic pelvic pain and to identify a subgroup with chronic pelvic pain not of visceral origin. The high pain intensity provoked by stimulation on the ischial spine indicates that this structure can be a significant source of chronic pelvic pain. FCS24.5 MUTANT P53: THE MISSING LINK – ENDOMETRIOMA DOES NOT TRANSFORM INTO OVARIAN CANCER H.S. Siregar, A.H. Sinuhaji, A. Aboet, D. Edianto, H.P. Pasaribu, Y.B. Kaban, S. Dina, M.F. Fahmi. Faculty of Medicine University of Sumatera Utara, Medan, Sumatera Utara, Indonesia Objectives: Previously, endometrioma was considered to have similar biomolecular characteristics with cancer, which was associated to the pro-apoptotic and anti-apoptotic characteristics of endometrioma and p53 inactivation (proapoptosis). However, this theory has been proven inaccurate, as shown by the different disturbance involved in the apoptotic process of ovarian cancer compared to endometrioma, with the former being related to the mutant p53 protein in the cell cycle. This study was conducted to determine whether mutant p53 protein expressions differ between endometrioma and ovarian cancer. Method: This observational descriptive study examined paraffin block from 25 patients diagnosed with endometrioma and 25 patients diagnosed with ovarian cancer. These blocks were immunohistochemically examined for mutant p53 expression using the mutant p53 monoclonal antibody. Immunohistochemical scoring was performed using the Allred score based on Immunohistochemical proportion and intensity. Results: Based on the Allred score, all endometrioma cases showed a negative p53 mutant expression whereas in cases of ovarian cancer, 52% of samples expressed positive mutant p53. Expression score of mutant p53 differed significantly between the endometrioma (0.36 + 0.86) and ovarian cancer group (3.08 + 3.16) with p=0,0001. Conclusions: Endometrioma shows negative expression for mutant p53, with significantly differed mutant p53 expressions between the endometrioma and ovarian cancer group. This indicates that endometrioma would not transform into ovarian cancer. FCS24.6 ULTRASOUND-GUIDED HIGH-INTENSITY FOCUSED ULTRASOUND TREATMENT FOR UTERINE FIBROID AND ADENOMYOSIS: A SINGLE CENTER EXPERIENCE FROM THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA J.S. Lee 1 , G.-Y. Hong 2 , B.-J. Park 3 , T.-E. Kim 3 . 1 Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Incheon Christian Hospital, Incheon, Republic of Korea; 2 Department of Internal Medicine, Incheon St. Mary’s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Incheon, Republic of Korea; 3 Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Incheon St. Mary’s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Incheon, Republic of Korea Objectives: To assess the therapeutic outcomes of patients with uterine fibroid or adenomyosis treated by ultrasound-guided highintensity focused ultrasound. Method: This study included 618 patients, of which 272 suffered from uterine fibroid and 346 suffered from adenomyosis. Treatment was administrated using the Model Haifu JC Focused Ultrasound Tumor Therapeutic System (Chongqing Haifu Technology, Chongqing, China) under real-time ultrasound guidance. A follow-up was conducted on volume change as well as on symptom improvement using the Symptom Severity Score (SSS) and Uterine Fibroid Symptom and Quality of Life (UFS-QOL) after treatment. Results: The uterine-fibroid volume reduction rates were 58.08%, 66.18%, and 77.59% at 3, 6, and 12 months after treatment, respec-


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tively. The SSS reduction rates were 55.58%, 52.76%, and 50.39%. The UFS-QOL score increasing rate were 42.66%, 43.50%, and 43.45%. The uterine volume reduction rates for adenomyosis were 43.99%, 47.01%, and 53.98%. The SSS reduction rates for adenomyois 55.61%, 52.38%, and 57.98%. The UFS-QOL score increasing rates for adenomyosis UFS-QOL score were 80.06%, 69.39%, and 85.07%, respectively. Conclusions: USgHIFU treatment for uterine fibroid and adenomyosis is an effective non-invasive therapy via the assessment of fibroid volume reduction, symptom improvement, UFS-QOL score increase, and acceptable level of side effects. FCS24.7 FERRIC CARBOXYMALTOSE VERSUS IRON SUCROSE IN THE TREATMENT OF IRON DEFICIENCY ANEMIA DUE TO ABNORMAL UTERINE BLEEDING – A RANDOMIZED TRIAL A. Kriplani, R. Mahey, K. Mogili, G. Kachhawa. All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India Objectives: Abnormal uterine bleeding is one of the common causes of iron deficiency anemia especially in developing countries. Though the treatment per se for the gynecological pathology causing the AUB is a must, most of these patients suffer from anemia due the acute or chronic blood loss. The present study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy, safety and improvement in fatigue levels using intravenous ferric carboxymaltose (FCM) versus intravenous iron sucrose (ISC) in the treatment of anemia due to abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB). Method: A randomised trial was conducted in the department of Obstetrics & Gynaecology at All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi (India). Sixty women presenting with iron deficiency anemia due to AUB (Hb 6–11g%) were randomized to receive either IV FCM (Group I) or IV ISC (Group II). Iron deficit was calculated according to Ganzoni’s formula. Group I received Inj FCM 1000mg weekly and Group II received Inj ISC 300mg twice weekly. Hematological parameters were done at baseline, after 1, 3, 6 and 12 weeks. Fatigue measurement was done by 4 point numeric scale and linear analogue scale assessment (LASA). Results: Baseline hematological parameters were comparable in both groups. The mean iron requirement in Gp I & Gp II was 1524.2±261.2 mg & 1462.8±195.8 mg respectively (p=0.3), but the number of doses to build up deficit were significantly less in Gp I. After 12 weeks, 75.9% (22/30) of patients in Gp I and 65.5% (19/30) in Gp II achieved target Hb of ≥12 g/dL. FCM showed significantly higher mean rise in Hb (4.95 g/dL vs 4.31 g/dL) & serum ferritin (112.2 μg/L vs 61.39 μg/L) than ISC. Both drugs caused significant improvement in fatigue levels without any serious adverse effects. Conclusions: In patients with anemia due to AUB, FCM causes rapid rise in hemoglobin, causes better buildup of iron stores and is well tolerated with minimal side- effects. The main advantages are less number of doses required to build up the deficit, fewer needle pricks, fewer hospital visits and less overall cost of treatment as compared to ISC. FCS24.8 HIGH INTENSITY FOCUSED ULTRASOUND TREATMENT FOR NON-NEOPLASTIC EPITHELIAL DISORDERS OF THE VULVA: FACTORS AFFECTING EFFECTIVENESS AND RECURRENCE M. Ye, X. Deng, S. Mao, M. Xue. Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology;, the third Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, China Objectives: To investigate the effectiveness of High-intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) for treating Non-neoplastic Epithelial Disorders of the Vulva (NNEDV) and to analyze the factors that affect the effectiveness of HIFU and recurrence. Method: This study included a total of 950 patients with pathologi-

cally confirmed NNEDV, who underwent HIFU treatment in our hospital between August 2008 and June 2013 and had completed followup data. Treatment efficacy and recurrence were evaluated retrospectively by analyzing the patients’ clinicopathologic data and by following up their symptomatic changes. We also explored factors including age, status of menopause, HPV infection, lesion size, pathological type, symptom severity for their correlation with treatment effectiveness and recurrence. Results: HIFU was effective in alleviating symptoms and improving vulva signs, with a cure rate of 42.2%, an effective rate of 56.1%, and a low recurrence rate of 9.4%. No severe complications were recorded during and after the treatment. The treatment was statistically more effective in younger patients with squamous hyperplasia and smaller lesions than in older patients with lichen sclerosus and larger lesions (P<0.05). Patients with longer disease course or with lichen sclerosus had significantly higher recurrence rate than those with shorter disease course or with squamous hyperplasia (P<0.05). Conclusions: HIFU is safe and effective in treating non-neoplastic epithelial disorders of the vulva. Its effectiveness is correlated with age, size of lesion and pathological type whereas post-treatment recurrence rate may be related to the duration of the disease and the pathological sub-types.

FCS25. Benign Conditions in Gynecology/Contraception and Fertility Control FCS25.1 RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PELVIC DISEASE AND SURGICAL SITE INFECTION IN WOMEN UNDERGOING HYSTERECTOMY I. Chen 1,2 , R. Mallick 2 , S.S. Singh 1,2 , L. Hopkins 1,2 , D. Schramm 1,2 . 1 University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada; 2 The Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada Objectives: To determine the relationship between type of pelvic disease and risk of surgical site infection (SSI) in women undergoing hysterectomy for benign indication. Method: A retrospective cohort study on women undergoing hysterectomy for benign indication 2006–2012 was conducted using the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP) Participant Use Data Files. SSI was defined as the occurrence of superficial, deep, or organ-space infections, or wound disruption within 30 days. Pelvic disease was classified according to the International Classification of Diseases as uterine fibroids, menstrual disorders, genital prolapse, endometriosis, or other. Logistic regression models were constructed to control for known patient and process-of-care variables. Results: 54 696 women underwent hysterectomy for benign indication, and the overall SSI rate was 2.54%. Endometriosis was associated with the highest rate (3.41%), followed by menstrual disorders (2.63%), fibroids (2.56%), and genital prolapse (1.41%). After adjustment for patient variables (age, obesity, diabetes mellitus, smoking, COPD, cardiovascular disease, bleeding disorder, ASA Classification) and process-of-care variables (approach to hysterectomy, removal of the cervix, surgical time), the odds of SSI were significantly elevated for hysterectomy for endometriosis compared with menstrual disorders (AOR 1.31, 95% CI: 1.06–1.62), uterine fibroids (AOR 1.41, 95% CI: 1.15–1.74), and genital prolapse (AOR 1.61, 95% CI: 1.20–2.17). Conclusions: In addition to known patient factors and process-ofcare characteristics, the presence of endometriosis appears to increase the risk for SSIs. This novel finding adds to the growing literature on predictive variables for SSIs and has implications for future analyses for women undergoing hysterectomy for benign indication.

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B. Hutchinson 1 , M. Yoo 1,2 , S.R. Grover 1,2 . 1 Dept Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Mercy Hospital for Women, Melbourne, Australia; 2 University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia

N. Goldstuck. Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University and Tygerberg Hospital, Cape Town, Western Cape, South Africa

Objectives: To prospectively explore the risk factors and symptoms in a cohort of women about to undergo hysterectomy, where pathological assessment of the uterus for adenomyosis was undertaken in a standardized manner. Method: A prospective cohort study of women about to undergo a hysterectomy at Mercy Hospital for Women (a tertiary womens hospital in Melbourne, Australia), were recruited for the study. Participants completed a standardized questionnaire to document demographic information and details relating to lifelong contraception use, pregnancies and menstrual symptoms prior to their surgery. Each uterus was then examined using standardized methodology for the presence of adenomyosis by a regular group of pathologists. Histological findings were reported with reference to set descriptive criteria. Results: Of 80 women recruited, mean age was 46.9 years and mean parity was 2.7. Focal adenomyosis was present in 28, diffuse in 8 and no adenomyosis in 44. There was no significant difference in: the presence of other endometriosis, age or parity between groups. There was a significant positive correlation between tubal ligation and adenomyosis (p=0.0065) but no relationship to other contraceptives. All women with adenomyosis had dysmenorrhoea for >10 years compared to 13/44 (30%) of those without (p<0.00001). Dysmenorrhoea since menarche was reported in 17/28 with adenomyosis compared to 10/44 with no adenomyosis (p<0.03). No correlation existed between self-reported menorrhagia and ovulation pain, and adenomyosis. Conclusions: This prospective study shows a correlation between tubal ligation and adenomyosis. Dysmenorrhoea for >10 years and since menarche was strongly associated with the finding of adenomyosis. There was no association with age, parity menorrhagia or ovulation pain.

Objectives: IUD expulsion and perforation may both be due to uterine muscle action as well as insertion technique. This study identifies various forces associated with uterine muscle function to determine if there is a basic common mechanism underlying expulsion and perforation of IUDs. Method: A search of MEDLINE, EMBASE and POPLINE was conducted to obtain articles linking force measurements with IUDs. These studies were added to studies of intrauterine pressure and surface area of the non-pregnant endometrial cavity. Force values relating to IUD insertion and removal and IUD fracture were found. There were also a number of studies which measured intrauterine pressure under various circumstances. Two studies also measured the surface area of the endometrial cavity of the non-pregnant uterus. Results: The forces required to insert various IUDs in women of zero and single parity was 1.5–4 Newtons (N). This depends on the presenting surface area of the IUD. It is lower in most multiparous women. The forces required to remove an IUD ranged from 1 to 5.8 N The force was higher for GyneFix because of its anchor mechanism and ranged from 6 to 9 N. The forces required to fracture an IUD ranged from 1.2 to 16.8 N depending on the type of IUD and whether it was new or used. Calculated maximal uterine forces which range from 30 to 50 N. Conclusions: Uterine muscle can exert sufficient force to expel an IUD through the myometrium if it is applied asymmetrically. This is good evidence for secondary IUD perforation. The forces required for primary perforation suggest that it is most likely to occur where uterine muscle is weak eg lactation, post-partum, injectable progestogen usage and congenital abnormalities.

FCS25.3 EFFECTS OF ULIPRISTAL ACETATE ON HUMAN EMBRYO ATTACHMENT AND ENDOMETRIAL CELL GENE EXPRESSION IN AN IN VITRO CO-CULTURE SYSTEM C. Berger 1 , N. Boggavarapu 1 , J. Menezez 2 , P.G.L. Lalitkumar 1 , K. Gemzell-Danielsson 1 . 1 Karolinska Institutet, Dept of Women’s and Children’s Health, Stockholm, Sweden; 2 Fertilitetscentrum, Stockholm, Sweden Objectives: To examine if ulipristal acetate (UPA) used for emergency contraception interferes with the human implantation process. Method: Human embryos were co-cultured with 3-dimensional in vitro endometrial constructs containing UPA (n=10) or vehicle (n=10) for 5 days. The cultures were then analysed for embryo attachment and endometrial receptivity markers by RT-PCR. Results: There was no significant difference in embryo attachment rate between the UPA treated group and the control group. 6 out of 17 receptivity genes studied were significantly differentially expressed after exposure to UPA compared with controls. Conclusions: This study provides new insights on the mechanism of action of UPA on human embryo implantation, demonstrating that UPA in a dosage used for emergency contraception does not affect embryo viability and the implantation process in vitro.

FCS25.5 PREVALENCE AND DETERMINANTS OF UNINTENDED INDEX PREGNANCY AMONG A GROUP OF NIGERIAN WOMEN I.U. Ezebialu, C.S. Nzeukwu, C.C. Ezenyeaku, J.C. Umeobika. Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Anambra state University, Awka, Anambra state, Nigeria Objectives: To determine the prevalence and determinants of unintended index pregnancy among antenatal clients. Method: This is a cross sectional survey of antenatal clients attending the Anambra State University Teaching Hospital Awka. Five hundred sixty four consecutive antenatal clients were interviewed using structured and pre tested interviewer administered questionnaire. Data was collected between October 1, 2014 and January 31, 2015. Analysis was performed using the Statistical package for Social Sciences (IBM “SPSS” statistics 21). P value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The mean age of the respondents was 28.1±4.9 while the mean parity was 1.41±1.51. 95.2% were married, 1.1% was separated and 3.7% were not married. Eighty one women (14.4%) had unintended index pregnancy. 30.9% of them have had an unintended pregnancy previously. Factors significantly associated with unintended index pregnancy are being presently unmarried (P<0.001), rural residence (p=0.03), and non contraceptive use (P<0.001). Twenty one (26%) women with unintended pregnancy had wished they could terminate the pregnancy. Out of this, six women (7.4%) actually made attempt at terminating the pregnancy. Conclusions: The findings from this study suggest a fairly high prevalence of unintended index pregnancy among this group of women. This is associated with low social class and poor contraceptive practice. Effort should be made to scale up contraceptive techniques.


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FCS25.6 CHINA FEMALE CONDOM (FCC) FUNCTIONALITY STUDY AGAINST AN EQUIVALENT MARKETED FEMALE CONDOM (FC2) Y. Cheng. National Research Institute for Family Planning (NRIFP), Beijing, China Objectives: To compare the differences of the rates of total clinical failure and four types of failures (Invagination, Misdirection, Slippage and Breakage) between two kinds of female condoms (FC) [China made FC (FCc) and USA made FC (FC2)] as well as to assess weather every failure of four rates is accord with the standard of WHO. Method: 300 participants were recruited. A computer-generated randomization sequence was used to assign the 300 participants to one of two groups (1:1). Group A used 5 FCcs first, followed by 5 FC2s. Group B used 5 FC2s first, followed by 5 FCcs. The FC2 is made from synthetic nitrile material and is manufactured by the Female Health Company (Chicago, IL, USA). The FCc is made of polyurethane and has a dumbbell shape. It is manufactured by Tianjin CondomBao Medical Polyurethane Tech. Co. (Tianjin, China). Results: The rate of loss to follow-up was 4.2% for FCc and 2.8% for FC2. The total clinical failure rate of FCc was 0.9% (95% confidence interval 0.5–1.3%) compared to 1.1% (95% confidence interval 0.7–1.5%) for FC2. The upper bound of the one-sided 95% confidence interval for FCc total clinical failure rate, minus the FC2 total clinical failure rate is equal to 0.2% (1.5% − 1.3% = 0.2%). The difference of the total clinical failure rates (1.1% vs.0.9%) between FC2 and FCc was statistically no significant (P>0.05). No breakage was found both in FCc users and in FC2 users. The failure rates of invagination, misdirection and slippage of FCc were 1.3%, 1.3% and 1.1% respectively. The failure rates of invagination, misdirection and slippage of FC2 were 1.8%, 0.1% and 2.5% respectively. The difference of slippage rates (2.5% vs. 1.1%) was statistically no significant (P>0.05) between FC2 and FCc as well as the slippage rate of FCc was lower than the standard of WHO although the slippage rate of FC2 was slightly higher than that of FCc and slightly higher than the standard of WHO. The difference of invagination rates (1.8% vs. 1.3%) was also statistically no significant (P>0.05) between FC2 and FCc. Although the rate of misdirection for FCc was higher than that for FC2 (1.3% vs. 0.1%) and although the difference of the misdirection rates between two groups was statistically significant, but the rate of misdirection for FCc (1.3%) is lower than that of WHO standard (1.5%). Conclusions: (1) The results indicated that the total clinical failure rate of FCc is non-inferior to the total clinical failure rate of FC2; (2) The rates of four types of failure (Invagination, Misdirection, Slippage and Breakage) for FCc was that every failure rate is lower than the standard of WHO. (3) The upper bound of the one-sided 95% confidence interval for FCc total clinical failure rate, minus the FC2 total clinical failure rate is less than 3% (1.5% − 1.3% = 0.2%). FCS25.7 THE CONTRACEPTION SITUATION OF UNWANTED PREGNANCY IN FEMALE WITH ABORTION: A MULTICENTER OBSERVATIONAL STUDY IN WEST CHINA S. Liu 1 , Y. Liu 2 , L. Hu 1 , Q. Zhou 3 , X. Dong 1 , Y. Jiang 2 , W. Zhang 4,5 . 1 Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, China; 2 School of Public Health and Management, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, China; 3 Department of Evidence-based Medicine and Clinical Epidemiology, West China Medical School of Medicine/West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China; 4 International Centre for Reproductive Health, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium; 5 School of Public Health, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels, Belgium Objectives: Investigate the contraceptive pratices and explore its related factors among women undergoing abortion in West China.

Method: A stratified cluster random sampling was performed and 16 hospitals were selected from 8 provinces in West China. From March 1, 2013 to September 1, 2014, we surveyed about 19176 women seeking induced abortion in these 16 hospitals. The questionnaire used in the survey involved questions about marital status, census register, job status, the level of education, reproductive history, number of children, currently uesd contraception, the cause of this unexpected pregnancy and so on. Results: Of 19176 participants, no contraceptive use tended to be higher in the population characterized by younger, unmarried and with no history of pregnancy. In urban area, the proportion of the participants who ever had a history of abortion but not a childbearing accounted for 30.4%, compared with the proportion 26.8% (p<0.05), in rural. We also observed a different of the constituent ratio of the contraceptive method in unwanted pregnancy in city and countryside in West China. In the unintended pregnant women in urban, the leading two contraceptive way were condom and rhythm method, while in rural, were condom and IUD. Conclusions: Among women undergoing abortion in West China, the contraception fail and no use of contraception were the primary reasons for the current unintended pregnancy. The proportion of no use of contraception was higher in rural than in urban. Factors related to the no use of contraception including age, marital status, educational level, history of pregnancy and job status. The practice of the contraceptive methods among women who undergoing abortion in city and countryside was different. The different should be paid attention and individualized services might be provided according to different features and needs. FCS25.8 PATTERN OF CONTRACEPTIVE UPTAKE AND DISCONTINUATION BY WOMEN IN A TERTIARY HEALTHCARE INSTITUTION AT NNEWI SOUTH-EAST NIGERIA N. Eke 1 , A. Okwuosa 2 , B. Nwosu 2 , L. Chukwuali 1 , C. Onyejiaka 2 . 1 Federal Medical Centre, Keffi, Keffi, Nasarawa State, Nigeria; 2 Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Nnewi, Anambra State, Nigeria Objectives: To determine the contraceptive choices and follow up pattern for the different methods, as well as reasons for discontinuation of contraceptives. Method: A retrospective study that involved collection of data from the family planning log book of women attending family planning clinic of the Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital (NAUTH), Nnewi, Anambra State between January 2008 and December 2012. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS version 17.0 for windows. Results: A total of 793 attendees were noted. Majority of the clients 400 (50.4%) accepted injectable hormonal contraceptives. This was followed by 376 (47.4%) of clients that accepted intrauterine contraceptive devices. The oral contraceptives, sub-dermal implants, and bilateral tubal ligation were the least accepted by the attendees. The follow up pattern for the injectables was 95.0%; 71.0% for intrauterine contraceptive devices and 100.0% for the sub-dermal implants. The major reason for discontinuation of contraceptives was the need to achieve pregnancy (98.3%). Other reasons included vaginal discharge and missing strings in clients using the intrauterine contraceptive devices. Conclusions: The most commonly used contraceptive methods in women attending family planning clinic at Nnewi was the injectable hormonal contraceptives. More so, the follow up pattern was optimal, and the major reason for discontinuation of the different methods was to achieve pregnancy. Strategies to increase proper knowledge and understanding of patients on the different methods of contraception, their efficacy and side effects should be encouraged.

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FCS26. Contraception and Fertility Control FCS26.1 ASSESSING CONTRACEPTIVE KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDES, AND PRACTICES AMONG HEALTHCARE PROFESSIONALS AND STUDENTS IN RWANDA: A CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY K. Van Osch 1 , S. Bayitondere 2 , A. Belcastroa 1,3 , M. Johnson 1 , S. Rulisa 4,5 . 1 Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Western University, London, Ontario, Canada; 2 University of Rwanda School of Medicine, Huye, Rwanda; 3 Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts, USA; 4 Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology, University of Rwanda School of Medicine, Rwanda; 5 Department of Clinical Research, University Teaching Hospital of Kigali, Kigali, Rwanda Objectives: Despite the success of healthcare initiatives implemented by the Rwandan government, Rwanda is not on target to meet their Millennium Development Goal of a contraceptive prevalence of 70% by 2015. Physicians, nurses, and midwives play a critical role in the education of family planning strategies and the administration of contraceptives. The purpose of this study was to identify whether contraceptive knowledge gaps, negative attitudes, or lack of practical familiarity among healthcare professionals inadvertently pose a barrier to widespread contraceptive use in Rwanda. Method: A cross-sectional survey study was conducted at the University Teaching Hospital of Kigali (CHUK) and the University of Rwanda between November 2013 and May 2014. 36 physicians, nurses, and midwives and 79 medical, nursing, and midwifery students were surveyed for contraceptive knowledge, attitudes, and use. Results: Healthcare professionals’ and students’ mean scores on the contraceptive knowledge section were 73.8% and 59.8%, respectively. Though nearly all participants noted a strong religious affiliation, attitudes towards contraception were positive with 93.9% of participants identifying contraceptives as important. The most commonly used contraceptive was a condom, followed by the rhythm method and IUD. Of the participants not using contraception, 52.8% indicated abstinence. Conclusions: Knowledge deficiencies may need to be addressed to ensure health care professionals are equipped to educate the public on topics related to contraception and reproductive health. Our preliminary study suggests attitude biases serve as a minor barrier to the widespread dissemination of contraceptive information. FCS26.2 ACCEPTABILITY AND SAFETY OF POSTPARTUM INTRAUTERINE CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES IN 100 CONSECUTIVE PARTURIENTS AT THE MOTHER AND CHILD HOSPITAL ONDO, ONDO STATE, SOUTHWESTERN NIGERIA L. Oyeneyin, D. Ayodeji, S. Adewole, M. Gbala. Mother and Child Hospital, Ondo, Ondo state, Nigeria Objectives: Determine the acceptability and safety with voluntary use of postpartum intrauterine contraceptive device (IUCD) insertion among parturients who delivered at a busy maternity centre. Method: This prospective interventional study was conducted in 100 patients over a 12-month period from July 2013 to June 2014 at the Mother and Child Hospital Ondo, a purpose-built tertiary care maternity centre offering free services (i.e. consultations, admissions, drugs, laboratory tests, blood transfusions and surgeries). Inclusion criteria were multiparous women who gave consent for the contraceptive method in antenatal period or on admission in labour. The Cu-T380A was inserted from 10 minutes to 48hours after delivery, prior to discharge. The patients were then reevaluated at the family planning clinic after 3 months or whenever they have complaints using a checklist format and results collated and analyzed.


Results: Total number of deliveries in the 12-month period of study was 4,178 with multiparous patients accounting for 67%. One hundred patients were recruited for this study out of the 103 that consented to IUCD insertion giving an acceptability rate of 2.9%. Sixtyfive patients were grand-multiparous whilst 5 had 2 previous deliveries. Only 34 respondents showed up for 3-month follow up clinic. Six patients out of 10 that had started menstruating complained of mildly increased menstrual flow. One out of 22 patients having intercourse requested for removal because of spousal discomfiture. Sixtysix patients did not return for the follow up visit. Conclusions: Postpartum IUCD insertion appears to be acceptable and safe, especially in environments where follow up of patients is poor. FCS26.3 AWARENESS AND PRACTICE OF DUAL CONTRACEPTION AMONG FEMALE TERTIARY INSTITUTION STUDENTS IN IBADAN, NIGERIA O. Bello 2 , F. Bello 1,2 , T. Oluwasola 1,2 . 1 University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria; 2 University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria Objectives: To determine knowledge, awareness and factors associated with the use of dual contraception among female undergraduates in two tertiary institutions in Ibadan, Nigeria. Method: This is a cross-sectional study using a semi structured selfadministered questionnaire to assess the knowledge and practice of dual contraception among female undergraduates in two tertiary educational institutions – University of Ibadan and Polytechnic of Ibadan as well as factors associated with its use. A total of 1,200 undergraduate students were interviewed and data obtained were analyzed with SPSS version 18. Results: 1118 were satisfactorily returned. Most respondents (84.6%) were unmarried, 871 (77.9%) have been sexually exposed and 793 (70.9%) had heard of dual contraception, main source of information was media. More than two-third (79.2%) of those who had been sexually exposed were aware of dual contraception but only 41.6% uses it. 67.1% have become sexually active by age 19. Those who had multiple sexual partners and lower coitarche were more likely to use dual contraception (P<0.05). There was significant association between history of previous STI (OR=3.06, 95% CI: 2.03–4.62) and unwanted pregnancy (OR=3.53, 95% CI: 2.62–4.74) with the use of dual contraception. Conclusions: In spite of good knowledge of dual contraception among the students, uptake has remained low. Efforts need to be further concentrated on determining and addressing the challenges that are responsible for the lower uptake of dual contraception among female undergraduates who are at higher risk of unwanted pregnancy and STIs. Involvement of the male counterparts and empowerment of the female students to negotiate safe sex practices and promotion the consistent use of dual contraception are pertinent in maximizing the benefits of dual contraception in our environment. FCS26.4 ATTITUDES AND BEHAVIOURS OF MEN TOWARDS MODERN FAMILY PLANNING: FINDINGS FROM A COMMUNITY BASED STUDY IN A DEVELOPING COUNTRY G. Akaba 1 , W. Tile 2 , N. Ketarie 1 . 1 University of Abuja Teaching Hospital, Gwagwalada, Abuja, F.C.T, Nigeria; 2 University of Abuja, Gwagwalada, Abuja, F.C.T, Nigeria Objectives: To determine if there is a role for men towards improving uptake of modern family planning (FP) methods in Nigeria by investigating their knowledge, attitudes and extent of involvement in family planning choice and use by the couple. Method: Semi structured interviews were used to collect information from 152 married men residing in Gwagwalada in Nigeria’s federal capital territory, while qualitative methods using focused group


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discussions involving a total of 64 discussants and in-depth interviews were used to get information from various groups including married men, married women, religious leaders, community leaders and FP providers. Quantitative data was analysed using SPSS version 16.0 while content analysis was done for the qualitative data. Results: Men had supportive attitude towards FP as 65.1% would accompany their wives to the clinics, 76.3% would approve the use of modern contraception by their wives and 86.8% of men desired to know more about family planning. Husbands were the major decision takers on family size in the community. There was statistically significant association between educational level and approval of use of FP methods by wives of respondents (χ2 =12.330, P=0.006) Barriers to the use of FP in the communities included desire for more children, fear of side effects, lack of adequate information and costs. Conclusions: Involving men and obtaining their support and commitment to FP is of crucial importance in Nigeria as most decisions concerning fertility goals and FP are made by them. FCS26.5 PREVALENCE AND ASSOCIATED VARIABLES OF REPEAT TEENAGE PREGNANCIES IN UMLAZI, KWAZULU-NATAL W. Mphatswe, M. Sebitloane. University of KwaZulu Natal, KwaZulu Natal, Durban, South Africa Objectives: Teenage pregnancy is associated with adverse maternal and perinatal outcomes and poor socio-economic and psychological consequences. Repeat pregnancies among adolescents compound this public health challenge. Although the prevalence of teenage pregnancy has been widely documented in South Africa the prevalence of repeat teenage pregnancies remains unclear. We sought to determine the prevalence of repeat pregnancies among teenagers, the time taken to the subsequent pregnancy and to compare sexual and reproductive characteristics of first pregnancies (FP) and those with repeat pregnancies (RP). Method: A prospective observational study was conducted in Umlazi, KwaZulu-Natal at Prince Mshiyeni Memorial Hospital (PMMH) between May to September 2013. Teenagers between 13 and 19 years were recruited from the antenatal clinic, labour ward, post natal wards and termination of pregnancy clinic (TOP). A structured questionnaire was administered to collect data on demographics, reproductive and sexual history of participants. Over the study period 341 teenagers were interviewed. Over the study period 341 teenagers were interviewed. Results: There were 281 (82%) FPs and 60 (18%) RPs; forty five (75%) of the repeat pregnancies occurred within 24 months after the first pregnancy. Overall contraception use was low (17.0%), few teenagers knew of emergency contraception (46%) or ever used it (8.2%). Athough 74% of RP teenagers had prior contraception initiation, largely Depot Medroxyprogesterone acetate injection (93.1%) all defaulted within 12 months. RP were associated with having a partner that was five or more years older (64.4% vs 46.0%, p<0.0001), having more than one sexual partner in the past 12 months (35.0% vs 12.5%; p<0.0001) and higher HIV prevalence (30.5% vs 9.5%; p<0.0001). Conclusions: Preventing the first teenage pregnancy remains paramount as subsequent pregnancies tend to follow rapidly in our setting. There are indeed complex social and economic factors that come into play in modifying behaviors of teenagers and shape the trajectory of their health; therefore strategies to curtail this need to take cognisance of the context in which these pregnancies arise and target risk factors through a multi-sectorial response. The provision of LARCs to teenagers is a promising public health strategy but its success will depend on uptake and retention rates of this method as well as the coherence of the health system to deliver this.

FCS26.6 EVALUATION OF PELVIC INFECTION IN WOMEN USING LILETTA™, A NEW 52 mg LEVONORGESTREL-RELEASING INTRAUTERINE SYSTEM, FOR UP TO 2 YEARS D.K. Turok 3 , D.L. Eisenberg 4 , S.B. Teal 5 , C.L. Westhoff 1,7 , L.M. Keder 2 , M.D. Creinin 6 . 1 Columbia University, New York, NY, USA; 2 Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA; 3 University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, USA; 4 Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO, USA; 5 University of Colorado, Aurora, CO, USA; 6 University of California, Davis, Sacramento, CA, USA; 7 New York Presbyterian Hospital, New York, NY, USA Objectives: Evaluate pelvic infection rates over 2 years following placement of the Liletta™ 52 mg levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (IUS). Method: A total of 1,751 nulliparous and multiparous women enrolled in a multicenter trial designed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of Liletta for up to 7 years. Participants had Chlamydia screening at study entry and yearly if they were 25 years and younger. Women who changed sexual partners during the trial had Chlamydia and gonorrhea testing. No prophylactic antibiotics were used for IUS placement. Pelvic examinations were performed after 12 and 24 months and when clinically indicated during visits at 3, 6 and 18 months after placement and unscheduled visits. Pelvic infection included any clinical diagnosis of PID or endometritis. Results: Pelvic infection was diagnosed in 9 (0.5%) participants over two years, including 3 women within 7 days, 1 woman at 39 days, and 5 women six or more months after placement. Seven women received outpatient antibiotic treatment and two (diagnoses between 6 and 12 months after placement) received inpatient treatment. IUS removal was performed in 2 (0.1%) subjects related to infection (6 days; 7 months), both of whom received outpatient treatment. Sexually transmitted infection testing was positive in 26 (1.5%) women at baseline (Chlamydia n=22, gonorrhea n=3, both n=1); all were treated without IUS removal and none developed pelvic infection. Conclusions: Pelvic infection in the first month after Liletta placement is rare (0.2%) and is more likely to be diagnosed remote from the time of IUS insertion. Pelvic infection was successfully treated in most women with outpatient antibiotics and typically did not require IUS removal. FCS26.7 AMENORRHEA RATES IN WOMEN USING LILETTA™, A NEW 52 mg LEVONORGESTREL INTRAUTERINE SYSTEM, FOR UP TO 4 YEARS C.L. Westhoff 1,7 , L.M. Keder 2 , P.D. Darney 3,8 , P.D. Blumenthal 4 , L.K. Perriera 5 , M.D. Creinin 6 . 1 Columbia University, New York, NY, USA; 2 Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA; 3 University of California at San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA; 4 Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA, USA; 5 Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, USA; 6 University of California, Davis, Sacramento, CA, USA; 7 New York Presbyterian Hospital, New York, NY, USA; 8 Bixby Center for Global Reproductive Health, San Francisco, CA, USA Objectives: Evaluate amenorrhea rates in women using the Liletta™ 52 mg levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (IUS) for up to 4 years. Method: A total of 1,751 women aged 16–45 years were enrolled in a multicenter clinical trial designed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of Liletta for up to 7 years. For the first 24 months of the study, participants maintained a daily diary to provide bleeding information. After 24 months, participants answered interview questions regarding their bleeding pattern during scheduled study contacts every 3 months. Amenorrhea is defined as no bleeding or spotting in the preceding 90 days. We evaluated amenorrhea rates among women who reached the end of each study year. Results: Overall, 1,714 women had successful Liletta placement. In

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this ongoing study, 1,444, 1,028, 368 and 302 women have completed 12, 24, 36 and 48 months of Liletta use, respectively and contributed data to this analysis. Only 1.8% of women discontinued Liletta use for bleeding irregularities; no women discontinued for amenorrhea. Amenorrhea prevalence at 12, 24, 36 and 48 months of Liletta use is 18.6%, 28.3%, 37.8% and 40.4%, respectively. Of the 269 women who were amenorrheic at 12 months and had completed subsequent years of follow-up, 69.1%, 43.3% and 34.6% were amenorrheic at 24, 36 and 48 months, respectively. Conclusions: Amenorrhea prevalence with Liletta use increases over time during 4 years of use. Women who become amenorrheic by the end of one year may experience bleeding or spotting in future years. FCS26.8 INVESTIGATING AUSTRALIAN WOMEN’S CHOICE AND UPTAKE OF POST ABORTION CONTRACEPTION IN THE MARIE STOPES INTERNATIONAL CLINICS Y. Mehta 1 , P. Goldstone 2 , K. McGeechan 1 , K. Black 1 . 1 University of Sydney, NSW, Australia; 2 Marie Stopes International Australia, NSW, Australia Objectives: To examine the use of post-abortion contraception and the uptake of long-acting reversible contraceptive (LARC) methods amongst women seeking abortion in Australia. The main outcome measure was the uptake and immediate provision of LARC methods post abortion. Method: This is a cross sectional study of post abortion contraception choices and uptake in all Marie Stopes International (MSI) clinics across Australia between September and December 2012. The analysis was based on the 6348 women with completed demographic details. The statistical analysis was done using SAS 9.3. Results: Only 27.4% women chose a LARC method for use after abortion and of those immediate provisions occurred in 71%. Women aged 20–24 were more likely to choose a LARC method. Also LARC method choice was associated with number of children, with the likelihood of LARC choice increasing with the number of children. Immediate insertion occurred more frequently in women aged over 30 as compared to younger women and in women who were Australian or African born. Women in the lowest socio-economic quintile were the least likely to get the LARC method inserted. LARC provision occurred more often after surgical abortion. Conclusions: Abortion services recognise the need to ensure women leave their services with reliable contraception. The findings of our study probably reflects the fact that women have to pay an additional amount of money, over and above the cost of abortion, to have the contraceptive method supplied. Given the good evidence that LARC provision can reduce the chance of repeat abortion, there needs to be greater emphasis on ensuring that LARC methods are made more accessible and affordable. This will enable more women to avoid a further unintended pregnancy and in turn reduce repeat abortions.

FCS27. Contraception and Fertility Control FCS27.1 IMPLEMENTATION AND EVALUATION OF AN INNOVATIVE ADOLESCENT SEXUAL AND REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH SCHOOL-BASED PROGRAM IN RURAL RWANDA M. Peskin-Stolze 1 , K. Plewniak 1 , F. Mukandayisabye 3 , D. Asanti 2 , D. Nsabimana 2 , L. Nathan 1 . 1 Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY, USA; 2 Kibogora District Hospital, Kibogora, Rwanda; 3 IJW Secondary School, Kibogora, Rwanda Objectives: Unplanned pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections in adolescents occur despite the best contraceptive strategies as young people lack knowledge about sexual and reproductive health


(SRH), contraception, and service acquisition. Successful pregnancy prevention programs require support from education, healthcare, and community sectors. Effective implementation can foster greater health knowledge, better access to youth friendly services, improved uptake of contraception, and subsequently, behavioral change. Our goal was to utilize data from a needs assessment of a large cohort of Rwandan adolescents to design and implement a secondary school level SRH education program and assess change in knowledge and uptake of contraception. Method: A multifaceted reproductive health program was initiated at a private Rwandan secondary school. One hundred thirty-two male and 181 female students, ages 13–30 participated in the program. Field trips to a youth friendly local health center were organized for students. A clinic log book tracked adolescent utilization of contraceptive services. Classroom didactics included lectures covering human sexuality, reproductive anatomy, sexual myths and facts, pregnancy, contraception, STI/HIV, sexual violence, and clinic etiquette. Lectures were delivered by trained Rwandan teachers. Pre-and post tests were administered and scores were compared using paired t-tests to evaluate effectiveness. Results: Three hundred thirteen students took both pre and post tests covering 7 SRH topics. Post-course improvement was seen in 5 of 7 (71%) of the topics: sexuality, anatomy, sex myths, pregnancy, and contraception (p<0.0001). When assessing for differences between age groups and gender, older students, age >21, had greater STI/HIV post-course improvement (p=0.0117) compared to the younger students under 21 years and females performed better than males on the topic of sexuality (p=0.007) only. The health center log book recorded family planning service activity among 44 adolescents in the year since the program initiation. Conclusions: A multifaceted school based SRH program, which is well integrated into the school curriculum is an effective way to improve the foundation of sexual and reproductive health knowledge. Integrating classroom activity modules and field trips to the local health facilities, may improve access to contraceptive tools and encourage safer sexual practices among sexually active adolescents in rural Rwanda. FCS27.2 RANDOMIZED-CONTROLLED TRIAL OF CONTRACEPTIVE USE AT 3AND 6-MONTHS POST-ABORTION T. DePiñeres 1 , J. Benitez 1 , D. Becker 2 , L. Gil 1 . 1 Fundacion Orientame, Bogota DF, Colombia; 2 University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California, USA Objectives: To measure contraceptive use, 3 and 6 months postabortion, after a no-cost contraceptive implant and new and standardized post-abortion contraceptive counseling tool (CCT) intervention. Method: All women receiving care Fundación Oriéntame over a onemonth period were randomized into to one of 4 groups: Application of a new standardized contraception of counseling tool (CCT); offer of a no-cost implant with CCT (combined intervention group) or without CCT (implant-offer group); or regular contraceptive counseling (control group). All women were offered an IUD at no additional cost, as is the usual practice at this clinic. Eligible women were 18 years or older, willing to be called for 3 and 6 month follow-up, and able to provide informed consent. Results: Overall 88% participants selected a contraceptive method at baseline. Women in the combined intervention group had increased odds of any method uptake and LARC uptake, and women in the implant-offer group had increased odds of LARC uptake. At 3 months, women in the combined intervention group had increased odds of reporting any contraceptive use, and women in the combined intervention and implant-offer groups had increased odds of reporting use


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of LARC methods. At 6 months, women in the combined intervention and implant-offer groups had increased odds of reporting LARC use. Conclusions: Our new standardized contraceptive counseling tool increased post-abortion contraceptive use at 3 months, while free and immediately accessible implants, increased post-abortion LARC uptake and use at 3 and 6 months, with and without the CCT. FCS27.3 CLINICAL VERSUS LABORATORY SCREENING FOR SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED INFECTIONS PRIOR TO INSERTION OF INTRAUTERINE CONTRACEPTION AMONG WOMEN LIVING WITH HIV/AIDS – A RANDOMISED CONTROLLED TRIAL O. Kakaire 1 , J. Byamugisha 1 , N. Tumwesigye 2 , K. Gemzell-Danielsson 3 . 1 Makerere University College of Health Sciences, Kampala, Uganda; 2 Makerere University School of Public Health, Kampala, Uganda; 3 Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden Objectives: To determine if laboratory testing versus no additional testing for STI after syndromic screening reduces the rate of infectious morbidity among WLHA using IUC at Mulago Hospital, Uganda. Method: We enrolled WLHA from 2nd September to 6th December 2013 and followed until 31st December 2014. After syndromic screening, 703 women free of STIs were randomised to either additional laboratory screening or no additional screening for STI before IUC insertion. All women randomised had an IUC inserted and in all 672 participants completed the one year follow-up. The study staff that followed up the participants was blinded to the study allocation groups. Survival analysis was conducted and cox’s proportional hazards ratios used to compare instantaneous risks of infectious morbidity between the two groups. Results: The rate of IUC related infectious morbidity was 10.6% (35/331) in the no additional screening group and 10.3% (35/341) in the additional laboratory screening group (hazard ratio 1.04 (95% CI 0.89–1.20). Unscheduled clinic attendances were similar in the two groups at one year of IUC insertion 13.6% (45/331) in the no additional screening group and 12.3% (42/241) in the additional laboratory screening group. During the one year after IUC insertion, only five women, three from the no additional screening group and two from the additional laboratory screening group developed PID, as defined by established criteria. Conclusions: Infectious morbidity among WLHA opting for IUC is low. Syndromic screening for STIs could be sufficient in identifying WLHA who are suitable for IUC use. However our findings are only generalisable to women in HIV/AIDS care who have access to good followed up. However the. FCS27.4 ASSOCIATION BETWEEN LEVONORGESTREL EMERGENCY CONTRACEPTION AND THE RISK OF ECTOPIC PREGNANCY: A MULTICENTER CASE-CONTROL STUDY J. Zhang 1 , C. Li 1 , W.-H. Zhao 1 , X. Xi 2 , S.-J. Cao 3 , H. Ping 4 , G.-J. Qin 5 , L. Cheng 6 , H.-F. Huang 1 . 1 International Peace Maternity and Child Health Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai, China; 2 Shanghai First People’s Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai, China; 3 Songjiang Central Hospital, Shanghai, China; 4 Songjiang Maternity and Child Health Hospital, Shanghai, China; 5 Minhang Central Hospital, Shanghai, China; 6 Shanghai Institute of Planned Parenthood Research, Shanghai, China Objectives: With the widespread use of levonorgestrel emergency contraception (LNG-EC) in China, cases of ectopic pregnancy (EP) following LNG-EC failure have been reported continuously, but whether there is an association between EP risk and LNG-EC is unclear and paradoxically. Therefore, we designed a case-control study to explore the association between LNG-EC and the risk of EP.

Method: We conducted a multicenter case-control study in five medical institutes in Shanghai, to explore this association by recruiting 2,411 EP patients as case group, and 2,416 women with intrauterine pregnancy and 2,419 non-pregnant women as control groups. The ORs and their 95% confidence intervals were calculated and adjusted for potential confounding factors to estimate the association between the risk of EP and previous or current use of LNG-EC. We also adjusted ORs and their 95% CIs in a mixed effects model by using institutions as a random effect. Results: Compared to women who did not use contraceptives, current use of LNG-EC reduced the risk for intrauterine pregnancy (AOR1 =0.20), but did not increase the risk for EP (AOR2 =1.04). However, in the case of EC failure, LNG-EC users were more likely to have an EP (AOR2 = 5.29, 95% CI: 4.07–6.87). Furthermore, compared to women who did not have further act of intercourse, women with unprotected further act of intercourse were at a higher risk of EP, and women with repeated use of LNG-EC for further intercourse during the same cycle was also associated with a higher risk for EP. Conclusions: We conclude that with the wide use of LNG-EC, a better understanding of the risk of ectopic pregnancy associated with levonorgestrel emergency contraception failure could help to optimize the way in which this form of contraception is used. FCS27.5 CONTRACEPTIVE UPTAKE AT TWO WEEKS AND THREE MONTHS AFTER SIMPLIFIED MEDICAL ABORTION – A RANDOMIZED CONTROL TRIAL IN A LOW-RESOURCE SETTING IN INDIA M. Paul 1 , S. Iyengar 4 , B. Essén 1 , K. Gemzell-Danielsson 2 , K. Iyegar 2,4 , J. Bring 4 , M. Klingberg-Allvin 2,3 . 1 Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; 2 Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden; 3 School of Education, Health and Social Sciences, Falun, Sweden; 4 Action Research & Training for Health, Udaipur, India; 5 Statisticon, Uppsala, Sweden Objectives: This study aims to investigate contraceptive behavior post simplified medical abortion compared to routine clinic followup. Method: A randomized controlled, non-inferiority, trial compared standard clinical follow-up with simplified follow-up after medical abortion in six primary health-care clinics in urban and rural Rajasthan. Women seeking abortion with a gestational age up to nine weeks and agreed to follow-up were included. Women with known contraindications to medical abortions, Hb <85mg/l and aged below 18 were excluded. Contraceptive behavior was measured at two weeks among women successfully followed-up and three months in an urban sub-group who owned a phone and agreed to three-month follow-up. Results: There were no differences between contraceptive uptake and continuation between the study groups at three months (76% clinic follow-up, 77% home-assessment), however women in the clinic follow-up group were more likely to have adopted a contraceptive method at two weeks (62%), while women in the homeassessment group were more likely to adopt a method after next menstruation (60%). Contraceptive advice (AOR 3.4) and contraceptive provision on day three of abortion (AOR 3.7) positively influenced contraceptive uptake at two weeks. Most women (52%) who initiated a method at two weeks chose a long-acting reversible contraceptive, only 4% preferred sterilization. Conclusions: There is no difference in contraceptive uptake at three months among women with clinical follow-up compared with simplified follow-up after medical abortion. Clinical guidelines need to encourage intra-abortion contraception, primarily provided on day one of medical abortion, and the full spectrum of methods need to be offered.

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FCS27.6 NEGOTIATING COLLECTIVE AND INDIVIDUAL REPRODUCTIVE AGENCY – THE STRATEGIES AND TACTICS OF REPRODUCTIVE CONTROL AMONG YOUNG WOMEN IN RURAL INDIA. A QUALITATIVE STUDY M. Paul 1 , B. Essén 1 , S. Sariola 3 , S. Iyengar 4 , S. Soni 4 , M. Klingberg-Allvin 2 . 1 Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; 2 School of Education, Health and Social Sciences, Falun, Sweden; 3 Oxford University, Oxford, UK; 4 Action Research & Training for Health, Udaipur, India Objectives: By using the concepts of strategies and tactics structured in a framework of agency we aim to explore young rural Indian women’s opportunities to make reproductive decisions and means of practicing reproductive control available to them, in the context of social expectations. Method: We carried out 24 in-depth interviews with 19 women during 2013/14 in rural Rajasthan, India, using a naturalistic inquiry approach allowing continuous development of the interview guide. Data was structured through thematic analysis. Results: Findings highlight that women have reproductive intentions, and that new social norms; the two-child norm and prolonged inter-pregnancy intervals, are desired and socially accepted. However, effective means to fulfil these norms of reproduction are not accessible. Childbearing and fertility is determined by collective strategies within the family and supported by community values, while reproductive control relies on women’s individual tactics in an attempt to adhere to existing social expectations. Rural youth rarely use modern contraception; instead, women resort to traditional methods resulting in their pragmatic resort to abortion. The changing social norms observed argues for opportunities for individual reproductive control. Conclusions: The found agentic opportunities increase young women’s possibilities, desire and need to find effective means of reproductive control. However, the lack of response from the health system is deterring these opportunities. Hence, making contraceptive counselling more patient-centred by considering women’s opportunities to influence their reproduction is crucial to motivate contraceptive use among young women. Additionally, better use of contraceptive counselling opportunities post-abortion and delivery are central. FCS27.7 PLASMA LEVONORGESTREL LEVELS OVER 36 MONTHS IN NON-OBESE AND OBESE WOMEN USING LILETTA™, A NEW 52 mg LEVONORGESTREL-RELEASING INTRAUTERINE SYSTEM C.A. Schreiber 1 , D.K. Turok 2 , B.A. Chen 3 , P.D. Blumenthal 4 , C. Cwiak 5 , M.D. Creinin 6 . 1 University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 2 University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, USA; 3 University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA; 4 Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA, USA; 5 Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA; 6 University of California, Davis, Sacramento, CA, USA Objectives: Evaluate levonorgestrel pharmacokinetics in women using the Liletta™ 52 mg levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (IUS) or Mirena® for up to 36 months. Method: Sixty women age 16–35 years enrolling in a clinical trial designed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of Liletta for contraception up to 7 years were included in a substudy to evaluate plasma levonorgestrel levels. Forty non-obese (BMI <30 kg/m2 ) participants were randomized to Liletta (n=21) or Mirena (n=19; 2 had no specimens drawn). An additional 20 obese (BMI ≥30 kg/m2 ) participants were assigned to Liletta of whom 1 had unusable data. Plasma levonorgestrel levels were measured at enrollment, days 7 and 14, and months 1, 3, 6, 9, 12 18, 24, 30 and 36. Results: Among non-obese women, Liletta and Mirena users had


comparable mean levonorgestrel levels during week 1 (310±140 pg/mL vs. 341±145 pg/mL, respectively) and week 2 (279±107 pg/mL vs. 331±144 pg/mL, respectively). From months 1 to 36, mean levels remained similar (month 12 values of 192±36 pg/mL and 187±42 pg/mL, respectively; month 36 values of 153±38 pg/mL and 152±56 pg/mL, respectively). Mean levonorgestrel levels at each time point were 28% to 41% lower in obese than non-obese subjects, averaging 31% lower over the 36 months. In the larger clinical trial, we observed no difference in efficacy between obese and non-obese LNG20 subjects over the first 3 years. Conclusions: Plasma levonorgestrel levels are comparable through 36 months in non-obese women using Liletta and Mirena. Plasma levonorgestrel concentrations in obese Liletta users are about 30% to 40% lower than levels in non-obese women. Because Liletta has similar efficacy in non-obese and obese women, this finding is not relevant for contraception. However, this information may be useful for future investigation of systemic side effect profiles among obese and non-obese women using hormonal intrauterine contraception. FCS27.8 INTRAUTERINE DEVICES AND THE RISK OF UTERINE PERFORATIONS: FINAL RESULTS FROM THE EURAS-IUD STUDY K. Heinemann, S. Moehner, T. Do Minh, S. Reed. ZEG-Berlin, Berlin, Germany Objectives: Uterine perforation is a potentially serious complication of intrauterine device (IUD) use. The absolute risk of uterine perforation associated with levonorgestrel-releasing IUDs (LNG-IUD) is unknown. It is also unknown whether the perforation rate is higher with this IUD than with copper IUDs. Aim of the study is to determine the uterine perforation rate in women using Intrauterine Devices (IUD). Method: Large, comparative, multinational, prospective, noninterventional cohort study with new users of different types of IUDs: LNG-IUDs and copper IUDs. The combined cohort included more than 60,000 women in six European countries (Germany, Austria, UK, Finland, Poland and Sweden). The study was conducted from 2006 to 2013. Both the women and their treating physicians received a follow-up questionnaire 12 months after enrolment. All patientreported outcomes of interest were validated by the women’s treating physicians. A multifaceted 4-level follow-up procedure ensured low loss to follow-up rates. The analysis was based on Cox regression models comparing the cohorts. Results: 61,448 women were recruited (70% LNG-IUDs, 30% copper IUDs). In total, 61 perforations with LNG-IUD (1.4 per 1,000 insertions (95% CI: 1.1–1.8)) and 20 with copper IUD (1.1 per 1,000 insertions (95% CI: 0.7–1.7)) occurred. The risk ratio (RRadj) adjusted for age, BMI, breastfeeding and parity was 1.61 (95% CI: 0.96–2.70). 63 of the 81 perforations were associated with previously suspected risk factors for perforation. Breastfeeding at time of insertion led to a sixfold increase in total perforation risk (RR 6.1, 95% CI: 3.6–9.6). None of the perforations led to serious injury to intraabdominal or pelvic structures. Conclusions: Perforation rates for intrauterine devices are low. The adjusted risk ratio for perforation comparing LNG-IUS and copper IUDs was 1.61. An association of this magnitude identified in observational research is too low to discriminate among bias, confounding, causation, and chance as alternative explanations. Perforation rates were significantly higher among women breast feeding at the time of insertion compared to those not breast feeding.


Free Communication (Oral) Presentations / International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics 131, Suppl. 5 (2015) E72–E313

FCS28. Contraception and Fertility Control FCS28.1 UNWANTED PREGNANCIES IN WOMEN USING INTRAUTERINE DEVICES: FINAL RESULTS FROM THE EURAS-IUD STUDY K. Heinemann, S. Moehner, T. Do Minh, S. Reed. ZEG-Berlin, Berlin, Germany Objectives: Intrauterine devices (IUDs) are a well accepted and widely used method of contraception and have shown high contraceptive efficacy in clinical trials. Complications associated with unintended pregnancies during IUD use have been previously poorly described. The primary objective of the analysis is to determine the rate of unwanted pregnancies in women using IUDs and describe associated complications. Method: Large, comparative, multinational, prospective, noninterventional cohort study with new users of different types of IUDs: LNG-IUDs and copper IUDs. The combined cohort included more than 60,000 women in six European countries (Germany, Austria, UK, Finland, Poland and Sweden). The study was conducted from 2006 to 2013. Both the women and their treating physicians received a follow-up questionnaire 12 months after enrolment. All patientreported outcomes of interest were validated by the women’s treating physicians. A multifaceted 4-level follow-up procedure ensured low loss to follow-up rates. The analysis was based on Cox regression models comparing the cohorts. Results: 61,448 women were recruited (70% LNG-IUDs, 30% copper IUDs). Women in the LNG-IUD cohort were slightly older (37.4 yrs vs 33.3 yrs). A total of 118 contraceptive failures have been reported (26 LNG-IUS, 92 copper IUD), giving a pearl index (PI) of 0.06 for LNG-IUS and a PI of 0.52 for copper IUD. The hazard ratio adjusted for age, BMi and parity for LNG-IUS vs. copper IUD was 0.16 (95% CI: 0.10–0.25). 21 pregnancies (7 LNG-IUS, 14 copper IUD) were ectopic pregnancies, giving an adjusted hazard ratio of 0.26 (95% CI: 0.10–0.66). Conclusions: The contraceptive failure rate for both cohorts was low, with LNG-IUD having a significantly lower contraceptive failure rate compared with copper-IUD. Physicians should have a high index of suspicion for extra-uterine gravida if they suspect a pregnancy under IUD use. FCS28.2 PREDICTORS OF IMPLANT UPTAKE AMONG POSTPARTUM MALAWIAN WOMEN D. Kopp 1,2 , N. Rosenberg 2 , G. Stuart 1 , M. O’Shea 2 , C. Stanley 2 , M. Hosseinipour 2,5 , W. Miller 5,6 , M. Mwale 4 , J. Tang 1,2 . 1 University of North Carolina-Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology, Chapel Hill, NC, USA; 2 UNC Project-Malawi, Lilongwe, Malawi; 3 Malawi College of Medicine-Department of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, Blantyre, Malawi; 4 Bwaila Hospital, Lilongwe District Health Office, Lilongwe, Malawi; 5 University of North Carolina-Department of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC, USA; 6 University of North Carolina-Department of Epidemiology, Chapel Hill, NC, USA Objectives: The contraceptive implant is a method that is not userdependent and whose efficacy rivals sterilization, though it is reversible. However, in sub-Saharan Africa, including Malawi, implant use is less than 2%. Our objective was to determine if correct implant knowledge is associated with implant uptake in a population of postpartum Malawian women. Method: We conducted a prospective cohort study of 634 postpartum women. Women were enrolled immediately after delivery of a live infant. Data were collected at baseline and by telephone at 3, 6, and 12 months postpartum. Women were asked about knowledge of contraception, contraceptive use and timing, and contraceptive continuation. Differences in the baseline characteristics of women with and without correct baseline implant knowledge were calculated us-

ing Pearson’s χ2 tests. Hazard ratios were calculated to examine the relationship of correct implant knowledge to time of implant uptake using unadjusted and adjusted Cox proportional hazards regression models. Results: Of the 634 participants, the median age was 25 (IQR 21, 29), and median parity was 2 (IQR 1, 3). Follow-up data were collected from 539 (85.0%), 480 (75.7%), and 331 (52.2%) participants at 3, 6, and 12 months, respectively. One hundred and thirty-three women reported implant use during the follow-up period. Among women who reported implant placement, median time from delivery to implant placement was 3 months (IQR 2–5 months). Correct implant knowledge was associated with higher implant uptake in unadjusted analysis (HR: 1.60 95% CI 1.02, 2.52) and after adjustment for age (HR: 1.62 95% CI 1.03, 2.55). Conclusions: In this study, correct baseline knowledge about the contraceptive implant was associated with implant uptake. Correct contraceptive knowledge can be increased through counseling of patients by providers and community education campaigns. Identifying modifiable characteristics to increase uptake of long-acting reversible methods, such as the contraceptive implant, is important to address an unmet need in family planning. FCS28.3 FAMILY PLANNING KNOWLEDGE AND USE AMONG WOMEN RESIDING IN REFUGEE CAMPS IN EASTERN DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF CONGO R.M. Kisindja 1 , C. Kimona 1 , M. Etoy 1 , N. Benfield 2 . 1 HOLD DRC, Goma, North Kivu, The Democratic Congo; 2 Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY, USA Objectives: This survey of reproductive-aged women displaced by conflict and residing in refugee camps in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) aims to describe their family planning awareness and needs in order to inform the development of a family planning program and improve contraceptive access for this highly vulnerable group of women. Method: The study was conducted at the Mugunga I and II refugee camps in North Kivu in March 2014. UNHCR estimates over 2.6 million internally displaced persons in DRC and the Mugunga camps currently house 22560 residents. A sample of reproductive-aged women were recruited by three independent researchers in the camps. Informed consent was obtained and participants completed an individual verbally-administered survey assessing their obstetrical history including induced abortion, and family planning knowledge, interest, and prior use. Surveys were conducted and recorded by researchers. Analysis was performed and descriptive statistics were obtained. Results: N=155. 93.5% were camp residents for ≤2 years. The median parity was 4.0. 33 women (21.3%) reported an induced abortion. 59% self-induced using medication or herbs and 39% received care from a healthcare provider. 83.8% received contraception counseling – 50% during prenatal care and 17% from an NGO. 34.8% knew ≥2 methods and 30.3% reported having ever used contraception with median use 6 months. Women who had experienced an induced abortion were 2.3 times more likely to have used contraception (p<0.044). Women who had never used contraception cited lack of interest (61.7%) lack of knowledge (20.6%) and religious opposition (12.2%). Conclusions: Eastern DRC has been embroiled in a regional conflict since 1994. This conflict has resulted in massive population displacement and a long-term displaced persons situation. Women with formal refugee status residing in camps had moderate levels of contraceptive knowledge but low levels of usage and a significant history of induced abortion. Family Planning efforts for this population must focus on helping women avoid unintended pregnancy through improved access to contraception, especially long-acting methods, as well as safe abortion and post-abortion care.

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FCS28.4 LOW RATES OF COMPLICATIONS IN CLIENTS THROUGHOUT THE RAPID SCALE UP OF POSTPARTUM IUCD (PPIUCD) SERVICES IN INDIA S. Das, S. Kumar, B. Sood, V. Yadav, G. Chhibber, M. Rath. Jhpiego, an affiliate of Johns Hopkins University, New Delhi, India Objectives: To identify the drivers of quality that helped in keeping rates of complications in PPIUCD clients low during rapid scale up of PPIUCD services in India. Method: Given high unmet need for family planning during postpartum period and increasing institutional deliveries, PPIUCD services were initiated in 5 facilities in 2 states of India in 2009–10 and by 2014, PPIUCD services were scaled up in >1000 facilities in >425 districts in 19 states. Monthly reports from facilities were compiled and analyzed. During 2009–2014, over 390,000 PPIUCD insertions were performed, indicating >9% of total institutional deliveries. About 52% of PPIUCD acceptors (204,966) were followed up after 6 weeks of insertion during 2011–2014 and follow up findings of these clients specify the postinsertion outcomes, which reflect on quality of care. Results: Rates of Expulsions, which is the major concern with PPIUCD, remained below 3.4%; rates of infection remained below 2.2%; though removal increased from 1.6% (2011) to 6.2% (2014). Nonetheless, majority of clients opted to continue using the IUCD and 88% of PPIUCD clients, have no complaints. No perforation was reported at 6 weeks follow up. However, 2 women returned at 6 months with complaints resulting from perforations. These 2 cases were successfully managed and clients were satisfied with outcomes. Conclusions: Key contributors for low levels of complications: • Minimum performance standards set by stakeholders for counseling, service provision, follow up, management of services and record keeping • Hired dedicated counsellors trained and equipped with appropriate job-aids, counselling corner established for privacy • Providers’ competency built through insertion on humanistic models and supervised insertion in clients during training. Supportive supervision addressed gaps • Insertions allowed by trained providers. Pre-insertion screening and infection prevention measures kept infection rate low • Clients followed-up at 6 weeks; facilities duly maintained registers • Separate studies and quality review provided important feedback Above system-based approach ensured quality during rapid scale up. FCS28.5 “IT’S DIFFICULT HERE, BECAUSE YOU NEED SOMEONE TO LOOK AFTER THE CHILDREN”: A QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS OF AFRICAN REFUGEE WOMEN’S POST-RESETTLEMENT PERCEPTIONS REGARDING FAMILY SIZE AND FERTILITY P. Royer 1 , B. Jackson 2 , L. Olson 1 , E. Grainger 1 , D. Turok 1 . 1 University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, United States of America; 2 Unaffiliated, Salt Lake City, UT, United States of America Objectives: To understand conceptualization of family size and fertility desires among a group of African refugee women after resettlement to the United States. Method: Focus groups (FG) were conducted with resettled Somali (n=41) and Congolese (n=26) refugee women in Salt Lake City, UT. Participants were recruited via community leaders and refugee service organizations. Three Somali and three Congolese FG occurred between May and August 2014. FG undertaken in the women’s native language using a semi-structured interview guide of open-ended questions designed to elicit understanding of family size conceptualization and future fertility desires. FG audio recordings translated and transcribed verbatim by externally located certified translators then checked for accuracy. Two researchers utilized deductive and induc-


tive coding to analyze transcripts and develop themes using Atlas.ti software. Results: Somali women were older (mean: 38 v. 33), more likely married (68% v. 33%) and resettled longer (median 54 v 19.5 months) than Congolese women. Both groups indicated families with many children (>5) were preferable to those with fewer children; Somali women were likely to attribute this belief to religious tenets while Congolese women cited the influence of non-religious cultural norms. Evolving parenting concepts as women transitioned from community dwelling in home/host countries to nuclear family isolation in the United States was prevalent. Despite perceptions of increased difficulty raising children after resettlement, women maintained the community preference for many children. Conclusions: These results indicate that pre-displacement societal norms persist in post-resettlement environments despite evolving concepts regarding parenting roles and family models. The preference for more children does not seem correlated with time since resettlement. Contextual understanding of family planning goals and desires, as well as societal norms, is crucial for appropriate family planning counseling of resettled refugee women. FCS28.6 IMMEDIATE VERSUS LATER INSERTION OF THE LEVONORGESTREL-RELEASING INTRAUTERINE SYSTEM AFTER MEDICAL ABORTION BETWEEN 9 TO 12 WEEKS OF GESTATION – A RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED STUDY R. Korjamo 1,2 , M. Mentula 2 , O. Heikinheimo 1,2 . 1 University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland; 2 Helsinki University Hospital, Helsinki, Finland Objectives: Intrauterine contraceptive devices and systems (IUD) are the most effective contraceptive methods in prevention of repeat abortions. Conventionally, an IUD insertion is scheduled at few weeks after medical abortion. However, up to half the patients fail to attend the follow-up appointment. IUD can be inserted after vaginal birth immediately after the placental expulsion, but the rate of IUD expulsion is increased up to 24%. The aim of our study was to compare expulsion rates between immediate vs. conventional insertion of IUD after medically induced abortion. Method: This randomized controlled trial included 102 women undergoing medical abortion between 9 to 12 weeks of gestation. It was conducted at Helsinki University Hospital between January and December 2013. Women were randomized between immediate (on the day of termination) vs. conventional insertion of the levonorgestrelreleasing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) at the follow-up visit 2 to 4 weeks later. Expulsion rates and possible complications were registered at follow-up visits at 2 to 4 weeks and 3 months. Results: LNG-IUS was inserted in 50 out of 51 women (98.0%) in the immediate group vs. 41 of 51 (80.4%) in the conventional group, p=0.008. Numbers of total expulsions at 3 months were similar between the groups, 2 of 43 (4.7%) vs. 1 of 31 (3.2%), p=1.00. However, there were more cervically or istmically displaced LNG-IUSs in the group of immediate insertion than in the group of conventional insertion, 12 (27.9%) vs. 1 (3.2%), p=0.009. No cases of uterine perforation occurred. The rate of infection (12.5% vs. 15.6%, p=0.74) or curettage (20.0% vs. 26.5%, p=0.65) did not differ between the groups. Conclusions: An immediate insertion of the LNG-IUS after medical abortion resulted in a higher rate of initiation of intrauterine contraception without increasing the rate of complications. The rate of complete IUD expulsions was comparable to those seen after surgical abortion. Following immediate insertion the rate of expelled or displaced IUDs was parallel with that observed after post-placental insertion following vaginal delivery. Immediate insertion of LNG-IUS after medical abortion is a safe alternative to ensure long-acting contraception, especially when the patient’s compliance with the later follow-up visit is uncertain.


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FCS28.7 IMPROVING EVIDENCE-BASED PRACTICE FOR LARC: EVALUATION OF THE RYAN LARC PROGRAM K. Simonson, T. Pomerantz, K. Mullersman, E. Ly, P.U. Landy. University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA Objectives: The Ryan LARC program supplies free LARC devices (IUDs and implants) to 59 ob-gyn departments across the US, with two goals: 1. To expand training for nursing students, medical students, residents and family planning fellows in evidence-based utilization of LARC; and 2. To increase patient access to LARC in a clinical scenario outside the typical interval insertion setting, specifically immediately postpartum, immediately post-abortion or in medically or socially vulnerable patients. Our objective was to evaluate program progress toward these goals. Method: Non-identifying data on LARC insertion are collected monthly. Women are eligible to receive Ryan LARC if they face significant financial barriers to obtaining contraception and present for LARC outside the typical interval insertion setting. Medically vulnerable populations are defined as patients advised by their physicians to prevent pregnancy because of significant medical problems. Examples include patients with cardiovascular disease, neurological conditions, autoimmune disease, and transplant patients. Socially vulnerable populations are defined as patients desiring to prevent pregnancy because of social circumstances. All LARC insertions should be completed or observed by a trainee. We assessed program progress and trends over time. Results: Between May 2008 and December 2014, 32,629 women received Ryan LARC devices. 63% of these women had LARC inserted immediately post-abortion, 23% immediately postpartum, and 14% were characterized as being a part of a medically or socially vulnerable populations. 91% of insertions involved a trainee (nursing student, medical student, ob-gyn resident or family planning fellow). The area with the biggest expansion from 2008 to 2014 was immediate postpartum LARC insertion. These insertions increased from 3% to 25% of all Ryan LARC insertions. 20% of women in vulnerable populations were categorized as being socially vulnerable. Conclusions: The Ryan LARC Program has successfully exposed trainees to a variety of evidence-based scenarios where it is safe and effective to provide LARC. The Program has also increased access to LARC for women who experience financial barriers to contraception and women who are part of medically or socially vulnerable populations. FCS28.8 POST-ABORTAL INTRAUTERINE CONTRACEPTION IN WOMEN AT HIGH RISK FOR INFECTION: IS THERE A DILEMMA? A. Patel 1,2 , A. Roston 1 , A. Roston 1 , L. Zimmerman 1 , K. Stempinski 1 , L. Stern 1 . 1 Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, John H. Stroger Hospital of Cook County, Chicago, IL, USA; 2 Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL, USA Objectives: To determine whether prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Neisseria gonorrhea (GC) is lower among women who select an IUD for post-abortal contraception than among those who choose other methods. To assess whether this reduction in STI rates shifts the IUD group from “high-risk” to “low-risk” <3% prevalence. Method: This study is a retrospective review of 4,227 women who underwent first trimester surgical abortion at a large public hospital between May 2011 and April 2012. Rates of CT and GC were compared between women who selected IUDs and those who chose other methods for post-abortal contraception.

Results: The overall combined rate of CT/GC was 13.2%. In the IUD subgroup, CT/GC rate was 9.5% (2.3–15.7% when stratified by age) compared to 14.2% (4.9–23.5% when stratified by age) in the group of women selecting other methods (p=0.0015). While there was risk reduction amongst IUD selectors, no age subgroup or the aggregate reached low risk status of <3% for combined CT/GC or CT alone. Conclusions: Women choosing IUDs had lower rates of CT/GC than the comparison group, however rates were still within the high risk range. Current evidence does not support post-abortal IUD placement in women at high risk or positive testing for CT/GC. In such settings, when infection status of a woman is unknown at the time of abortion, it is difficult to balance guidelines endorsing immediate insertion and, at the same time, protect patients against the negative sequelae of potential infection.

FCS29. Contraception and Fertility Control FCS29.1 MASS MEDIA EXPOSURE AND FAMILY PLANNING IN WEST AFRICAN ADOLESCENTS J. Jacobs, A. Edelman, B. Darney. Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, Oregon, USA Objectives: Francophone West Africa has lower rates of contraceptive use as compared with other regions in Sub-Saharan Africa; this is especially true in adolescents (ages 15–19). Mass media campaigns are one strategy to increase awareness and attitudes towards family planning (FP). Previous studies suggest that mass media campaigns are associated with improved attitudes toward FP and increased contraceptive use, but little data exist for adolescents in West Africa. The goal of this study is to examine whether FP messaging is reaching adolescent women in West Africa, and whether such messaging is associated with increased contraceptive uptake. Method: We pooled data from the 2010 Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) for Senegal and Burkina Faso (N=32,775, women ages 15–49). We accounted for the complex survey design using survey weights. Age was treated as a categorical variable with women grouped in five-year age bands. We used descriptive statistics to examine the association between individual and household-level sociodemographic characteristics and exposure to FP messaging (via TV, radio, and/or print). Multivariable logistic regression was used to test the association between self-reported exposure to FP messaging and modern contraceptive use in married adolescents (N=1966, women ages 15–19). Results: A higher proportion of women living in urban areas (62.2%), from the highest wealth quintile (70.6%), and with the smallest gaps in educational achievement (81.2%), reported exposure to any mode of FP messaging compared with rural (42.3%), poorest (33.2%), and least educated (45.5%) women (p<0.001 for all). A smaller proportion of adolescents (42.12%, 95% CI: 40.29–43.97%) reported exposure to FP messaging compared with all other age categories. Among married adolescents, exposure to FP messaging was positively associated with use of a modern contraceptive method after adjusting for residence type, wealth quintile, and educational achievement gap (OR 1.87; p=0.017). Conclusions: Mass media campaigns are not reaching the most vulnerable populations in West Africa, such as adolescents and poorer rural women. Adapting mass media campaigns to address these gaps is important for increasing exposure to FP messaging and hopefully, the desired outcome of increased contraceptive uptake.

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FCS29.2 MEDICAL ABORTION OUTCOMES AND REPEAT PREGNANCY FOLLOWING QUICKSTART OF CONTRACEPTIVE IMPLANTS AND DEPOT-MEDROXYPROGESTERONE ACETATE E. Raymond 1 , M.A. Weaver 9 , Y.-L. Tan 1 , K.S. Louie 1 , M. Bousiéguez 10 , P. Sanhueza 2 , C. Kaplan 3 , S. Sonalkar 4 , A. Goldberg 5 , K. Culwell 6 , L. Memmel 7 , R. Jamshidi 8 . 1 Gynuity Health Projects, New York, NY, USA; 2 Secretariat of Health, Mexico City, Mexico; 3 Planned Parenthood of Southern New England, New Haven, CT, USA; 4 Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 5 Planned Parenthood League of Massachusetts, Boston, MA, USA; 6 Planned Parenthood of the Pacific Southwest, San Diego, CA, USA; 7 Planned Parenthood Northern California, San Rafael, CA, USA; 8 Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA; 9 University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Department of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC, USA; 10 Independent Consultant, Mexico City, Mexico Objectives: Providing progestin-containing contraceptives to medical abortion patients concurrently with the mifepristone could reduce future pregnancy risk, but interactions between the progestin and mifepristone could increase risk of abortion failure. We designed two randomized trials to assess the effects of co-administration of mifepristone with etonogestrel implants (Trial A) and depotmedroxyprogesterone acetate (Trial B) on abortion outcome and 6month pregnancy rate. Method: We enrolled women who requested abortion with mifepristone and misoprostol and desired etonorgestrel implants (A) or depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate (B) for post-abortion contraception. We randomly assigned each woman to receive the method either on the day of mifepristone ingestion (quickstart group) or after complete abortion (afterstart group). We collected data at ≤1, 4, and 7 months after enrollment. Results: Trial A enrolled 476 women, of whom 9/236 (3.81%) and 9/240 (3.75%) in the quickstart and afterstart groups, respectively, had surgery to complete the abortion. The difference of 0.06% (90% CI: −3.1%, 3.2%) excluded our pre-specified non-inferiority margin of 5%. We found no evidence of a difference between groups in unscheduled clinical visits, abortion-related pain, bleeding, or serious adverse events. Women in the quickstart group were more satisfied with their group assignments. To date, Trial B has enrolled 461 of 475 planned subjects. We will present final results on abortion outcomes in Trial B and repeat pregnancy outcomes in Trial A. Conclusions: Concurrent administration of etonogestrel implants with mifepristone did not decrease medical abortion success and was preferred by women. This option should be routinely offered to patients. FCS29.3 FINAL RESULTS FROM THE INAS-SCORE STUDY – VTE AND ATE RISK IN USERS OF DIFFERENT COMBINED ORAL CONTRACEPTIVES K. Bardenheuer, K. Heinemann, J. Dinger, A. Bauerfeind. ZEG - Berlin Center for Epidemiology and Health Research, Berlin, Germany Objectives: Primary objective of this study is to investigate the cardiovascular long- and short-term safety of a new 26-day regimen combined oral contraceptive (COC) containing estradiol valerate (EV) and dienogest (DNG), known as Qlaira (and Natazia in the US), compared to established COCs. Method: The “International Active Surveillance Study - Safety of Contraceptives: Role of Estrogens” (INAS-SCORE) is a large, prospective, controlled, non-interventional, long-term cohort study in the US as well as in Austria, France, Germany, Italy, UK, Poland and Sweden. Women who receive a new COC prescription (either for the first time or as a switch) are asked for study participation by their prescribing physicians. During the follow-up phase, the woman is contacted regularly and asked about hormonal contraceptive use and serious


adverse events. All self-reported clinical outcomes of interest are validated by health care professionals. All analyses make allowance for confounding, using multivariate techniques such as Cox regression models. Results: Interim analysis is based on 98,234 women-years (WY) of observation and 72,160 WY of OC exposure. Overall, 57 VTEs and 15 ATEs have occurred. For Qlaira, the VTE incidence is 6.4/10,000 WY and for Other COCs 7.5/10,000 WY. The crude HR for Qlaira vs. Other COCs is 0.8 (95% CI: 0.4–1.8). Adjustment for age, BMI, duration of current OC use and family history of VTE lead to an adjusted HR of 0.5 (95% CI: 0.2–1.6). ATE incidences were very low with 0.8 ATE/10,000 WY for Qlaira and 2.2 ATE/10,000 WY for Other COCs. Final results will be shown at ISPE. Conclusions: The results do not suggest a higher VTE or ATE risk of Qlaira users compared to users of Other COCs in a study population that is representative of actual users. FCS29.4 EFFECTIVENESS OF DIFFERENT COMBINED ORAL CONTRACEPTIVES – FINAL RESULTS FROM THE INAS-SCORE STUDY K. Bardenheuer, J. Dinger, C. Hagemann, S. Möhner, C. Franke. ZEG – Berlin Center for Epidemiology and Health Research, Berlin, Germany Objectives: Oral contraceptives are the most popular method of birth control and widely used. The secondary outcome focuses on unintended pregancies and is compared between the two user cohorts: Qlaira (Natazia in the US) and established COCs in the US and Europe. Method: The “International Active Surveillance Study - Safety of Contraceptives: Role of Estrogens” (INAS-SCORE) is a large, prospective, controlled, non-interventional, long-term cohort study carried out in the US as well as in Austria, France, Germany, Italy, UK, Poland and Sweden. It is conducted as a Post-Authorisation Safety Study (PASS) requested by the Medicines Evaluation Board (MEB). A network of prescribing physicians enroll women with a new COC prescription. During the follow-up phase, the woman is contacted regularly and asked for information about unintended pregnancy as a secondary outcome. Self-reported pregnancies are being validated by health care professionals. Results: Interim analysis is based on 98,234 women-years (WY) of observation and 72,160 WY of OC exposure. Overall, 608 unintended pregnancies were reported, of which 33 occurred under Qlaira use (Pearl Index: 0.2; 95% CI: 0.2–0.4) and 545 under Other COC use (Pearl Index: 1.0; 95% CI: 0.9–1.1). Crude, age adjusted and fully adjusted HR of Qlaira vs. Other COCs are: for the US: 1.5 (95% CI: 0.8–3.1), 1.7 (95% CI: 0.8–3.4) and 1.8 (95% CI: 0.9–3.5) and for Europe: 0.5 (95% CI: 0.3– 0.7), 0.6 (95% CI: 0.4–0.9) and 0.7 (95% CI: 0.5–1.1). Final results will be shown at ESG. Conclusions: OCs have a high contraceptive effectiveness. Differences were seen between Europe and the US, with only a limited number of unintended pregnancies in the US Qlaira cohort. Although the European Qlaira cohort is older, age doesn’t seem to have the strongest effect on unintended pregnancies. FCS29.5 A PHASE III, SINGLE-ARM STUDY OF A 13.5 MG TOTAL DOSE LEVONORGESTREL INTRAUTERINE CONTRACEPTIVE SYSTEM IN POSTMENARCHEAL ADOLESCENTS K. Gemzell-Danielsson 1 , E. Lukkari-Lax 2 , E. Montegriffo 3 , T. Faustmann 4 , B.M. Hofmann 4 , D. Apter 5 . 1 Karolinska Institutet and Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden; 2 Bayer Oy, Espoo, Finland; 3 Bayer HealthCare Pharmaceuticals, Newbury, UK; 4 Bayer Pharma AG, Berlin, Germany; 5 Sexual Health Clinic, Väestöliitto, Helsinki, Finland Objectives: To explore the safety of the 13.5 mg levonorgestrel in-


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trauterine system (LNG-IUS13.5mg [total content]; Jaydess® ) over 12 months of use in postmenarcheal adolescents. Secondary objectives were to evaluate efficacy and characterize the pharmacokinetics (PK) of levonorgestrel (LNG) after placement of LNG-IUS13.5mg in adolescents using a population PK model, to evaluate the impact of age and body weight on individual LNG exposure, and to compare LNG PK after placement of LNG-IUS13.5mg with that previously observed in adults participating in the pivotal Phase III study. Method: In this single-arm Phase III study, nulliparous and parous subjects aged 12–17 years with regular menstrual cycles (21–35 days) requesting contraception, were recruited to use the LNGIUS13.5mg for 1 year. For the PK evaluation, one blood sample per subject was taken at one of the study visits or the end of study visit (Months 1, 3, 6, 9, or 12). Serum LNG concentrations were evaluated using population PK modeling, applying non-linear mixedeffects models. The full analysis set comprised 304 subjects (mean age 16.2 years; 97.7% nulliparous) for whom at least one attempt at LNG-IUS13.5mg placement was made (successful in 303/304). Results: Treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) were reported by 82.6% of subjects, leading to discontinuation in 13.8%. Serious TEAEs were reported by 7.6% of subjects, leading to discontinuation in 0.7%. There were no cases of pelvic inflammatory disease, ectopic pregnancy, or uterine perforation. Ten subjects (3.3%) expelled their LNG-IUS13.5mg (one complete, nine partial expulsions). No pregnancies were reported; 83.2% completed the 12-month study. Geometric mean serum LNG concentrations at 1, 3, and 12 months were 145.0, 110.0, and 77.8 ng/L, respectively (adults: 131.0, 99.8, and 71.0 ng/L). Covariate analysis revealed that per kilogram of body weight, LNG clearance increased linearly by 1.5%. Conclusions: Efficacy and safety data for LNG-IUS13.5mg in this adolescent population were consistent with previously reported data for LNG-IUS13.5mg in adults in the pivotal Phase III study. No new or unexpected safety events were reported. The continuation rate (83.2%) was very favorable for an adolescent population. Serum LNG concentrations were slightly higher in adolescents than in adults, but ranges for adolescents lie completely within adult ranges. This slight difference is attributed to a lower average body weight for adolescents combined with a covariate effect of body weight on LNG clearance; the resulting lower clearance in adolescents leads to higher LNG exposure. FCS29.6 A PHASE III STUDY OF A 19.5 MG TOTAL DOSE LEVONORGESTREL INTRAUTERINE CONTRACEPTIVE SYSTEM OVER 5 YEARS OF USE A. Nelson 1 , K. Rosen 2 , T. Faustmann 3 , T. Schmelter 3 , K. Gemzell-Danielsson 4 . 1 Los Angeles Biomedical Research Institute, Harbor-UCLA Medical Center, CA, USA; 2 Bayer Healthcare Pharmaceuticals, Whippany, NJ, USA; 3 Bayer Pharma AG, Berlin, Germany; 4 Karolinska Institutet and Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden Objectives: To evaluate the efficacy and safety profile associated with a new 19.5 mg (total content) levonorgestrel intrauterine contraceptive system (LNG-IUS19.5mg), which has a 28 mm ×30 mm T-frame, over a period of up to 5 years in a multicenter, open-label, Phase III study. The primary objective was to evaluate the Pearl Index (PI, number of pregnancies per 100 woman-years). Secondary objectives included the evaluation of the Kaplan-Meier cumulative failure rate, the adverse events (AEs) profile, and the discontinuation rates (overall and due to AEs). Method: Nulliparous and parous women aged 18–35 years with regular menstrual cycles (21–35 days) were randomized to use the 13.5 mg (total content) LNG-IUS (LNG-IUS13.5mg) or the LNG-IUS19.5mg for 3 years. After 3 years, women using the LNG-IUS13.5mg had it removed; women using the LNG-IUS19.5mg had the option to continue

using it in an extension study for up to 2 more years (5 years in total). Here, we report 5-year outcome data for the LNG-IUS19.5mg. All analyses were based on the full analysis set of 1452 women for whom at least one attempt at LNG-IUS19.5mg placement was made. Results: Mean age at baseline was 27.1 years; 39.5% were nulliparous. The cumulative 5-year PI was 0.29. The 5-year cumulative failure rate was 1.4%. The incidence of ectopic pregnancy was 0.18 per 100 woman-years. The crude incidences of PID (confirmed by investigator), uterine perforation (total/partial, including embedment), and complete/partial LNG-IUS19.5mg expulsion were 0.6%, 0.2%, and 3.7%, respectively. Overall, 870 (59.9%) and 550 (37.8%) women completed 3 and 5 years of treatment, respectively. Over 5 years, 328 (22.6%) discontinued due to AEs, including pelvic pain (n=43 [3.0%]), and acne (n=28 [1.9%]), and 76 (5.2%) discontinued due to bleeding problems (including amenorrhea). Conclusions: In this mixed cohort of nulliparous and parous women, the LNG-IUS19.5mg was highly effective over 5 years of use, demonstrated by a low 5-year PI and a low 5-year cumulative failure rate. The LNG-IUS19.5mg was also associated with a favorable safety profile, including low rates of ectopic pregnancy, pelvic inflammatory disease, uterine perforation, and expulsion. No new or unexpected safety events were reported. In addition, the LNG-IUS19.5mg was associated with favorable 3- and 5-year completion rates, a favorable discontinuation rate due to AEs, and a low discontinuation rate due to bleeding problems (including amenorrhea). FCS29.7 A RANDOMIZED PHASE III STUDY COMPARING THE 13.5 MG TOTAL DOSE LEVONORGESTREL INTRAUTERINE CONTRACEPTIVE SYSTEM (LNG-IUS13.5MG) WITH THE SUBDERMAL ETONOGESTREL (ENG) CONTRACEPTIVE IMPLANT OVER 12 MONTHS OF USE D. Apter 1 , E. Lukkari-Lax 2 , T. Faustmann 3 , J. Grunert 4 , K. Gemzell-Danielsson 5 . 1 Sexual Health Clinic, Väestöliitto, Helsinki, Finland; 2 Bayer Oy, Espoo, Finland; 3 Bayer Pharma AG, Berlin, Germany; 4 Bayer Pharma AG, Wuppertal, Germany; 5 Karolinska Institutet and Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden Objectives: To reduce the high rates of unintended pregnancy, various guidelines encourage more widespread use of long-acting reversible contraceptive (LARC) methods. LARC methods include the 13.5 mg (total content) levonorgestrel intrauterine contraceptive system (LNG-IUS13.5mg; Jaydess® ) and the etonogestrel (ENG) implant (Nexplanon® ). The objectives of this open-label, randomized, Phase III study conducted in six European countries (Austria, Finland, France, Norway, Sweden, and the UK) were to compare the LNG-IUS13.5mg with the ENG implant with regard to the 12-month discontinuation rate (primary outcome), reasons for discontinuation, and user satisfaction. Method: Healthy nulliparous and parous women aged 18–35 years with regular menstrual cycles (21–35 days), requiring contraception, were randomized to use the LNG-IUS13.5mg or the ENG implant for 12 months. Women were excluded if they were known or suspected to be pregnant, were lactating, or had had a vaginal delivery, Cesarean delivery, or abortion ≤6 weeks before screening. In total, 766 women were randomized to use either the LNGIUS13.5mg (n=385) or the ENG implant (n=381). In the LNGIUS13.5mg and ENG implant groups, respectively, the mean age was 24.8 years and 25.0 years, and 76.2% and 72.2% were nulliparous. Results: The 12-month discontinuation rates were 19.6% and 26.8% in the LNG-IUS13.5mg and ENG implant groups, respectively. This −7.2% difference was statistically significant (95% CI: −13.2%, −1.2%). Fewer women in the LNG-IUS13.5mg group than the ENG implant group discontinued because of increased bleeding (3.2% vs 11.3%) and AEs (14.3% vs. 21.8%), or reported acne as an AE (9.9% vs 15.5%). At 12 months, more women in the LNG-IUS13.5mg group than the ENG

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implant group were “very/somewhat satisfied” with their bleeding pattern (60.9% vs 33.6%) and reported a preference to use their study treatment after the study (70.1% vs 58.5%). Conclusions: The LNG-IUS13.5mg was associated with a significantly lower 12-month discontinuation rate compared with the ENG implant; this was mainly because women using the ENG implant more frequently discontinued due to increased bleeding. Accordingly, almost twice as many women in the LNG-IUS13.5mg group than the ENG implant group reported being “very/somewhat satisfied” with their bleeding pattern, which may have contributed to more women in the LNG-IUS13.5mg group than the ENG implant group reporting a preference to use their study treatment after the study. These results reinforce the importance of discussing the bleeding changes associated with different LARC methods during contraceptive counseling. FCS29.8 EFFICACY AND SAFETY OF THE 13.5 MG (TOTAL CONTENT) LEVONORGESTREL INTRAUTERINE CONTRACEPTIVE SYSTEM IN AN ASIA-PACIFIC POPULATION: RESULTS OF A PHASE III STUDY E. Weisberg 1,2 , E. Lukkari-Lax 3 , K. Roth 4 , S. Shin 5 . 1 Family Planning New South Wales, Ashfield, Australia; 2 University of Sydney, Camperdown, Australia; 3 Bayer Oy, Espoo, Finland; 4 Bayer Pharma AG, Berlin, Germany; 5 Bayer HealthCare Pharmaceuticals, Seoul, Republic of Korea Objectives: To explore the efficacy and safety of the 13.5 mg (total content) levonorgestrel intrauterine contraceptive system (LNGIUS13.5mg; Jaydess® ) over 3 years of use in an Asia-Pacific population. Primary objective: to determine the Pearl Index (PI, number of pregnancies per 100 woman-years). Secondary objectives: to evaluate the 3-year Kaplan-Meier cumulative failure rate, the incidence of treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) and drug-related TEAEs, the incidence of adverse events of special interest (ectopic pregnancy, pelvic inflammatory disease [PID], uterine perforation, and complete/partial device expulsion), and to evaluate return to fertility among women who discontinued because of a wish to become pregnant. Method: In this single-arm Phase III study conducted in China, Australia, and Korea, nulliparous and parous women aged 18–40 years, with regular menstrual cycles (21–35 days), requesting contraception, were recruited to use the LNG-IUS13.5mg for 3 years. Main exclusion criteria: known/suspected pregnancy; current lactation; or vaginal delivery, Cesarean section, or abortion ?6 weeks before LNGIUS13.5mg placement. Women who discontinued to become pregnant were followed for up to 12 months after discontinuation. The full analysis set comprised 925 women (mean age 31.6 years; 6.4% nulliparous; 92.6% Asian) for whom at least one attempt at LNGIUS13.5mg placement was made (successful in 918/925). Results: The overall PI was 0.35 and the 3-year cumulative failure rate was 0.9%; 4/8 pregnancies were ectopic. The incidences of TEAEs and drug-related TEAEs were 70.1% and 31.2%, respectively. The most frequent TEAE and drug-related TEAE leading to discontinuation were device expulsion (4.4%) and vaginal hemorrhage (3.0%), respectively. Crude incidences of uterine perforation and complete/partial expulsion were 0.1% and 4.4%, respectively. There were no cases of protocol-defined PID. Overall, 72.1% of women completed the 3-year study. Follow-up data were available for 10/12 women who discontinued to become pregnant; 5/10 conceived within 3 months; an additional 2/10 conceived by 12 months. Conclusions: The LNG-IUS13.5mg was as effective in this Asia-Pacific population as in the previously reported pivotal Phase III study conducted at study centers in Europe, Canada, the US, and Latin America. This was demonstrated by the low overall PI of 0.35 and the low


3-year cumulative failure rate of 0.9% (0.33 and 0.9%, respectively, in the pivotal Phase III study). No new or unexpected safety events were reported. Furthermore, a rapid return to fertility was observed after removal of the LNG-IUS13.5mg in women desiring pregnancy. Overall, this study suggests that the LNG-IUS13.5mg is suitable for women in the Asia-Pacific region.

FCS30. Contraception and Fertility Control FCS30.2 CLIENT-REPORTED QUALITY OF FAMILY PLANNING SERVICES IN MEXICO: ARE THERE DIFFERENCES BY AGE? B. Darney 1,2 , B. Saavedra-Avendaño 1 , L. Chavira-Razo 1 , Z. Andrade-Romo 1 , M. Rodriguez 3 . 1 Centro de Investigación en Sistemas de Salud, Instituto Nacional de Salud Pública, Cuernavaca, Mexico; 2 Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, OR, USA; 3 Department of Reproductive Health and Research, WHO, Geneva, Switzerland Objectives: Unplanned pregnancy is associated with health risks and social costs, especially among adolescents. Evidence suggests that the quality of services is associated with initiation and continuation of contraception. In Mexico, access to family planning services is free, but adolescents have very low levels of use. One explanation for the low prevalence of contraceptive use among adolescents could be an experience of poorer quality of care. We hypothesized that adolescents would report lower quality of contraceptive care compared with young women. Method: We pooled the most recent waves (2006 and 2009) of the ENADID, a nationally–representative demographic survey. Women who reported current use of a method responded to five questions about technical and interpersonal measures of quality of care. We restricted the analysis to unsterilized women aged 15–29. We created an indicator of a positive response to all five quality items, and also examined technical and interpersonal quality indicators separately. We included individual and household characteristics, and used descriptive statistics and multivariable regression models with survey weights to test the association of age and client-reported quality of services by method type. Results: Our sample included 6,587 women (N=3,108,546); 13% were 15–19, 42% 20–24, and 45% 25–29 years old. Only 58% of adolescents responded positively to all five quality items, versus 64% of women aged 20–29 (p<0.001). Compared with older women, adolescents reported lower odds of overall quality (OR=0.65, 95% CI: 0.45–0.95), adjusted for socio-demographic and facility-level covariates. In the subsample of users of hormonal methods (n=1281), adolescents reported lower odds of quality compared with women 25–29 (OR=0.31, 95% CI: 0.15–0.63). Conclusions: In this sample of current contraceptive users in Mexico, adolescents report lower quality of family planning services than young women ages 20–29. High quality services are essential from both a human rights and clinical perspective. A key strategy to improve contraceptive use by adolescents may be to improve the quality of care. More research is needed to develop valid and sensitive measures of patient-reported quality of reproductive health services. More evidence about client-perceived quality of family planning services in Mexico is needed to inform efforts to improve services, increase adolescent contraceptive use, and decrease unplanned pregnancy.


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FCS30.3 THE INTERNATIONAL CONTRACEPTIVE ACCESS (ICA) FOUNDATION, THE LEVONORGESTREL-RELEASING INTRAUTERINE SYSTEM (LNG-IUS) AND THE BRAZILIAN NETWORK EXPERIENCE L. Bahamondes. University of Campinas, Campinas, SP, Brazil Objectives: The ICA Foundation is a public-private partnership between Bayer Healthcare and Population Council. It is a not-for-profit organization registered in Finland in 2003. Bayer Healthcare donates the LNG-IUS to ICA which provides donation to public health organizations such as multilaterals, governments, or NGOs. It seeks to serve the reproductive needs of women in resource-poor settings in developing countries. The priority is women who want long-term effective/reversible contraception and with heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB) or other diseases in which Copper IUDs are unsuitable. The objective of this presentation is to share the experiences on introduction strategies and service models in Brazil. Method: To obtain assistance from the ICA Foundation, a service delivery organization submits a proposal; LNG-IUS is registered or special permission to import product is sought from country of donation. Training materials are provided regarding LNG-IUS insertion/removal and comprehensive family planning provision and counseling. LNG-IUS is incorporated into existing service delivery strategies. Donation recipient provides updates on numbers of insertions as well as progress and possible challenges of distribution. To date cumulative donations reach 67,140 LNG-IUS (February 2015). The countries which received donations were at Latin America and the Caribbean, Africa and Asia. Results: The role of networks is important. Partnerships with service delivery networks, like Marie Stopes International (MSI), International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF), AmeriCares and Partners In Health, allow for efficient delivery of LNG-IUS in multiple countries through existing infrastructure, and assist in meeting the Foundation’s objectives. They potentially have greater capacity for training, supervision and logistics management as well as meeting reporting requirements. The Brazilian network, managed by the University of Campinas, includes 20 University services which received the LNG-IUS. The network received 14,740 LNG-IUS and inserted 11,538. More than 300 HCP received training, some of them are now trainers. Conclusions: The ICA Foundation is an excellent resource to obtain an LNG-IUS to help women from the underprivileged segment of the society to achieve their reproductive goal as well as to improve the quality of life in women suffering of HMB. The Brazilian experience is a successful example. International development and public health organizations can apply for LNG IUS for use in their programs. LNG-IUS donations are not available for biomedical research purposes, including clinical trials. Interested applicants should complete a project proposal form on ICA Foundation’s website and submit it for assessment and approval. For information: E-mail: [email protected]; Website: FCS30.4 IMPLEMENTATION SCIENCE RESEARCH: PROVIDER TRAINING OF LONG-ACTING REVERSIBLE CONTRACEPTION C. Harper, M. Blum, J. Grand, R. Schroeder, K. Thompson, K. Lesyna, C. Folse, J. Speidel, S. Goodman. University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA Objectives: The U.S. has a persistently high rate of unintended pregnancy of over half of all pregnancies. Professional medical organizations including the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists and the American Academy of Pediatrics, have recommended increased access to IUDs and implants among adolescents and young adults. Evidence from recent studies have shown the impact of increased use of IUDs and implants on contraceptive continuation and

reduced pregnancy among adolescents and young adults - the age groups at highest risk. Method: We developed and tested in a randomized trial a provider training intervention, which resulted in patient-centered counseling that improved women’s contraceptive knowledge and reduced pregnancy in family planning clinics, a landmark in the US for clinic-based interventions. For our implementation science research, post-trial (2012–2015), following diffusion of innovation theory, we brought our training intervention to 260 diverse community clinics and hospital settings, and delivered our scientifically-tested curriculum. We used data from pre and post-intervention surveys to measure changes in provider attitudes and knowledge and clinic service statistics for changes in contraceptive use. Results: We delivered the intervention to 1,330 clinic staff serving an estimated 465,000 annual contraceptive clients during the implementation science phase. In the clinician practicum CME-evaluation, the overall training quality was rated 4.6 (scale 1–5). There were significant changes in the proportion who felt experienced enough to counsel on the implant (40% change) and the IUD (24% change), as well as in those who would consider an IUD for a patient with a history of PID (61%), post-abortion (33%) and adolescents (21%). Clinic service statistics also showed significant changes in IUDs and implants inserted during 6-months pre and post-training. Conclusions: This implementation science research disseminated an evidence-based intervention, tested in a randomized trial, to a variety of practice settings including primary care across the U.S. The training was well-received outside of the clinical trial framework, and succeeded in increasing provider competency and knowledge as well as client use of high-efficacy contraceptives. Dissemination efforts will continue until access to the range of contraceptives including highefficacy methods becomes routine practice in the U.S. FCS30.5 HIV STATUS IS ASSOCIATED WITH DUAL METHOD USE AMONG MALAWIAN WOMEN D. Kopp 1,2 , G. Stuart 2 , N. Rosenberg 1 , M. O’Shea 1 , M. Hosseinipour 1,5 , W.C. Miller 5,6 , M. Mwale 4 , J. Tang 1,2 . 1 UNC Project-Malawi, Lilongwe, Malawi; 2 University of North Carolina, Dept. of Obstetrics & Gynecology, Chapel Hill, NC, USA; 3 Malawi College of Medicine, Dept. of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, Blantyre, Malawi; 4 Bwaila Hospital, Lilongwe District Health Office, Lilongwe, Malawi; 5 University of North Carolina, Dept. of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC, USA; 6 University of North Carolina, Dept. of Epidemiology, Chapel Hill, NC, USA Objectives: Dual method use, defined as using condoms with another modern contraceptive method (pills, injection, implant, intrauterine device, or sterilization) to prevent unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections (STIs), is an important health tool in settings with high HIV prevalence. Dual method use can help prevent HIV acquisition among HIV-uninfected women and HIV transmission by HIV-infected women. The objective of this analysis is to determine if HIV status has an impact on dual method use. Method: This was a secondary analysis of sexually active women who completed the 12-month survey in a prospective cohort study of postpartum women in Malawi between May-November 2014. HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected women were recruited immediately postpartum at a 1:2 ratio. They completed baseline surveys about contraceptive history, knowledge, and contraceptive method intention and telephone surveys about contraceptive use 3, 6, and 12 months later. Differences between women who did and did not report dual method use were calculated using Pearson’s χ2 tests. Odds ratios were calculated using multivariable logistic regression to examine the relationship between HIV status and dual method use. Results: Of the 634 women enrolled, 317 sexually active women completed the 12-month follow-up survey. Nineteen (6.0%) reported no contraceptive method, 14 (4.4%) reported condom use only, 223

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(70.4%) reported use of a modern contraceptive method only, and 61 (19.2%) reported dual method use. Dual method users did not differ from non-users by age, marital status, education, or parity, but did differ by HIV status (35.2% of HIV-infected women used dual methods compared to 12.8% of HIV-uninfected women, p<0.001). HIV-infected women were more likely to be dual method users after adjustment for demographic factors (adjusted OR=3.94, 95% CI 2.17, 7.15). Conclusions: HIV-infected women in Malawi were more likely to report dual method use than HIV-uninfected women. In areas of high prevalence of HIV, it is important to emphasize the use of barrier methods to prevent infection, especially to HIV-uninfected women. Understanding the factors that motivate women to use dual methods is important to prevent the spread of HIV as well as prevent unintended pregnancy. FCS30.6 PPIUCD – A PROSPECTIVE STUDY TO ASSESS COMPLIANCE AND SUCCESS RATE IN VIMS BALLARI KARNATAKA INDIA K.N.M. Asharani. Vijaynagar Institute of Medical Sciences, Ballari, Karnataka/South, India Objectives: To assses safety in terms of pain, bleeding, and asses expulsion rate at 6 weeks, reasons for removal/discontinuation. Method: CU T 380A inserted within 10 minutes of placental expulsion [vaginal/C section]in women delivering at VIMS govt hospitals. Results: 30% of women come back for removal after 2 months more for social and environmental pressures. 10% of spontaneous expulsion reported. Conclusions: PPIUCD is very effective temporary method of contraception in women by preventing closedly spaced births, cost effective, less technical difficulties. FCS30.7 SOCIAL FRANCHISING FOR HEALTH; A VEHICLE FOR INCREASING UPTAKE OF LONG ACTING REVERSIBLE CONTRACEPTIVES (LARCS): EXPERIENCES FROM WOMEN’S HEALTH PROJECT (WHP) NIGERIA F. Bunza 1 , A. Nwala 2 , R. Idris 2 , J. Anyanti 2 , O. Oluigbo 2 . 1 Population Services International (PSI), Washington DC, USA; 2 Society for Family Health (SFH) Nigeria, Abuja, FCT, Nigeria Objectives: The objective of this study is to determine the effect of WHP’s social franchise interventions on the uptake of LARCs in the intervention sites. Method: A total of 216,550 women accessed LARCs (IUDs and implants) from 308 facilities between January 2011 and December 2014. The number increased from 635 per month (average of 2 per month) in January 2011 to 5,721 per month (average of 19 per month) in December 2014. The number of women who accessed IUDs increased from 500 per month in January 2011 (average of 2 per month) to 4,248 in December 2014 (average of 14 per month). Number of women who accessed implants increased from 135 per month (less than 1 per month) to 1,473 in December 2014 (average of 5). Results: A retrospective analysis of routine service data from the franchise facilities for the period January 2011 to December 2014. Data was collected from 308 franchise facilities in 22 states in Nigeria. Key interventions included provider training and equipment supply, routine support supervision and quality assurance, community demand generation, and supply of subsidized LARCs. Conclusions: Building the capacity of the private health sector through multiple support interventions to providers including training and support supervision, in conjunction with a robust demand generation program, increases access to and use of LARCs. Scale up of the model to other parts of Nigeria is in progress. This


model can also be implemented in other developing countries with similar needs and a large private health sector base. FCS30.8 SHORT-ACTING AND LONG-ACTING REVERSIBLE CONTRACEPTION: COMPARING EFFECTIVENESS USING A PARTIALLY RANDOMIZED PATIENT PREFERENCE TRIAL D. Hubacher 1 , H. Spector 2 , C. Monteith 2 , P.-L. Chen 1 , C. Hart 1 . 1 FHI 360, Durham, NC, USA; 2 Planned Parenthood of Central North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, USA Objectives: To generate unbiased estimates of contraceptive continuation rates, make valid comparisons and better understand the potential role that long-acting reversible contraception (LARC) can play in reducing unintended pregnancy. Method: We recruited women aged 18–29 who were seeking a shortacting method (pills or injectable) from Planned Parenthood of Central North Carolina. Participants chose their preferred method or elected to be randomized to one of two method categories: shortacting reversible contraception (SARC) or LARC. Under randomization, participants received free methods and chose a specific product. Participants were followed prospectively. Kaplan-Meier techniques were used to estimate method continuation rates. Intent-to-treat principles were applied for comparing incidence of unintended pregnancy. Results: Of the 894 participants, 57% chose to be in the preference group and 43% in the randomization group. Loss to follow-up was <2%. The 12-month method continuation rates were 66% (62– 70%) (preference-SARC), 55% (47–62%) (randomized-SARC) and 81% (75–87%) (randomized-LARC) [p<0.001]. The 12-month unintended pregnancy rates were 5.6% (3.8–8.2%) (preference-SARC), 8.8% (5.1– 15.2%) (randomized-SARC) and 0.7% (0.0–4.8%) (randomized-LARC) [p=0.011]. The 24-month unintended pregnancy rates were 14.5% (10.3–19.9%) (preference-SARC), 12.7% (7.2–22.2%) (randomizedSARC) and 3.8% (1.4–10.3%) (randomized-LARC) [p=0.007]. Conclusions: Even in a typical population of short-acting method users, LARC proved highly acceptable. Women randomized to LARC experienced superior protection from unintended pregnancy; this finding is attributable to the technology and not underlying factors that often bias observational studies. Benefits of increased voluntary uptake of LARC may extend to wider populations than previously thought.

FCS31. Women’s Health Issues and Policy FCS31.1 MINERAL MICRONUTRIENTS STATUS IN IRANIAN PREGNANT WOMEN AND RELATED POLICES: A REVIEW OF CURRENT EVIDENCE T. Esteki 2 , F. Zaheri 1,2 , P. Akhavanakbari 3,2 , R. Shahoie 1 . 1 Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Sanandaj/Kurdistan Province, Iran; 2 Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; 3 Ardebil University of Medical Sciences, Ardebil/Ardebil Province, Iran Objectives: Pregnancy is one of the most important periods in the life of the mother and her fetus. Various factors, including nutrition, are effecting on the maternal and fetal health in this period. For Optimal nutrition during pregnancy, diversity and balance is important and nutrition dietary should contain recommended amounts of protein, carbohydrates, dietary fiber, essential fatty acids, minerals and vitamins micronutrients. This review wants to survey the status of four mineral micronutrients in Iranian pregnant women and related polices in 10 years ago. Method: This study examined published results about four mineral micronutrients in Iranian pregnant women and related polices in sci-


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entific databases such as Pubmed, Google scholar, WHO, Emro, Iranmedex, SID between 2003–2013. For data gathering, articles were searched that had one of the keywords: nutrition in pregnancy, Mineral micronutrients deficiency in pregnancy, Micronutrients in pregnancy, Iron deficiency in pregnancy, zinc deficiency in pregnancy, calcium deficiency in pregnancy, iodine deficiency in pregnancy, micronutrient deficiency prevalence alone and with guideline. Finally 69 related articles were found and used. Results: Review Literature indicated deficiency of iron, zinc, calcium and iodine micronutrients in Iranian pregnant women. During this period, there is guide for iron supplementation in Iran, only. For preventing of iron, calcium and zinc deficiency, balance and diversity of diet and for iodine, use of iodized salt program has been recommended. Conclusions: For reduce the risk of micronutrient deficiency in pregnant women, policy interventions to promote awareness of health care providers and pregnant women in the field of healthy nutrition, and interventions, such as the Supplementation, food fortification with Micronutrients, use of powders with micronutrients and iodine supplementation in areas with a shortage of these micronutrients is recommended. FCS31.2 OBSTETRIC FISTULA PREVENTION, TREATMENT AND REINTEGRATION: ADDRESSING THE URGENCY TO END SUFFERING AND NEED FOR LONG-TERM APPROACHES WITHIN A HUMAN RIGHTS PERSPECTIVE A. Bant. UNFPA, Maputo, Maputo, Mozambique Objectives: The subject of this paper is twofold. 1) to strengthen a productive interaction between the areas of public health, policy making and critical social theory, which suffers from lack of exposure to each other’s conceptual advances. 2) to identify and understand the mechanisms of exclusion that produce maternal mortality and obstetric fistula in certain women, and, offer guidance for what can be done to push back or reverse the accumulative processes of loss of access to human rights that many women with fistula experience. Method: Desk review of existing documents on fistula, including policy documents issued by the UN; conversations with keyinformants; and participatory observation in a policy group and a medical congress, hospital wards and an operation room have been summarized in five content areas - prevention, treatment, social reintegration, quantitative and qualitative data, and types of actors and responses to fistula as a health and social crisis. This material is reinterpreted in the light of precarity theory. Based on an analysis of existing responses and the insights obtained through the application of the concept of precarity, recommendations are made. Results: The described methodology results in a conceptual map of who gets obstetric fistula and what happens next. It traces the retreating of a horizon of human rights when one would expect that human rights should be activated, offering protection when existing vulnerability develops into precarity. Gaps in roles of duty-bearers – governments, communities, donors – are identified. Vulnerability and precarity, are useful concepts to bring together perspectives of urgency to alleviate suffering, and the timeless norms and accumulative nature of the human-rights development-framework by operationalizing this framework into a human-rights approach capable of accommodating the quality of social relations. Conclusions: The exercise of human rights in relation to obstetric fistula should be addressed by strengthening the role of duty-bearer of, both governments and local communities and all women should be considered rights-holders in terms of prevention, and advocates should represent women who are excluded from social networks. The “fistula community” is a single-issue platform with limited presence on the ground. Complementary support for the exercise of hu-

man rights of women with fistula and the reversal of structural failings of the duty-bearing mechanisms could be achieved with the integration of the fistula-problematic in the agendas of the social movements. FCS31.3 PATTERNS OF MENSTRUAL IRREGULARITIES IN HIV PATIENTS ON HIGHLY ACTIVE ANTI-RETROVIRAL THERAPY (HAART) ATTENDING HIV CLINIC IN LAGOS UNIVERSITY TEACHING HOSPITAL (LUTH) B. Okangba 1 , R. Anorlu 2 . 1 Military Hospital, Lagos, Nigeria; 2 Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Idiaraba, Lagos, Nigeria Objectives: To determine patterns of Menstrual irregularities in HIV Positive women on Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART). Method: This is a case control study conducted in HIV clinic of the Lagos University Teaching hospital (LUTH) between 2010–2013. A structured form was used to obtain relevant information during inperson interview on socio- demographic characteristics, menstrual pattern, no of months since diagnosis, HAART drugs in use while CD4 cell count and viral RNA load were obtained following patient’s blood analysis. Data of 290 (141 cases and 149 controls) we’re complete for analysis. Results: Hypomenorrhoea,Amenorrhoea, Oligomenorrhoea and menorrhagia were the identified menstrual irregularities seen in HIV seropositive women on HAART. Weight was not a significant factor for menstrual irregularities.HIV positive patients with secondary and tertiary education were found to have increased risk of irregular menses (p-value <0.05). CD4 cell count less than 200 cell per cubic millilitre or greater than 401 cell/cubic millilitre and viral RNA load less than 50,000 copies/ml or greater than 200,000 copies/ml were significant risk factors for menstrual irregularities in patients on HAART. Conclusions: Hypomenorrhoea, Amenorrhoea, Oligomenorrhoea and menorrhagia were menstrual irregularities identified in HIV positive woman on HAART. Both low and high CD4 cell count and VIral RNA load are significant risk factors for menstrual irregularities in HIV seropositive women on HAART. FCS31.4 SURVEY OF KNOWLEDGE AND ATTITUDES OF WOMEN ABOUT THE SYMPTOMS, FACTORS AND COMPLICATIONS OF MENOPAUSE M. Danesh, K. Abedian Kasgary. Mazandaran universiy Of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran, Sari, Mazandaran, Iran Objectives: Menopause is a natural part of life for women and the inevitable will happen to any woman and this period is associated with significant changes in somatic and psychological. The most important of these changes, in the long term, cause of cardiovascular disease, steoporosis, bone fractures, and even lead to Alzheimer’s. The aim of this study was to evaluate the knowledge and attitudes of women about the symptoms, causes and effects of the menopause. The researcher believes that only by having sufficient knowledge of the specific characteristics of this period could reasonably safely pass through. Method: This study was a cross-sectional descriptive-type. The community consisted of 2432 women older than 45 years of menopause were blades. Health centers to clinics in the city of Sari in 2013 were referred. The non-probability sampling method has been used to collect data through questionnaires. Data using SPSS software and Chi-square test was used for statistical analysis. Results: Of 2432 women, the causes of menopause, 24.35%low awareness,47.31% had moderate and 687 28.25% had a lot of knowledge. Awareness of the symptoms of menopause,were at 53.16% high, 32.97% medium and 13.87% low.

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And the attitudes of 69.98% women positive, 20.43% neutral, 9.58% had a negative attitude. Between education level and socioeconomic status, parity, and low awareness of the causes of menopause, there was a significant relationship. (P<0.0001). Between awareness of the symptoms of menopause, education level, socioeconomic status, history of abortion and used contraceptive methods had a significant correlation. (p<0.0001, p<0.0001, p=0.027, p=0.036). Conclusions: According to the results, it can be said that socio - economic status and educational level of knowledge about the symptoms, etiology and attitudes toward menopause had positive effects. Therefore, by raising the level of education of women and improving the socio - economic status and education on knowledge of women of the etiology and symptoms this period can be symptoms of menopause have increased and the consequences of the lack of information prevented the passage of these changes easily and without a specific crisis and the Health pass. FCS31.5 WORKING WITH LOCAL CHAMPIONS TO SECURE GOVERNMENT COMMITMENT TOWARDS FAMILY PLANNING H. Salami 1 , F. Jega 1 , F. Tumsah 1 , M. Abubakar Kaoje 2 . 1 Pathfinder International, Abuja, FCT, Nigeria; 2 Kebbi State Ministry of Health, Birnin Kebbi, Kebbi, Nigeria Objectives: Through a designed advocacy strategy, Kebbi State Ministry of Health (SMOH) establishes a budget line for family planning (FP) in the state by 2015. Method: Pathfinder Nigeria, working with FP/reproductive health (RH) managers in the SMOH, identified and trained 10 FP champions as advocates using Advance Family Planning’s SMART Framework. The tool ensured that the strategy for securing a budget line within the annual budget of the SMOH was attainable, and that champions refined a strategic vision, set an objective, and identified an advocacy “ask” and “target”. Pathfinder worked closely with the champions and supported activities within the workplan they developed. Activities included visits to identified advocacy targets, including policymakers and traditional and religious leaders. Results: After a series of visits to advocacy targets where strategic messaging was utilized, the Kebbi SMOH now has a budget line for FP/RH for fiscal year 2015. To ensure effective and prioritized use of budgeted funds, a costed workplan for FP/RH for Kebbi was also developed. Conclusions: FP is one of the most cost-effective interventions at reducing maternal mortality, which is high in Kebbi at above 1,000 deaths/100,000 live births. FP services in Kebbi have been inadequate and largely donor funded (apart from free commodities from the federal government). Supporting local champions in getting a budget line for FP/RH services in Kebbi is a significant feat not easily achieved in northern Nigeria. Pathfinder intends to continue providing support to FP champions and FP/RH managers in Kebbi to ensure that budgeted funds are released for FP/RH services. FCS31.6 WOMEN’S HEALTH ISSUES AND POLICY – DISABILITY AWARENESS F. Suleiman 1 , R. Okoth 1 , B. Kasdan 1 , M. Natti 2 , I. Moses 3 , F. Kagimbo 4 , S. Boon 1 , F. Msigallah 1 , B. D’Mello 1 . 1 Comprehensive Community Based Rehabilitation in Tanzania (CCBRT), Dar es salaam, Tanzania; 2 Kinondoni Munisipal, Dar es salaam, Tanzania; 3 Ilala Munisipal, Dar es salaam, Tanzania; 4 Temeke Munisipal, Dar es salaam, Tanzania Objectives: As part of its maternal and newborn capacity building programme, CCBRT worked to promote maternal and newborn health care that is disability inclusive. CCBRT lobbied local munici-


pal leaders and health facility governing boards to improve or offer disability inclusive care and disability accessible facilities, and also trained service providers from Reproductive and Child Health Clinic and labour wards in sign language. Method: Hearing disabled patients were frequently receiving inadequate care, so CCBRT hosted trainings aimed at improving service providers’ ability to serve hearing disabled patients.Sign language trainers would review sign languageand screen films on maternal health in sign language to help reinforce the concept to trainees. CCBRT trainers also screened these films in the facility waiting areas for the patients to view. These trainers also made an effort to inform patients and staff on the rights of people with disabilities. CCBRT alsostressed the importance of providing equal services to disabled patients to HFBGs and municipal leaders. Results: Approximately 288 healthcare providers received sign language training from CCBRT trainers between 2010–2013. The service providersbecame more aware of people with disabilities and they learned how to create a more inclusive environments for disabled patients. As a result of CCBRT’s advocacy efforts, ninety nine members HFGBs and municipal leaders promised to advocate on behalf of people with disabilities to ensure accessibility and equitable care in the health facilities. Conclusions: It is possible to effectively raise awareness and improve the care of people with disabilities if efforts are made to train service providers and lobby leadership for disability friendly and inclusive care, facilities, and policies. FCS31.7 ATTENDANCE FOR POSTPARTUM GLUCOSE TOLERANCE TESTING FOLLOWING GESTATIONAL DIABETES AMONG SOUTH ASIAN WOMEN IN AUSTRALIA: A QUALITATIVE STUDY M. Bandyopadhyay 1,2 , R. Small 2 , M.-A. Davey 2 . 1 EngenderHealth, Dhaka, South Asia, Bangladesh; 2 La Trobe University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia Objectives: To conduct an in-depth exploration of the experiences of and perspectives on postpartum Glucose Tolerance Test (GTT) screening of South Asian women diagnosed with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in Melbourne, Australia. Method: Using an exploratory qualitative methodology, this study was carried out in two phases: the first phase involved face-to-face in-depth interviews with 17 recent immigrant women from South Asia. In the second phase 23 GDM diagnosed South Asian women were interviewed. All interviews were conducted at a place and time of the women’s choice. Thirty-three of 40 South Asian women who were interviewed antenatally after GDM diagnosis also participated in telephone interviews conducted between nine and 52 weeks postpartum. Results: Women were aware that they had an increased risk of developing Type 2 diabetes but a number of barriers caused them not to attend, or to postpone their postpartum GTT screening, such as: lack of physical and emotional support after birth, busyness of daily life, and traveling overseas after birth. Women found it difficult to maintain dietary and exercise recommendations after birth, largely because health messages were not conveyed in a culturally appropriate manner, which led to discontinuation of lifestyle adopted in pregnancy after GDM diagnosis. Conclusions: Despite difficulties, South Asian women with previous GDM eventually presented for postpartum GTT screening and follow-up care within six-nine months of birth. Although awareness of follow-up and risk of Type 2 diabetes was high, some women found it extremely difficult to continue with the changes to diet and exercise they had adopted in pregnancy.


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FCS31.8 CONTRIBUTION OF VERBAL AUTOPSY IN THE STUDY OF CANCER MORTALITY AMONG REPRODUCTIVE AGE WOMEN IN TUNISIA K. Dimassi 1,2 , A. Saibi 1 , O. Saidi 1 , S. Bougatef 1 , H. Ben Romdhane 1 . 1 University Tunis El Manar, Faculté de Médecine de Tunis, Tunis, Tunisia; 2 Obstetrics and Gynecology Unit, Mongi Slim Hospital, Tunis, Tunisia Objectives: The aim of this paper is to study the use of verbal autopsy in order to assess cancer mortality among Tunisian women in reproductive age (WRA). Method: A retrospective national RAMOS survey (Reproductive Age Mortality Study). This survey was conducted in 2010 and included all deaths of women aged 15–49 years which occurred in 2008 and were due to cancer. Data were collected from civil status records and information gathered from families and from health institution’s registers. For all deaths of women aged 15–49 years, the detailed circumstances and the sequence of events leading to death were grouped on a folder called “clinical record of verbal autopsy”. Then; all folders were submitted to the independent expert. Results: During the study period, 1729 deaths among women of reproductive age (WRA) were the subject of a verbal autopsy against only 708 recorded by the National death information system (NDIS). Cancer is the leading cause of death among WRA. The specific rate of cancer mortality is 17.83 per 100,000 WRA against only 7.91 per 100,000 WRA estimated by the NDIS. Breast cancer is the leading cause with 35% of all cancers and specific death rate of 6.3 per 100,000 WRA against 2.48 per 100,000 WRA recorded by the NDIS. Conclusions: Verbal autopsies Verbal autopsy remains an interesting method for measuring cancer mortality in women of a reproductive age especially in countries with a defective national death information system.

FCS32. Women’s Health Issues and Policy FCS32.1 OBSTETRICS OF SUSTENANCE AMONG PRIVATE SECTOR PROVIDERS IN A RESOURCE LIMITED SETTING D. Zaake 1 , R. Byaruhanga 1 , F. Kaharuza 3 , F. Mirembe 2 , J. Beyeza 2 , H. Nambuya 4 , I. Namagembe 2 , L. Kazibwe 2 . 1 Nkozi University Nsambya, Kampala, Uganda; 2 Makerere University Kampala, Kampala, Uganda; 3 Association of Obstericians and Gynaecologists of Uganda, Kampala, Uganda; 4 Uganda Pediatric Association, Kampala, Uganda Objectives: The Merck Sharp & Dohme (MSD) for Ugandan Mothers (MUM) project under PACE (Programme for accessible communication & Education in health) is a three year project to expand the provision of private sector maternal health care in up to 30 districts of Uganda. The MUM partnership’s approach aimed to increase informed demand for maternal health products and services, while simultaneously increasing the availability of high-quality products and services in the private sector and reinforcing critical linkages to higher-level referral facilities and services. Method: PACE Quality Assurance Officers mainly clinical officers, PACE Reproductive Health Coordinators mainly midwives and selected private service providers who included a medical officer and nursing officers from 7 regions of the country were trained. They were taken through didactic lectures, practical demonstrations, plenary sessions and hands on sessions in two referral Hospitals. This was followed by, a 5 day field mentorship to the 7 regions. During the mentorship key aspects from the trainees i.e. attitude, knowledge, skills, communication abilities, ethics and ability to give constructive feed back to those they mentored in the key selected EMNOC areas were assessed. Results: Seventeen PACE quality assurance officers and regional health coordinators were trained and empowered with EMNOC

knowledge and mentorship skills above their routine tasks. Ten private service Providers also were also trained as regional mentors. There were knowledge gains of up to 35%. By the end of the mentorship all trainees except two were knowledgeable, confident and able to stand alone. Gaps were noted in the areas of newborn Care and resuscitation and Partograph use across all the regions. PACE was able to create a pool of regional mentors to easily carry on the mentorship process. Conclusions: Experienced, self motivated, multi tasking and knowledgeable health providers based in the regions can form a solid foundation for sustainability of safe motherhood initiatives if given the right training, exposure and support. FCS32.2 1303 CASES OF ADNEXAL MASS MANAGED DURING CESAREAN SECTION: A 21-YEAR EXPERIENCE X. Li, J. Wang. Women’s Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China Objectives: To outline and discuss the clinical features, management and outcomes of adnexal masses those were encountered during cesarean section (CS) at a university affiliated hospital in China. Method: The medical records of the patients with adnexal mass observed during cesarean section were collected retrospectively at Women’s Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University from January 1991 to December 2011. The data was processed with the SPSS 11.5 software. Results: 1303 cases of adnexal masses were diagnosed at CS. The incidence was 16.38 in 1000 CS. The most common pathologic diagnosis was benign ovarian tumor. The second was ovarian tumor like condition. The third was ovarian ednometriosis cysts. The fourth was paraovarian-paratubal cysts. Ovarian malignancies were 13 cases. 388 cases were detected by ultrasound before surgery. Seven cases received emergency CS due to abdominal pain caused by torsion, rupture and ovarian enlargement. 13 cases with ovarian ednometriosis cysts were found ruptured cysts during CS without any clinical manifestation. No maternal and fetal complication related to surgery was observed. Conclusions: Preconception care and routine prenatal care maybe optimize for the detection and management of adnexal mass. Since most adnexal mass emerged during pregnancy were benign and asymptomatic, expectation is reasonable for those with adnexal mass during pregnancy. Abdominal pain might be the clue for cyst torsion or rupture. Theca lutein cysts might be huge and exsit throughout the whole pregnancy period. Ednometriosis cysts (>5 cm) detected before pregnancy could be the indication for surgery. FCS32.3 FEMALE GENITAL MUTILATION (FGM): A MALE PERSPECTIVE U. Shahid, A. Rane. James Cook University, Townsville, Queensland, Australia Objectives: This cross sectional, federal government funded study aims to elicit the attitudes of young, Sub-Saharan African migrant males residing in Australia on FGM. In addition we aim to quantify the effectiveness of an education package as an interventional strategy in changing male attitudes towards FGM. Despite the traditional practice of FGM being outlawed in Australia, it means a growing issue due to increased migration. By building the knowledge base of the perceptions of young, migrant males towards FGM and the factors which influence these perceptions, we take a definitive step towards abandoning this practice on Australian shores. Method: An activity day was run in Townsville, Australia. Participants who met the inclusion criteria of being male, 16–30 years old and a Sub Saharan African, migrant were consented and offered to

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take part in an FGM module. Participants filled out a pre-piloted questionnaire, which gauged their attitudes towards FGM. These perceptions were then correlated with the socio-demographic variables of age, number of years spent in Australia, religion and education level. Then, an anti-FGM educational package was delivered to the participants before they were handed the same questionnaire one week later. Multiple logistical regression was used to analyze the data. Results: 63 participants met the inclusion criteria with 22 being followed up. Data analysis has not been formally completed but preliminary findings show that overall 29% of participants agree with the continuation of FGM. Furthermore, 43% of participants stated that they would consider the FGM status of a potential marriage partner. The awareness of the medical complications of FGM increased significantly with education level. While the longer migrants had resided in Australia, the less likely they become to support FGM. Across all parameters used to assess participant attitudes on FGM there was a positive shift in the post-education questionnaire. Conclusions: A substantial proportion of young, Sub-Saharan African, migrant males residing in the North Queensland region are in favour of the continuation of FGM. The socio-demographic variables of having a basic level of education (high school only) and having recently migrated (<2 years ago) were associated with an increased likelihood of attitudinal support for FGM. Education campaigns are an effective way of changing attitudes of young, migrant males on FGM. Thus it can be concluded that effective interventional strategies which target young, migrant males need to be developed as a means of tackling FGM on Australian shores. FCS32.4 MEETING THE SEXUAL AND REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH NEEDS AND RIGHTS OF PERINATALLY-INFECTED YOUNG WOMEN LIVING WITH HIV: A QUALITATIVE STUDY IN A HIGH HIV PREVALENCE SETTING, SOUTH AFRICA D. Cooper 1,2 , T. Pietzek 3 , L.-G. Bekker 1 , M. Wallace 1 , C. Färber 3 . of Cape Town, Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa; 2 School of Public Health, University of Western Cape, Cape Town, South Africa; 3 Hamburg University of Applied Sciences, Hamburg, Germany 1 University

Objectives: A decade ago, South Africa’s HIV perinatal HIV transmission rate was approximately 20%. Due to improved lifelong antiretroviral treatment (ART), perinatally HIV-infected youth are currently living long and productive lives. Like other high HIV-burden countries, South Africa faces challenges in providing comprehensive sexual and reproductive (SRH) services to youth living with HIV (YLWH). This study describes the experiences and needs of young South African women living with HIV in disclosing their HIV status to a romantic partner, practicing safer sex, preventing unintended pregnancies and being equipped for safer conception, pregnancy and birth, should they wish to have future children. Method: In this qualitative study, in-depth interviews were conducted with 21 perinatally infected YLWH (11 females, 10 males) aged 15–20, attending a youth ART centre in a low socio-economic residential area in Cape Town, South Africa. Youth were stratified into 15–17 year and 18–20 year groups. Ethical approval and individual informed consent (and in the case of youth <18 years additional caregiver consent) were obtained. Face-to-face interviews were conducted by same-sex interviewers in participants’ language of choice, audio-recorded, transcribed and translated. Transcripts were coded using a computer program, Nvivo 10 and analysed using a thematic approach. Results: We report on young women study participants’ findings. Key themes emerging on romantic relationships, safer sex, unintended pregnancies and future reproduction were: difficulties negotiating pleasurable romantic relationships – some delayed sexual debut and


others had coerced sexual debuts; fears of partner HIV transmission, but challenges in consistent condom use because of concerns about rejection on HIV disclosure to a romantic partner. Adolescents in particular, were uninformed about contraception and STIs. Although desires for future biological children were strong, women had scant information on safer conception, pregnancy and birth. They received inadequate SRH counselling and services at the youth ARV clinic. Conclusions: Supportive and youth-friendly SRH services during youth women living with HIV’s transition to adulthood are urgently needed. Integrated SRH-HIV counselling and services are required for them to deal with unwanted sex and unintended pregnancies. Safer conception counselling and services, depending on the status of their intimate partners, are needed for safer pregnancy and childbirth, particularly for younger women at increased risk for maternal complications. Insights from the study contribute to global knowledge, particularly in the hyper-endemic HIV southern African region, on developing appropriate SRH services for a generation of youth perinatally infected with HIV. FCS32.5 STANDARDS OF MENOPAUSE MANAGEMENT: AUDIT OF CURRENT PRACTICE C. Lim, S. Logan. National University Hospital, Singapore, Singapore Objectives: Several guidelines exist on the management and documentation of a menopause consultation. This study aims to evaluate if women presenting with menopausal symptoms are managed according to the guidelines published by the American Congress of Obstetrics & Gynecology (ACOG), British Menopause Society (BMS) and the Royal College of Obstetricians & Gynaecologists (RCOG). Method: A retrospective analysis of the electronic patient records of women aged 45 – 55 years who had a consultation at the National University Hospital (NUH) General gynaecology clinics and Menopause service from March to April 2014 was performed. Six standards of menopause management were selected: documentation of severity of menopause symptoms, last menstrual period (LMP) & contraception usage, contraindications to hormone replacement therapy (HRT), risks to HRT, osteoporosis risk assessment and encouragement to participate in national screening programmes. The standard to be achieved was set at 90% documentation rate. Results: 229 patients were included in the study, of which 185 were from the General clinics, while 44 attended the Menopause clinics. Out of these, 48 patients from the General clinics and 43 patients from the Menopause clinics were assessed for menopausal symptoms. Patients who consulted at the specialist Menopause clinics were generally more adequately assessed than the patients in the General clinics. 5 out of 6 standards were achieved in the Menopause service, as compared to 1 out of 6 standards achieved in the General clinics. Conclusions: The audit revealed some inconsistencies in the management and documentation process of menopause consultations between the General clinics and the specialist Menopause clinics. Standards in the management of menopause were not met in the general clinic except in promotion of breast & cervical screening. There was room to improve the documentation of personal/family medical history & risk with HRT use in the specialist menopause service. An action plan to improve documentation and menopause management has been formulated and disseminated to the Department of Obstetrics & Gynaecology at NUH.


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FCS32.6 FOUL-SMELLING VAGINAL DISCHARGE, A HIDDEN HEALTH PROBLEM AT BACTERIAL VAGINOSIS; OUTCOME FROM AN INTERNATIONAL WEB-BASED SURVEY IN 2660 WOMEN IN THE U.S., THE U.K. AND GERMANY M. Fredstorp. Sophia Clinic, Lund, Sweden Objectives: The objective of this international web-based survey was to collect experiences from women with previous symptoms of foulsmelling vaginal discharge, the most pronounced symptom at bacterial vaginosis, with the aim to gain information about prevalence, recurrence rate, treatments used, and how women experience the condition. The gained information was then planned to be used as guidance in the development of a new treatment for bacterial vaginosis. Method: A questionnaire of 25 questions was set up using Quest Back’s web-based platform and was translated into English and German. Panels of women, aged 18–52 years, from the general population in the U.K., Germany and the U.S.A. were contacted via email and asked to complete the questionnaire online (n=2913). They were informed that the responses were anonymously given and that the responses would give important knowledge when developing a new treatment against bacterial vaginosis, a condition where foulsmelling vaginal discharge is common. Due to the sensitive nature of the questions, the response alternative “prefer not to answer” was included. Results: The response rate was 91%. Symptoms of foul-smelling discharge during the previous year were reported by 19%. Among the 69% that had treated their symptoms (antibiotics – 43%, pH-modifiers – 21%, and/or lactobacilli-based products – 21%), 56% had recurrent symptoms at least once a year and 34% relapsed within three months. Among women using intra-uterine-device (8%), 42% had experienced foul-smelling vaginal discharge (vs. not using, p<0.05). 17% had tried preventive treatment, whereas 41% were positive to try. 40% answered that their daily life was negatively affected by the symptoms. Most common answers were sense of uncleanness, and/or negatively affected sex life. Conclusions: An apparent potential for improvement of information around the condition and its treatment was shown. This would in line with international recommendations include an exhortation to avoid a frequent use of antibiotics. Additionally, a potential for improvement of the user-friendliness of non-antibiotic efficacious treatment alternatives, both in terms of administration frequency and cosmetic properties as smeariness, was noticed. New over-thecounter products with improved user-friendliness would probably encourage more women to treat themselves. FCS32.7 AN OVERVIEW OF WOMEN HEALTH ISSUES AND POLICY M. Khaskheli, S. Baloch, S. Baloch. Liaquat University of Medical & Health Sciences, Jamshoro, Sindh, Pakistan Objectives: To analyze women health issues leading to high maternal and neonatal mortality and policy measures. Method: The review of literature of different studies conducted in the Country with in all four provinces, and the the maternal and newborn health research and advocacy fund (RAF) a five years funded programme funded by DFID and AusAID which aims to support the research and advocacy initiatives to influence pro-poor policy and practice reforms related to MNH in Pakistan analyzed in detail. Results: MNH outcomes in Pakistan is well documented. Despite the efforts by the government of Pakistan (GOP) to respond the international commitments, such as the MGDs, Pakistan lags behind most developing countries. The Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey (PDHS 2007) provides the latest Credible statistics on maternal, newborn health. Statistics of MNH inPakistan Shows the total fertility rate

4.1 births per women,Contraceptive prevalence rate 22%, Infant mortality rate 78 per 1000 live births, neonatal mortality rate 58 per 1000 live births, under five child mortality rates 94 per 1000 live births, Maternal mortality rate 276 per 100,000 live births. Conclusions: The direct causes of high maternal and neonatal mortality are. Lack of provision of adequate basic health services, trained staff, adequate medical supplies and equipment, while underlying causes are socio cultural structures, which discriminate against women and girls particularly those who belong to poor and marginalized group. Policy revision on the basis of adequate health budget, improvement of MNH system is the strong need.

FCS33. Women’s Health Issues and Policy FCS33.1 EFFECT OF A COMMUNITY-BASED HEALTH COMMUNICATION PACKAGE ON KNOWLEDGE AND BEHAVIORS RELATED TO MATERNAL AND NEWBORN HEALTH: A QUASI-EXPERIMENTAL STUDY IN SIX GOVERNORATES OF EGYPT A. Brasington 2 , A. Abdelmegeid 1 , V. Dwivedi 3 , A. Kols 1 , F. Salah 2 , Y.M. Kim 1 , B. Rawlins 1 , N. Khadka 2 , A. Gibson 2 . 1 Jhpiego, Baltimore, MD, USA; 2 Save the Children, Washington, DC, USA; 3 JSI, Virginia, USA Objectives: The two-year SMART initiative (December 2011– December 2013) worked with community development associations (CDAs) to conduct community health outreach and communication activities in six of Egypt’s 27 governorates and encourage the adoption of proven practices for maternal, newborn, and child health. The analysis answers the following questions: Did mothers’ knowledge and behaviors on maternal and newborn care and child nutrition improve significantly in intervention areas? Was there greater improvement in intervention areas than comparison areas? and if there is a dose-response relationship between exposure to SMART activities and mothers’ knowledge and behaviors. Method: This study employed a quasi-experimental design to assess the impact of the project: two rounds of household surveys conducted before and after the intervention collected information in both intervention and comparison areas. Multi-stage sampling was used to select survey respondents. The endline survey also asked about exposure to SMART activities. A total sample size of 6,400 mothers of children under age 24 months in each survey round – evenly. The survey used a 30-cluster sample methodology. The survey team started from the center of the village and followed “next-door” sampling methodology to identify households with a mother who had child u 2. Results: Exposure to project activities was greater in Upper Egypt, where 91% of respondents reported receiving home visits and 84% attended group sessions, than in Lower Egypt (58% and 48%, respectively). Knowledge of danger signs related to pregnancy, delivery, and newborn illness increased in intervention areas were significantly greater than in comparison areas in both regions. Changes in behavior were fewer and smaller than for knowledge, and differences between intervention and comparison areas were significant for only two of five behaviors. In Upper Egypt, there was a dose-response relationship between exposure to SMART activities, all knowledge indicators, and most behavioral indicators. Conclusions: In Egypt, many women still do not have access to the information, and support they need to maintain the health of their families. We have demonstrated the ability of local civil society organizations to bring effective counseling to pregnant women and new mothers via CHWs, increase knowledge, and promote behaviors associated with better health outcomes. The success of the SMART is

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especially impressive given its short duration, CDAs’ and CHWs’ lack of experience in the health sector, the minimal inputs made to improve health services, and the civil unrest and disruptions in public services that occurred during the intervention period. FCS33.2 BARRIERS TO OBSTETRIC FISTULA TREATMENT IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW B. Bellows 1 , Z. Baker 4 , R. Bach 3 , C. Warren 2 . 1 Population Council, Nairobi, Kenya; 2 Population Council, Washington, DC, USA; 3 University of Winnipeg, Winnipeg, Canada; 4 UCLA Fielding School of Public Health, Los Angeles, USA Objectives: Despite the near eradication of obstetric fistula in the developed world, it continues to persist in many developing countries where an estimated 2 to 3.5 million women are currently living with untreated fistula. Women suffering from fistula face several barriers which prevent them from receiving timely treatment, and many live with the condition for years. The main objective of this systematic review was to identify the barriers that women living with fistula face in developing countries, which prevent them from deciding to seek care, prevent them identifying and reaching medical centers, and/or prevent them from receiving adequate and appropriate care. Method: Bibliographic databases, grey literature, journals, and network and organization websites were searched in English and French that were published between 1980 and June 2014. We used key search terms and specific inclusion and exclusion criteria. Experts also provided recommendations for additional articles to be included in the review. Articles were reviewed for discussion of barriers to fistula treatment. Once these specific articles were identified they were sorted into 5 categories based on the extent to which barriers to treatment were discussed. Any articles concerning interventions targeting barriers to fistula care were analyzed further. Results: Out of 3,972 articles screened, 110 were reviewed in detail. Nine barriers to treatment were identified: psychosocial, cultural, awareness, social, financial, transportation, facility shortages, quality of care, and political barriers. Five further categories emerged: barriers as primary study focus (2); factors that researchers perceived as barriers (39); article briefly mentions barriers (29); barriers mentioned in a needs assessment, review or report (28); and interventions to treatment barriers (12). Interventions primarily focused on facility shortages, transportation, and awareness, and outcome data covered only short-time periods; the success of interventions in providing long-term alleviation of barriers is unclear. Conclusions: Results from the review indicate that while barriers to fistula treatment may be easily identified, their alleviation is difficult and requires sustainable interventions that target several barriers. Additionally, there is a lack of scientific studies with regards to fistula, including a lack of prevalence studies, and a lack of studies focusing on barriers to fistula treatment. The results presented in this review identify current research gaps that must be addressed, and information that can be utilized to plan and implement future interventions to improve access to fistula treatment in the developing world. FCS33.3 STRATEGIES FOR UPDATING NATIONAL CERVICAL CANCER PREVENTION GUIDELINES: EXPERIENCE FROM CENTRAL AMERICA J. Jeronimo, F. Holme. PATH, Seattle, WA, USA Objectives: Updating country guidelines is essential to implementing change in practice in any country. Our work aimed to enable Central American governments to update their national cervical cancer screening and treatment guidelines to reflect new evidence and be aligned with the new WHO guidelines for cervical cancer control. Barriers to countries updating their own guidelines included the need


for expert guidance, a rapidly changing cervical cancer landscape in country, and competing priorities within the ministries of health, including a lack of dedicated cervical cancer staff. PATH sought to catalyze change by incorporating new evidence-based practices into country guidelines through technical assistance. Method: Our intervention in Guatemala was a nine-month process led by the Ministry of Health (MOH) with technical assistance by PATH. The activities included a meeting of regional and international experts and local stakeholders to present and consider the latest evidence on screening and preventive treatment; engaging a local consultant to work with the MOH to develop updated guidelines; gathering input from local and international advisors on guidelines drafts; and facilitating MOH review and approval of the updated guidelines. The process concluded with a launch event where the Minister of Health presented the guidelines to the broader health community. Results: The process for updating the national guidelines required the involvement of multiple stakeholders in country, as well as discussing the proposed updates with local and global experts. It was important to have a local champion in the MOH who was pivotal for catalyzing the discussion with multiple opinion leaders. Guatemala’s guidelines now reflect the latest evidence in cervical cancer screening and include adapted versions of WHO algorithms appropriate to the local context. Health care providers at all levels now have a basic reference point and institutional support for moving forward with new screening strategies including HPV testing. Conclusions: Our work strongly suggests that technical assistance can greatly accelerate the process of revising cervical cancer screening and treatment guidelines; involving local and global stakeholders can help overcome political road blocks; and leadership demonstrated by the MOH in this project contributes to overall political momentum for cervical cancer prevention programs, enabling other long-term change. We are now beginning a similar intervention in other countries in the region. FCS33.4 MEN AS PARTNERS: ROLE OF MEN IN INCREASING WOMEN’S ACCESS TO WOMEN’S REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH SERVICES – A STUDY IN 4 SOUTH ASIAN COUNTRIES BY IPPF SOUTH ASIA REGIONAL OFFICE – TO STUDY ATTTITUDES AND PERCEPTIONS OF MEN SAMPLED IN INDIA, PAKISTAN, NEPAL AND BANGLADESH – FOR RECOMMENDATIONS FOR ENGAGING MEN IN SRH PROGRAMMING J. Zamir, A. Pathak. International Planned Parenthood Federation, South Asia regional Office, New Delhi, India Objectives: The study assesses the status of men’s knowledge and attitude towards sexual and reproductive health and related behaviour of women - especially regarding STIs, menstural problems, Safe Motehrhood, Abortion and Contraception. The specific research objectives are as follows: To assess men’s knowledge and attitude towards gender equality and sexual and reproductive health needs of women and men – including Men’s perceptions related to Violence, contraception, Abortion, STI, SRH and Safe Motherhood – in order to recommend greater men engagment in womens SRH programming. Method: In India (Gwalior), Bangladesh (Jamalpur), Nepal (Sunsari) and Pakistan (Faisalabad). A systematic random sampling frame was applied within a 1.5–2km radius of selected clinics run by IPPF Member Associations. The study used quantitative and qualitative methods, including bilingual semi-structured questionnaires with married men (15–54), semi-structured questionnaires with health service providers and focus group discussions with men and women of the same communities. 1475 married men were interviewed, 12 FGDs with men &12 with women using PRA - 55 health providers interviewed The study also used GEM scale to find out men’s views on the roles and behaviors of menand women. Results: There are interesting findings within the countries- where


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Men in India and Nepal achiveing higher scoresin GEM than others. There are significant differences in the perceptions held by men and women regarding pregnancy and child-birth. While men suggest that they provide considerable support during this period, women do not share this opinion. More men in India and Nepal followed by Bangladesh have a positive attitude towards abortion in contrast to Pakistan. The proportion of men who knew about the conditions under which abortion is legal in their respective countries was higher in India than in Nepal. Conclusions: The importance of training health workers who are active in the area of SRH to better understand masculine behaviours and anxiety, as well as in methods of collecting such information in order to incorporate it into all SRH programmes. The importance of integrated programmes needed to change social norms around masculinity that undermine men’s and women’s health. Hence, the importance of addressing beliefs that grows out of the relationship between cultures of masculinity and, say, contraception. Given the significance of the relationship between contraception, gender equality and SRH, the belief that contraceptives may lead to “promiscuity” must be addressed directly. FCS33.5 ABORTION HOSPITALIZATIONS TRENDS IN MEXICO 2000–2013: ANALYSIS OF COMPLICATED VS. UNCOMPLICATED CASES USING THE ICD-10 CLASSIFICATION R. Schiavon, E. Troncoso, G. Polo. Ipas, Mexico City, Mexico; 2 Independent Consultant, Mexico City, Mexico Objectives: The objective of this study is to analyze absolute numbers and rates of abortion-related hospitalizations in Mexico over the last decade, and to specifically identify the proportion of overall complicated cases, according to the ICD-10 classification system. Additionally, the objective is to identify existing trends of specific subset of complications. The analysis is limited to the public health sector federal or state hospitals - and to women eligible for coverage by the Ministry of Health (SSa), who lack social security system or private health insurance. Method: We analyzed all hospitalizations, recorded in the Automated System of Hospital Discharges (SubSistema Automatizado de Egresos Hospitalarios: SAEH) from Mexican Ministry of Health, for years 2000–2013. All ICD-10 codes O00-O08 “pregnancy with abortive outcome” were included. The overall level of complications was calculated as the proportion of cases with fourth-character decimal subcategories of 0.0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.5, 0.6, 0.7 and 0.8 (for ICD10 codes O03-O07) and the whole O08 category among all abortionrelated hospitalizations. The number of women aged 15–44 were used to calculate the denominator for the rates, according to official population projections for the corresponding years. Results: Overall, 1.473,167 women were hospitalized in this period, with absolute numbers increasing from 72,905 in 2000 to 126,957 in 2013. Uncomplicated cases represented 85.6% of abortion hospitalizations overall, with no changes in the years; complications accounted for 8.47%, decreasing from 9.85% in 2000 to 7.67% in 2013. Ectopic and molar pregnancies increased from 4.77% to 6.13% during the period. Rates for abortion hospitalizations, uncomplicated cases and complicated cases were 557, 475 and 55 per 100,000 women 15– 44 ys. respectively in 2000; and 705, 605 and 54 per 100,000 in 2013. Infectious complications decreased significantly in the period. Conclusions: According to official database analysis, in the last 14 years, abortion-related hospitalizations have increased, and abortion overall looks “safer”: complicated cases show a steady decline, both in terms of absolute numbers and in rates. Types of complications have shifted, with decreasing rates of infections, slight increase of bleeding/hemorrhage and very low rates of traumatic complications. An increase in hospitalizations due to ectopic and molar pregnancies is also documented.

FCS33.6 ASSESSING THE BURDEN OF MATERNAL MORBIDITY IN INDIA M. McCauley 1 , J. Suri 2 , S. Shamsunder 2 , A. Batra 2 , P. Mittal 2 , N. van den Broek 1 . 1 Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Liverpool, UK; 2 Safdarjung Hospital, New Delhi, India Objectives: Maternal mortality has been referred to as “the tip of the iceberg”. For every woman who dies, 20 or 30 more suffer morbidity related to pregnancy and childbirth. The major burden of these complications occurs in women living in low and middle-income countries. The aim of our research is to identify and measure maternal morbidity using a newly developed standardised, method. A better understanding of the burden of ill health during and after pregnancy will help inform care packages that aim to improve maternal health outcomes in low resource settings. Method: A descriptive cross-sectional study in India to assess maternal morbidity in pregnant and postnatal women using a new electronic data collection tool that consists of a full health consultation during which a comprehensive questionnaire is administered in a face-to-face interview. The sections of the detailed questionnaire include general demographics, details of previous and current pregnancy complications, medications, domestic violence, use of alcohol, tobacco and substance abuse psychological wellbeing, and quality of life. Clinical (general, obstetric and/or pelvic if indicated) examinations and basic urine and serological investigations (haemoglobin, malaria, CRP, syphilis and HIV) are performed. Results: For preliminary analyses we reviewed data for 500 women. 7% of women self-reported feeling poor and 1% very poor. Regarding quality of life, 24% were not satisfied. 78% of women self report at least two physical morbidities. 93% of all women reported currently taking tablets. 30% of women self-reported suffering physical domestic violence from husbands and/or other family members. 2% of women were hypertensive. 2% of women were pyrexic (T>38.0C). 50% of women were anaemic (Hb<11g/L) and 12% of women very anaemic (Hb <8g/L). To date no women has tested positive for malaria, syphilis or HIV. Conclusions: Descriptive preliminary analyses demonstrate that it is possible to determine and identify the key components of maternal morbidity to create a “morbidity score” that can be used as a key maternal health indicator to monitor and evaluate maternal health programs both in the antenatal and postnatal context in middle-income settings. We await full data collection in mid May on a larger population scale (2000 women) in order to conduct full and comparative statistical analysis. FCS33.7 THE DEMOGRAPHICS OF PATIENTS WITH FEMALE GENITAL MUTILATION ATTENDING A SPECIALIST ANTENATAL CLINIC IN THE UNITED KINGDOM O. Ajibona. Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, City Hospital, Sandwell and West Birmingham Hospitals NHS Trust, Birmingham, UK Objectives: With the advent of increasingly multicultural societies in the Western World, coming across patients with female genital mutilation (FGM) is no longer limited to developing countries. The aim of this study is to investigate the demographics of patients with FGM attending a specialist ante-natal clinic in the UK. Method: City Hospital, Birmingham, UK serves a multicultural innercity population. This is a retrospective analysis of 273 patients with FGM who attended our specialist ante-natal clinic between March 2012 and December 2014. The patient’s age, country of origin, religion, language for consultation, occupation, and type of FGM were recorded. Results: The mean age of the patients was 29.9 (range 19–42) years. There were 75 (27.5%), 55 (20.2%), 42 (15.4%), 32 (11.7%), 24 (8.8%) and 18 (6.6%) patients from Somalia, Eritrea, Gambia, Sudan, Nigeria,

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and Iraq respectively. 27 (9.9%) patients were of other nationalities. 140 (51.3%) patients spoke English but 133 (48.7%) patients required interpreters. There were 197 (72.2%) Muslims and 76 (27.8%) Christians. There were 163 (59.7%) housewives, 73 (26.7%) employed, 20 (7.3%) unemployed and 17 (6.2%) students. There were 70 (25.6%), 118 (43.2%), 60 (22%) and 0 patients who had types 1, 2, 3 and 4 FGM respectively. The type was not recorded in 25 (9.2%) patients. Conclusions: These findings demonstrate the wide diversity of patients with FGM seen in our specialist ante-natal clinic and will be used to enhance patient care. The demographics of patients with FGM should be established not only at the individual hospital level but also at a national level. This is of paramount importance to health practitioners and providers if effective health care strategies and preventative policies are to be appropriately planned and implemented. FCS33.8 TRANSFORMING LAW INTO POLICY AND PRACTICE: THE CASE OF MAKING ABORTION SAFER IN RWANDA F. Ngabo 1 , F. Sayingoza 1 , E. Ngoga 3 , N. Sahin Hodoglugil 2 , J. Ortega 2 , E. Kanyamanza 1 , E. Dushimeyezu 2 , N. Prata 2 . 1 Ministry of Health, Kigali, Rwanda; 2 Bixby Center for Population Healt and Sustainability, Berkeley, CA, USA; 3 Rwanda Society of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, Kigali, Rwanda Objectives: To document the process Rwanda Ministry of Health (MOH) undertook to operationalize the exemptions for abortion in the Penal Code of 2012 (PC2012). PC2012 allowed for exemptions for abortion in cases of rape, incest, forced marriage, or when pregnancy jeopardizes the health of the unborn baby or pregnant woman. The MOH successfully led the operationalization of the PC2012 to provide safe abortion services starting from eight district hospitals. This success story was documented to demonstrate the transition from law on paper to actual provision of services supported by policy development, training of health care providers, and community sensitization. Method: Over the course of approximately two years, the process for operationalization of the PC2012 followed a framework that included a reiterative process of gathering quantitative and qualitative information and feeding it back to policy development activities along with a consultation process involving all concerned parties including representatives from the MOH, Ministry of Justice, and Rwanda National Police. Briefly, the process included: i) in-depth interviews with key informants and experts; ii) focus groups with potential beneficiaries; iii) assessment of both clinical and legal services; iv) capacity development activities; v) consultation and policy development meetings with key stakeholders. Results: Operationalization of the PC2012 program lead to: development of a five year national strategic plan to address unsafe abortion related maternal mortality; development of a national protocol and accompanying training package for the provision of abortion services with medical and legal information; introduction of new service delivery protocols; reinforcing service provision capacity through training and orientations; generation of evidence based on assessment of services; and strengthening community awareness. Provision of safe abortion services with emphasis on legal and psycho-social aspects based on the National Protocol began in August 2014 at eight initial health facilities. Conclusions: The case of Rwanda is unique for demonstrating the commitment of the decision makers to move from law to its implementation through establishing policy guidelines and launching practice in a relatively short period of time to make abortion safer in the country. The program will be expanded nationally with constant monitoring and supervision. Grounded in the efforts to align national laws with the Maputo Protocol, Rwanda sets up a good role model in the region for protecting women’s rights to abortion in the case of rape, incest and forced marriage even with a relatively restrictive legal framework.


FCS34. Women’s Health Issues and Policy FCS34.1 CAN RELIGIOUS LEADERS ACT AS CONDUITS FOR OBSTETRIC FISTULA PREVENTION MESSAGES AND FOR COMMUNITY MOBILIZATION? THE ENGENDERHEALTH UGANDA EXPERIENCE M. Tumusiime, R. Mukisa, S. Ndizeye. EngenderHealth, Fistula Care Plus, Kampala, Uganda Objectives: To identify the most predominant religious denominations in Uganda to equip them with knowledge and skills to disseminate maternal health promotion and fistula prevention messages. To assess the religious leader’s knowledge about maternal health promotion and fistula prevention concepts, as a baseline for building their capacity to strengthen their ability to integrate the concepts in their routine clerical work. To set up a monitoring and evaluation criteria to measure the contribution towards maternal health promotion and the prevention of obstetric fistula by the clerics. Method: Three of the largest religious denominations were targeted for the communication strategy (Roman Catholics 41.9%, Protestants 42%, Muslims 12.1%). Training was conducted using a curriculum that promotes maternal health for the prevention of obstetric fistula with key messages on: access to fistula treatment, male involvement, birth preparedness, utilization of antenatal and maternity services and family planning. The training was tailored towards the core beliefs and values of each denomination. Understanding was measured using pre and post- tests. Action plans were developed and data collection tools were given to document awareness raising activities integrated in the Religious leader’s routine messages. Results: Pre- test results revealed low knowledge regarding maternal health among the clerics. The median score for the worst performing was 11.3% and 82.3% for the most improved in the pre- test and posttest results respectively. The annual target for community awareness was set at 15, 000 persons to be reached. The data collected for the first quarter comprise of 10,269 (68% of the annual projection) of the annual target, with Roman Catholics contributing 3348 (22.3%), protestants 4818 (32.1%) and Muslims 2103 (14%). Some treatment clients reported having received information from religious leaders and mass media. Conclusions: There’s evidence that if the capacity of religious leaders is built using an appropriate curriculum tailored to their values and beliefs, they can use their advantageous positions of having a voluntary followership as well as proximity to their communities to promote maternal health and prevent obstetric fistula. They have been identified to be a resource for mobilizing women with obstetric fistula for treatment. FCS34.2 MATERNAL HEALTH DATA MANAGEMENT: STRENGTHENING USE IN RESOURCE-CONSTRAINED HEALTH FACILITIES IN WESTERN UGANDA S. Ndizeye, L. Asaba, R. Mukisa, M. Tumusiime. EngenderHealth, Fistula Care Plus, Kampala, Uganda Objectives: • To improve the quality of maternal health data collected with a focus on completeness, accuracy and timeliness. • To improve filing of data, storage and retrieval. • To build the capacity of health workers in using maternal health data for decision making. Method: An assessment on health facility capacity to collect, store, report and utilize the HMIS data for decision making had revealed that monthly summaries in the HMIS maternity, outpatient and antenatal care registers were not regularly compiled. Maternity and family planning HMIS data did not tally with data in registers. There was


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no functional data review committee in place and only 4 staff at the facility were trained in using health data for decision making. Specific systems were put in place to address these weaknesses. Key decisions were made based on the data analyzed and presented. Results: There was a marked improvement in completeness of maternal health data, accuracy of monthly summaries and timeliness of reporting into the DHIS2 increased from 27% to 81% within one year. Health facility data use improved and revealed weaknesses such as low antenatal and postnatal clinic attendance, occurrence of 14 maternal deaths mostly from PPH and contributory factors - shortage of blood for transfusion and misoprostol. Partograph use in labour monitoring was low with only 56% monitored. Community sensitization was intensified on the importance of ANC and PNC. Logistical systems were improved and all staff mentored in partograph use. Conclusions: Maternal health data quality, management and use were improved using cost effective measures. Consistent data use at the health facility level is only possible if it is of high quality and the management is committed to linking the key decisions they make to the routine data analyzed. FCS34.3 HEALTH AND SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHIC PROFILE OF WOMEN IN REPRODUCTIVE AGE OF 12 RURAL COMMUNITIES IN SOUTHERN MOZAMBIQUE C. Sacoor 1 , B. Payne 2 , O. Augusto 1 , F. Vilanculo 1 , A. Nhacolo 1 , M. Vidler 2 , K. Munguambe 1,3 , E. Macete 1 , P. Alonso 1,4 , P. von Dadelszen 2 , E. Sevene 1,3 . 1 Centro de Investigação em Saúde da Manhiça, Manhica, Mozambique; 2 University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada; 3 Universidade Eduardo Mondlane, Maputo, Mozambique; 4 Barcelona Centre for International Health Research, Barcelona, Spain Objectives: Reliable data on numbers and causes of maternal and child morbidity and mortality are scarce in developing countries. Similar situation can be found in Mozambique, mostly because many cases occur at home and even those that reach health facilities are badly reported. This information is crucial for developing effective national and international health policies for prevention and control maternal and child mortality. The aim of this study was to create a platform for the collection of community-level demographic health information in order to provide reliable socio-demographic data to support the planning of the Community Level Intervention for Preeclampsia (CLIP) study. Method: This study utilized a retrospective household survey of women of reproductive age (12–49 years) living in Maputo and Gaza Provinces of Mozambique. Data from each region were collected using a customized ODK tablet application and aggregated to estimate total population rates. Rates calculated include pregnancy incidence over the past 12 months and within the woman’s lifetime; perinatal, infant and Woman of Reproductive Age (WRA) deaths in the past 12 months; and proportions of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy and seizures. Perinatal (PMR) and neonatal (NMR) mortality ratios were reported per 1000 live births; WRA mortality was reported per 1000 WRA. Results: Between March and October 2014 50,493 households were surveyed and 80,237 women of reproductive age (mean age 26.9) identified. 14,621 pregnancies were reported in the past 12 months resulting in 61.2% (8942) live births, 3.3% (249) stillbirth and 3.5% (250) miscarriages while the remaining were still pregnant. Of the pregnancies, 3,607 (24.4%) reported history of high blood pressure and 3,914 (26.4%) reported history of seizures in the past 12 months. The PMR was 58.7/1000; 95% CI (53.8–64.0); NMR was 30.9/1000; 95% CI (21.1–42.8) and the death rate of WRA was 3.1/1000; 95% CI (1.1–8.8). Conclusions: This study is the first successful rural communitybased data analysis providing socio-demographic and health esti-

mates among women of reproductive age in Mozambique. We were able to estimate population level mortality ratios that can be used for the planning of effective health interventions in these regions. FCS34.4 IMPACT OF EBOLA: HOW DISTRIBUTION OF CESAREAN SECTIONS BETWEEN HEALTH CARE PROVIDERS HAVE CHANGED DURING THE EPIDEMICS IN SIERRA LEONE R. Molnes 1 , T.W. Frøseth 1 , E. Darj 1 , A. van Duinen 2,3 , H. Bolkan 2,3 . University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway; 2 St. Olavs Hospital, Trondheim, Norway; 3 CapaCare, Trondheim, Norway 1 Norwegian

Objectives: Before the Ebola Virus Disease (EBV) epidemic, Sierra Leone had the highest Materrnal Mortality Rate in the world, and limited access to emergency obstetric care. Cesarean section (CS) rates have remained below the recommended 5%, but efforts such as the Free Healthcare Initiative and programmes for surgical task shifting, were being made to reduce MMR. During the EVD epidemic, several hospitals have closed or have had reduced capacity for CS. This study aims to examine changes in volume of CS performed in the governmental and private sector in Sierra Leone during the EVD epidemic in 2014, compared to 2012. Method: Weekly data on CS were retrieved from previous data collections mapping all 60 facilities performing major surgery in Sierra Leone during 2012 and 2014. The data was collected retrospectively from surgical theatre register books. Facilities were categorised into governmental, private non-profit and private for-profit facilities. Results: 41 out of 60 facilities were included due to performing CS in either 2012, 2014 or both. The total number of CS increased from 4850 in 2012 to 5100 in 2014 (5.2%). The first case of EVD in Sierra Leone occurred in week 21, before week 20 we see a 23% increase (from 1815 to 2231) in CS compared to the same period in 2012. After the outbreak there is a drop to lower than 2012 levels (5.5% decrease). In 2012, 54% (2614/4850) of all CS was done in governmental facilities, increasing to 73% (2083/2869) after week 21 in 2014. Conclusions: From 2012 to the outbreak of EVD in Sierra Leone, there was an increase in the performance of cesarean sections, indicating efficacy of the improvement measures made. After the outbreak of EVD, the total number of CS has dropped, but the governmental sector is performing a significantly larger proportion of the procedures than before the epidemics. This suggests a need to strengthen the public sector in order to handle a similar public health emergency in the future. FCS34.5 THE IMPACT OF THE EBOLA VIRUS EPIDEMIC ON REPRODUCTIVE AND MATERNAL HEALTH CARE SERVICES IN GUINEA Y. Hyjazi 1 , J. Aribot 1 , R. Waxman 2 , T. Pleah 2 , B. Dao 2 . 1 Jhpiego, Conakry, Guinea; 2 Jhpiego, Baltimore, MD, USA Objectives: The Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) epidemic in West Africa poses a serious challenge to already weak health systems with a heavy burden of communicable diseases such as malaria, diarrheal and respiratory diseases, and high maternal and infant mortality. An analysis of health service delivery data monitored by the USAIDfunded Maternal and Child Survival Program (MCHIP) was conducted to assess the impact of the Ebola virus epidemic on utilization of maternal and reproductive health care services in Guinea. This analysis can inform planning and strategies for restoring and strengthening health services as the epidemic comes under control. Method: The MCHIP project in Guinea supported health service strengthening in three eastern regions and the capital Conakry from 2010 to 2014. Interventions included capacity building through training and supportive supervision, the introduction of a quality improvement system, strengthening monitoring and evaluation, and

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provision of service delivery materials for Emergency Obstetric Care, Prevention of Maternal-to-Child Transmission of HIV, and longacting family planning methods among others. Service delivery data from the routine data collection system was collected and analyzed by the project. Quarterly data was compared for October 2013 (Q1) through December 2014 (Q5). Results: As EVD surged, the use of MNH and FP services dropped steeply in the most affected regions of N’zérékoré and Conakry. Delivery care dropped 81% (n=2490 to n=463) in N’zérékoré and 74% (n=4890 to n=1724) in Conakry between Q1 and Q5. Cesarean deliveries also declined sharply. By comparison, delivery care stayed stable in Kankan and Faranah regions until the last quarter when community resistance arose to Ebola related interventions from health officials. For family planning services, average monthly users fell 75% in N’zérékoré (n=10703 to n=2580), 53% in Conakry, (n=6191 to n=2893) and 65% in Kankan (n=11660 to n=4082). Conclusions: The outbreak of EVD in Guinea is severely affecting maternal and newborn health and efforts to reduce preventable mortality, and will continue to do so for a long time to come. The goal of restoring health services should be to make health facilities a safer place for providers, patients and communities. Key elements of restoring health services should include: 1) Establishing screening, triage and isolation for EVD at the health facility and community; 2) strengthening IPC practices in facilities by training healthcare providers and making available essential IPC supplies; 3) Restoring community confidence in health services through effective communication campaigns. FCS34.6 CURRENT STATUS AND AVAILABILITY OF SPECIALIZED MATERNITY DELUXE ROOM FOR DELIVERING MOTHERS J.W. Yoon 1 , S.W. Han 2 , S.H. Lee 2 , Y.S. Jung 2 , J.M. Kim 2 , E.H. Kim 2 . 1 Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea; 2 Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, National Health Insurance Corporation Ilsan Hospital, Goyang-si, Republic of Korea Objectives: Demand of specialized maternity ward is increasing as national income level rises. However, the National Health Insurance limits the number of hospital’s non-standard room to less than 50% of total hospital beds. Therefore, this research was performed to investigate the utilization of non-standard room among the women who had delivery in South Korean hospitals in order to examine the factors affect their selection. Method: One hundred sixty six medical facilities which deliver a minimum of ten cases in the year 2011 were selected and categorized by type, region, and size. A cross-sectional survey was done in November 2012 by a professional research survey company. Eight hundred and two pregnant women answered the questionnaire through a face-to-face interview. Results: Of the 802 expecting mothers, 690 (86%) occupied nonstandard room and 684 (85.2%) preferred non-standard room to the standard room. Satisfaction levels were significantly higher in mothers occupying non-standard room (5.9±1.0 vs. 5.4±1.2 (0–7 scale), P<0.01) and high-income families used non-standard room more often. Reasons for using non-standard room included adequate convalescence (78%), separate place for breastfeeding (6.1%), and convenience on receiving visitors (5.4%). Preference for non-standard room on next visit was higher in case of delivery compared to other cause of hospitalization (81.8% vs. 44.9%, p<0.001). Conclusions: Preference and actual use of non-standard room after delivery was significant. In spite of concrete preference, there was certain barrier in use of non-standard room according to income and types of hospitals. Therefore, changes of policy are needed such as insurance support for room charge in case of delivery.


FCS34.7 LEARNING FROM THE 1st OBSTETRIC FISTULA PATIENTS CONFERENCE – HOW TO IMPROVE THE QUALITY OF CARE G. Esegbona 1 , M. Isa 2 . 1 Institute for African Women’s Health, London, UK; 2 African Fistula Foundation, Kano, Nigeria Objectives: To show why and how we organized and learnt from the 1st conference for mothers with childbirth injuries - and how this is the best solution for improving access and quality of care. Method: 84 women with obstetric fistula in Nigeria were invited in March 2014 to discuss critical social and medical issues affecting their lives as a result of obstetric fistula. They included 21 successfully repaired fistula patients and 63 incurable women of different ages. They were empowered to set the agenda for the focus group discussions and subsequent plenaries. They decided to discuss issues and challenges related to living with incurability and bahanya (vaginal stenosis), the reasons and challenges for repeated fistula repairs and how to hygienically manage their incontinence especially in situations where they were incurable. Results: Majority of bahanya women are divorced as it prevents coitus and 40% were amenorrhoeic. They believed surgeons caused hanya with surgery or asking them not to have coitus postop. They saw them selves as incurable with bahanya even if continent. 90% of women preferred leaking forever if repair would cause bahnaya. The reason given for vaginal preservation was to have children. They also described coping mechanisms for stenosis and incontinence some of which posed dangers to their health such as sitting in substances to shrink or expand capacity, not drinking (97%) etc. Inadequate counseling led to breakdown and repeated repairs. Conclusions: More effort is needed to include the women’s voice in programmes even surgery as it affects, compliance, and quality of repairs and importantly can provide the solutions to prevention. FCS34.8 AWARENESS OF CERVICAL CANCER SCREENING AMONG HEALTH CARE WORKERS WHO PROVIDE RELATIVE SERVICES ACROSS DIFFERENT SOCIO-ECONOMIC REGIONS OF CHINA J. Di 1,2 , S. Rutherford 2 , C. Chu 2 , J. Wu 1 . 1 National Center for Women and Children’s Health, China CDC, Beijing, China; 2 Griffith University, Brisbane, QLD, Australia Objectives: China carries a heavy burden of cervical cancer (CC) and disparities exist in CC burden across regions. In order to reduce regional disparities in CC burden, the government of China launched the National Cervical Cancer Screening Program in Rural Areas (NCCSPRA) in 2009. Health care workers play a main role in preventing and managing CC by increasing women to use screening services. This study aimed to assess cervical cancer knowledge among health care workers who provide the CC screening service at the county level maternal and child health (MCH) hospitals across different socio-economic regions of China. Method: A cross-sectional survey was conducted and self-administered questionnaires were sent to 66 health care workers in 6 county level MCH hospitals in Liaoning, Hubei and Shaanxi provinces, representing eastern, central and western regions of China, respectively; 64 (97.0%) of the workers responded. ANOVA and Chi-square test were used to compare the knowledge rate and scores in subgroups. Results: The knowledge level of the respondents was generally inadequate. The overall combined knowledge rate was 46.9%. The knowledge rates of risk factors, prevention, clinical symptoms, screening and diagnostic tests and understanding of the positive results were respectively 31.3%, 37.5%, 18.1%, 56.3% and 84.4%. Statistically significant differences in scores or rates of CC knowledge were seen across different regions. The total and sectional scores in the less developed regions were significantly lower than in the other regions. Conclusions: The majority of the health care workers who provide


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CC screening service in NCCSPRA at county level MCH hospitals are not adequately equipped with knowledge about CC. Given the importance of knowledge to program success of reducing CC burden in rural women in China, efforts are needed to improve the knowledge of health care workers, especially in less developed regions. FCS34.9 A RETROSPECTIVE AUDIT OF OBSTETRIC CARE AND OUTCOMES FOR PRIMIPAROUS WOMEN FROM COUNTRIES WITH A HIGH PREVALENCE OF FEMALE GENITAL MUTILATION (FGM) N. Frawley, C. Bayly. The Royal Women’s Hospital, Victoria, Australia Objectives: To describe the impact on obstetric care and outcomes of previous FGM in a selected high prevalence population in Australia. Method: Women born in countries with FGM rates greater than 90% who delivered their first baby in 2013 were identified from the medical records database of The Royal Women’s Hospital, Melbourne. Countries identified were Somalia, Sudan, Egypt, Ethiopia, Eritrea and Sierra Leone. Records were examined for demographic factors, recording of FGM, need for deinfibulation, obstetric management and complications of delivery. Results: 74 women were identified. 24% had infibulation (“type 3” involving partial closure of the vagina), 15% had types 1 or 2 (removal of part or all of clitoris/labia minora), 8% had FGM documented as absent and in 47% there was no record of whether FGM was present. 17 women had deinfibulation performed prior to pregnancy, antenatally or at the time of birth. In this sample, caesarean rates were the same as published state averages. Instrumental delivery rates were 1.7 times higher, preterm birth rates were 1.5 times higher and massive postpartum haemorrhage was 1.9 times greater than state averages. Conclusions: This sample of primiparous women had lower rates of FGM recorded than the prevalences reported for their countries of origin, although ascertainment may be incomplete. A minority of women required specific intervention because of FGM. High rates of obstetric intervention and adverse outcomes warrant further investigation.

FCS35. Contraception and Fertility Control FCS35.1 INITIAL ASSESSMENT OF A DEDICATED DEVICE FOR IMMEDIATE POSTPARTUM IUD INSERTION S. Singh. Populations Services International, India, Delhi, India; 2 Safdarjung Hospital, New Delhi, India; 3 Bowring & Lady Curzon and Vani Villas Hospital, Bangalore, India; 4 Populations Services International, Washington DC, USA; 5 Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA, USA Objectives: Immediate postpartum insertion of an IUD (PPIUD) insertion offers a safe and convenient method to accelerate efforts to address the unmet need for contraception. However for Immediate postpartum intrauterine device insertions either immediately post placental or prior to discharge from hospital, a dedicated PPIUD inserter is currently not available. As a workaround, forceps are used – the IUD is manually removed from the traditional interval inserter, and grasped with forceps before uterine fundal placement. We developed a dedicated device for immediate postpartum IUD insertion. The objective of this pilot study was to assess the efficacy and acceptability of a device prototype. Method: This proof-of-prototype study took place at two centers in Delhi and Bangalore, India. 106 women age 18–38 were enrolled to assess the potential efficacy of the dedicated insertion device. Women with a vaginal delivery who had consented to participate

were eligible to have a PPIUD inserted using the dedicated device either while still in the delivery room or before discharge from hospital. Exclusion Criteria were rupture of membranes more than 18 hours prior to delivery, diagnosis of chorio-amnionitis at the time of delivery and postpartum hemorrhage. Primary outcome variables included IUD proximity to fundus at end-insertion, acceptability, and expulsion rates. Results: Among the 106 enrolled, PPIUD insertion occurred in the delivery room or prior to discharge in 25 (24%) and 81 (76%) of cases, respectively. Provider assessment of device ease-of-use was “easy” in 83% cases and “difficult” in only in 7.5% cases. High fundal placement was observed in almost all cases with 66% and 89% of insertions being less than 6 or 10mm from the fundus, respectively. Of those with complete follow up (65%) expulsion rates were 12% at 4 weeks. 83% of patients expressed satisfaction with their method choice. There were no safety issues such as perforation or insertion-related infection. Conclusions: As a result of this experience, improvements were made to the prototype to improve ease-of-use and enhance provider acceptance. This study demonstrates that the dedicated PPIUD inserter prototype was both efficacious and acceptable for use in the post partum setting. Further studies based on the improved device are planned or ongoing. FCS35.2 COMPARISON OF PPIUCD WITH INTERVAL IUCD AND ITS FOLLOW UP CARE: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW R. Adholeya 1,2 , S. Philips 1,2 , N. Chaudhary 1 . 1 FOGSI, New Delhi/Delhi, India; 2 IMA, New Delhi/Delhi, India Objectives: Intrauterine device (IUD) is a convenient and efficient means of postpartum contraception. It is demonstrably safe with fewer side effects and less complications of infection and perforation. Insertion of an intrauterine device (IUD), immediately after delivery, is appealing for several reasons, mainly, convenience of client and provider. The study proposes: • To compare Post placental, Immediate PPIUD and interval IUD with respect to the complication risks like bleeding, pain, pregnancy, missing thread, expulsion/removal • To analyse role of “follow up care” after Postpartum IUCD • To understand indian perspective and determinants of “continuity of care” Method: We searched Medline, Cochrane database, Pubmed, cinahl, Embase, Science direct, Google Scholar and grey literature, since database inception till 2014. Search term included are postpartum, insertion, Intrauterine device, postplacental, expulsion, removal, follow up care. The relevant literature of PPIUD, its outcome & follow up were selected. We found around 107 articles, out of which, 36 relevant articles were selected. We restricted our search to English language only. After quality check, two authors thoroughly studied, abstracted the data. The following selection criteria were used: • Population: Females above 18 years • Intervention: PPIUCD • Comparator: Interval IUCD • Outcome: Removal/Expulsion Results: Review Manager 5.2 was used to do the analysis of the studies. Risk ratio was calculated by analysis - which came to be 0.80 which is less than 1, meaning that experimental intervention is more effective than control; hence PPIUCD is 20% more effective than interval IUCD. We found eight RCTs; three systematic reviews and Nine Indian study of comparison of PPIUD & Interval IUD. Rest 16 studies includes describes either Interval or PPIUCD as one control arm and their Follow up. Statistical analysis is in process, for evidences of loss of follow up care (LOFC) of PPIUCD and its consequences.

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Conclusions: Post placental IUD insertions shows less expulsion as compared to immediate post-partum, although higher than the interval insertion. Advantages of immediate post-partum insertion include high motivation, assurance that the woman is not pregnant, and convenience. The main complication of PPIUD that came up, are expulsion (partial & complete) and removal (continuation rate). Loss of Follow up care (LOFC) plays significant role in complications and subsequent expulsion/removal. Early follow up & good counselling plays key role in continuity of care in case of PPICUD. FCS35.3 SIMPLIFYING INSERTION OF INTRAUTERINE DEVICES: A PILOT STUDY K.C. Christenson, K.A. Shaw, K. Scrivner, P.D. Blumenthal. Stanford University, Palo Alto, USA Objectives: To assess a simplified IUD insertion approach and explore the feasibility of safe IUD placement without pre-procedure assessment of uterine size by bimanual examination or uterine sounding. Our ultimate goal is to decrease insertion-related pain and improve access to this effective contraceptive method. Method: This was a pilot study of 50 women who underwent simplified IUD insertion. No pelvic exam or sounding was performed prior to IUD insertion. For research purposes transvaginal ultrasound was performed immediately post insertion and at 4–6 weeks after placement. The primary outcome was successful intracavitary IUD placement without bimanual exam or uterine sounding. Secondary outcomes included distance from tip of IUD to fundus, change in IUD position between insertion and follow up visit, patient satisfaction with procedure, and instruments needed for insertion. Incidence of adverse events including: malpositioned IUD, uterine perforation, infection, and expulsion were also assessed. Results: IUD insertion was successful without any cervical manipulation in 80% of subjects. Sounding was only felt necessary in 2%. In 18%, a “os-finder” was used to locate the internal os, but no sounding performed. The mean distance between the IUD and the endometrial limit post-insertion was 3.8mm (range 0–23.1). Mean procedural satisfaction score was 88% and in only 3 patients did the provider rate the insertion as “difficult”. No perforations were observed and expulsions occurred in 3 patients, of whom 2 had menorrhagia as the indication for IUD use. Conclusions: IUD insertion without pror pelvic exam and sounding is feasible and may reduce 1) instruments necessary for insertion 2) fear of pain associated with insertion. Larger studies should validate these findings. FCS35.4 EARLY VERSUS DELAYED INSERTION OF NEXPLANON AT MEDICAL ABORTION – A RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED EQUIVALENCE TRIAL H. Kopp Kallner 1 , H. Hognert 2 , J. Brynhildsen 3 , K. Gemzell-Danielsson 1 . 1 Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; 2 Gothenburg University, Gothenburg, Sweden; 3 Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden Objectives: The primary objective of this ongoing trial is to investigate insertion of the etonogestrel implant for post abortion contraception at the time of mifepristone administration or at the routine follow up 3–4 weeks post abortion. Secondary outcome measurese includes rates of implant insertion, continuation rates, bleeding patterns, AE/SAE, acceptability, pregnancy, repeat abortion, unscheduled visits, satisfaction with their implants. Method: Prospective randomized equivalence trial. Women up to and including 63 days gestation opting for medical abortion and implant postabortion contraception were randomized to early (1 hours after mifepristone administration) or routine (at follow up 3–4


weeks) insertion of the etonorgestrel implant (Nexplanon). Assuming 97% success (efficacy) in both groups, and a two sided margin of equivalence (−5% to +5%) we would require 252 patients per group (alpha of 0.05 and a power of 90%). To compensate for loss to follow up 560 women will be recruited. Women will have two clinical visits telephone follow up at 3, 6 and 12 months post abortion. Results: This is an interim report of the study. Of the intended 560 women a total of 366 women have been included when the data is analysed. A total of 305 implant insertions has been made whereof 176/181 (97%) early and 129/184 (70%) delayed insertions. No ongoing pregnancies had been reported. Among women who did not have an implant inserted seven (7/55, 12.7%) experienced a new pregnancy within the first 12 months after the abortion. No pregnancies were reported among implant users. No increased incidence of on-going pregnancy or incomplete abortion was found in etiher group. Conclusions: Early implant insertion resulted in higher insertion rates and lower rate of rapid repeat pregnancy and abortion within the study period. No difference in effectivness of the abortion regimen could be detected. Final result of effectiveness are expected for the conference presentation. FCS35.5 DESIGNING AN M-HEALTH INTERVENTION TO PROMOTE POST-MENSTRUAL REGULATION CONTRACEPTIVE UPTAKE AND CONTINUATION IN BANGLADESH K. Biswas 3 , S. Nuremowla 2 , K. Reiss 1 , P. Choudhury 2 , K. Anderson 4 , T. Ngo 1 , E. Pearson 4 . 1 Marie Stopes International, London, UK; 2 Marie Stopes Bangladesh, Dhaka, Bangladesh; 3 Ipas, Dhaka, Bangladesh; 4 Ipas, Chapel Hill, USA Objectives: Post-abortion family planning is an effective way of reducing unwanted pregnancies and abortion. The study aims to: 1. Asses the feasibility of using an m-health intervention to support post-menstrual regulation (MR) contraceptive uptake and use in Bangladesh; 2. Design a four month m-health intervention for use among MR clients at Marie Stopes Bangladesh or Ipas-supported government clinic with a focus on long acting and reversible contraceptives (LARC); and 3. Evaluate the effectiveness of the intervention on LARC and any contraceptive use at 2 weeks, 4 and 12 months post MR. This paper is based on aims one and two. Method: In 2013, nested in a survey of 498 MR clients, we conducted a randomized intervention and control study interviewing 120 women at baseline and four months to assess the feasibility of a short message service (SMS) intervention providing methodspecific contraceptive reminders. In March 2015, 24 in-depth interviews with MR clients and six focus-group discussions will explore myths and barriers to contraceptive use and preferred m-health modalities. Findings will inform design of an mhealth intervention to support post MR contraceptive use. The intervention will be evaluated in a randomised controlled trial with 900 women from government and Marie Stopes Bangladesh clinics. Results: In the initial survey, 74% of MR had a personal mobile phones and interest in an m-health intervention was high. In the feasibility pilot, 76% of women in the intervention group said they would sign up to the intervention again, 13% called the study number with questions and 96% reported interest in a hotline service. Furthermore, 93% were satisfied with the confidentiality of the intervention and 91% told their husband of their participation. Qualitative data on barriers to contraceptive use, how contraceptive decisions are made and on the acceptability of various modalities of messaging will be available by April 2015. Conclusions: M-health offers potential for supporting post MR contraceptive use and this feasibility study suggests that an interven-


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tion is acceptable to women and can be implemented in Bangladesh. Women’s interest, in a hotline along with the potential for voice and interactive messaging will be explored in the formative phase. Confidentiality issues will also be investigated further as well as the potential for involvement of the husband. FCS35.6 INTEGRATION OF POSTPARTUM FAMILY PLANNING SERVICES WITH THE IMMUNIZATION PROGRAM AT SUB-DISTRICT AND BELOW LEVEL IN BANGLADESH S. Hasan 1 , M. Bandyopadhyay 1 , F. Shabnam 1 , M. Anwar 2 , A.J. Faisel 1 . 1 EngenderHealth Bangladesh, Dhaka, Bangladesh; 2 Population Council, Dhaka, Bangladesh Objectives: Use of postpartum family planning (PPFP) is low in Bangladesh as it is a recent initiative by the government. Twelve percent of births occur ≤24 months after a preceding birth and another 20% between 24–35 months. Unmet need for family planning during the postpartum period is nearly 60%. Hence, to increase acceptance of PPFP, an intervention was implemented by Mayer Hashi - an USAID supported family planning project - where the main objective was to integrate PPFP counselling with the existing maternal and child health and immunization services, including, capacity development of clinicians and other service providers for PPFP uptake. Method: A 12 month intervention targeting postpartum women with a child aged 0–12 months was implemented in a sub-district of Bangladesh (February 2012–2013). Clinical training including refresher training on PPFP was provided to all physicians and paramedics of the sub-district to the lowest level health facilities. PPFP orientation was also provided to all cadres of service providers. PPFP leaflets, signboards at health centers, and job-aids were supplied as part of information, education, and communication intervention. Pre and post-intervention data was collected from 2,915 and 3,756 postpartum women respectively, from the female welfare assistant register to measure change. Results: Overall, the uptake of all modern contraceptives during the first postpartum year increased from 47.8% to 60.4% as a result of the intervention. A slight increase on long acting reversible and permanent methods of family planning (5.1% at baseline to 5.7% at end line) use, and exclusive breastfeeding (0 to 8.2%) was observed at the end of the 12 month. A significant impact of the intervention was that counselling on postpartum family planning methods, increased from zero to 99.3%. The impact of this will undoubtedly be felt in the future uptake of postpartum family planning at the sub-district level. Conclusions: Our intervention experience shows that training on PPFP, both clinical and non-clinical, enhances the capacity of the service providers to provide quality counselling and clinical services, as evidenced by an increased uptake of all modern methods during the extended postpartum period. Our programmatic experience suggests that PPFP services if integrated with the existing maternal and child health and immunization services under one facility/roof will increase the uptake of PPFP. Counselling plays a crucial role in the uptake of PPFP, hence this should be integrated with the existing maternal and child health and immunization programs and other child health programs. FCS35.7 RECRUITMENT OF WOMEN USING MISOPROSTOL FOR MENSTRUAL REGULATION PURCHASED FROM PHARMACIES IN BANGLADESH K. Reiss 1 , S. Dijkerman 2 , S. Mitu 2 , P. Choudhury 2 , S. Nuremowla 2 , T. Ngo 1 . 1 Marie Stopes International, London, UK; 2 Marie Stopes Bangladesh, Dhaka, Bangladesh Objectives: In Bangladesh abortion is illegal but menstrual regulation (MR) is legally available as a surgical procedure, and more recently as

a medical procedure using mifepristone and misoprostol. However barriers to legal MR services remain and anecdotal evidence suggests women and men are seeking MR medications from pharmacy workers. A mystery clients survey in 2011 revealed that 39% of pharmacy workers offer misoprostol alone for MR however only 7% offered the correct regimen. This study aims to document the reasons women are accessing misoprostol for MR from pharmacy workers and the safety and effectiveness of the procedure. Method: In 2013, a pilot survey was conducted among 30 pharmacy workers in Bangladesh who were asked to invite misoprostol users to call an established reproductive health call-centre two weeks after taking the medication. Few calls were received and the methodology has been revised; recruitment will restart in April 2015. 100 pharmacy workers will be given 10 vouchers each and will instruct misoprostol purchasers interested in participating in the study to SMS the call centre. A trained call-centre operator will inform the purchaser of the study and will invite the end-user to participate in a telephone interview two weeks later. Results: During the pilot survey, 17 calls were received; 12 were eligible to participate and 11 interviews were completed. During one call the husband of the end-user wanted to participate in the telephone interview with his wife. Protocols for managing such situations have been included in the revised methodology; husbands will be allowed to participate if both parties consent to this independently. Routine callers to the call centre who were users of misoprostol for MR were also invited for a short interview to seek their views on the methodology. Data from the revised protocol will be available by October 2015. Conclusions: There are many challenges and ethical issues to consider when attempting to contact women who have used misoprostol for MR purchased from pharmacies; the pharmacy worker needs to be motivated to recruit participants, and to do so without coercion, however the end-user may not visit the pharmacy worker themselves. A revised protocol, where phone contact with the purchaser is made at the time of purchase, may have more success in providing crucial information on the outcomes of the MR procedure, how complications are managed and insight into what further support women need and how this can be provided. FCS35.8 IMPROVING PHARMACY WORKERS’ KNOWLEDGE OF MISOPROSTOL FOR MENSTRUAL REGULATION IN BANGLADESH: THE EFFECTIVENESS OF TRAINING, DETAILING AND CALL CENTRE INTERVENTIONS K. Reiss 1 , K. Keenan 1 , S. Dijkerman 2 , P. Choudhury 2 , S. Mitu 2 , S. Nuremowla 2 , T. Ngo 1 . 1 Marie Stopes International, London, UK; 2 Marie Stopes Bangladesh, Dhaka, Bangladesh Objectives: In Bangladesh, a mifepristone and misoprostol regimen is legally available for menstrual regulation (MR) however pharmacy provision of misoprostol on its own for MR is common. Significant gaps exist in pharmacy workers’ knowledge of the drug regimen and several programmes have been initiated with the aim of reducing harm, such as dedicated training sessions, in-pharmacy “detailing” by pharmaceutical suppliers, and a call centre. The aim of this study was to assess the factors affecting pharmacy workers’ knowledge of the correct misoprostol regimen for MR, specifically focussing on whether receiving training, detailing or using the call centre improved knowledge. Method: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2013 among pharmacy workers from 755 pharmacies across Bangladesh. The outcome - knowledge of the correct misoprostol regimen for MR - was defined as answering five questions correctly: micrograms per tablet, tablets per dose, number of doses, time between doses and route of administration. We fitted logistic regression models for correct knowledge of regimen including the following predictors: character-

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istics of training or detailing received (if any), call centre use, sociodemographic characteristics of pharmacy workers, pharmacy location, size and number of clients. Results: Most participants were male pharmacy owners with professional pharmacy training. Pharmacies were spread evenly across the seven divisions of Bangladesh. Overall 64.6% of participants had received training or detailing on using misoprostol for MR, 26.4% had used the call centre, and 23.0% knew the correct regimen. In multivariable models correct knowledge of regimen was significantly associated with call centre use (OR 2.19; 95% CI: 1.39–3.43), and receiving training or detailing (OR 1.57; 95% CI: 1.03–2.41), but not with other characteristics. Knowledge of regimen varied by division and the interventions were significantly more successful in one division than others. Conclusions: Knowledge of the correct misoprostol regimen for MR is low among pharmacy workers in Bangladesh and varies by division. However, knowledge of the effective regimen was better in those who had received training or detailing from pharmaceutical companies and among call centre users, suggesting that the initiatives were effective. The study had several limitations: reported practices may be subject to recall and courtesy bias and may not reflect actual provision practices. Further research is required to formally evaluate the different aspects of this intervention, and to understand why there are geographical differences in knowledge and in the effectiveness of training.

FCS36. Contraception and Fertility Control FCS36.1 GENDER FERTILITY PREFERENCE BY MEN: A DISINCENTIVE FOR MODERN CONTRACEPTIVE UPTAKE AMONG COUPLES IN NIGERIA? T. Mumuni 1 , O. Ojengbede 1,2 , I. Morhason-Bello 2 , R. Abdus-salam 3 , M. Okunlola 2 . 1 Center for Population and Reproductive Health, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria; 2 Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria; 3 Adeoyo Maternity Teaching Hospital, Yemetu, Ibadan, Nigeria Objectives: The study aimed to determine the association between male fertility preferences, male involvement in family planning and modern contraceptive use. Method: The Family Health and Wealth Study (FHWS) is an opencohort study among 497 randomly selected couples from households in Moniya, Akinyele Local Government Area conducted in 2010. Eligible couples were enrolled following delineation and listing of all houses within the selected site. In this analysis the primary outcome modern contraceptive (MC) use was assessed using the question on type of contraceptive used by the men. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were used to determine factors associated with MC use at 95% confidence level. Results: MC use and desire for more children was 28.4% and 72.4% among the men. MC use was higher among men who did not desire more children (38.7%) compared to those who desired more (27.7%) and those who were not sure (34.6%), (p=0.013). Discussion of number of children with wives (p<0.001), desire for same number of children as wives (p=0.003), ability to afford another child (p=0.015) and joint decision making on family health (p=0.039) were significantly associated with MC use. MC use was higher among men who desired only male children (30.0%) compared to those who desired either male/female children (24.6%), (p=0.695). Conclusions: Men who do not prefer to have more children and those who desired only male children are more likely to use MC. The findings further buttress the role of men in family planning.


FCS36.2 SPOUSAL SEPARATION AND MODERN CONTRACEPTION USE IN A PERI-URBAN SOCIETY: FINDINGS FROM THE FAMILY HEALTH AND WEALTH STUDY (FHWS) I. Morhason-Bello 1 , T. Mumuni 2 , R. Abdus-salam 3 , M. Okunlola 1 , O. Ojengbede 1,2 . 1 Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria; 2 Center for Population and Reproductive Health, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria; 3 Adeoyo Maternity Teaching Hospital, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria Objectives: To assess the association of spousal separation on modern contraceptive (MC) use among women in a peri-urban community in Nigeria. Method: The FHWS is an open-cohort study among 497 randomly selected couples from households in Moniya, Akinyele Local Government Area conducted in 2010. Eligible couples were enrolled following delineation and listing of all houses within the selected site. Spousal separation was defined as couples not leaving together all the time. In this analysis the primary outcome was assessed using the question on type of contraceptive used by the women. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were used to determine factors associated with modern contraceptive use at 95% confidence level. Results: The reported duration of spousal separation was 1–4 weeks by 167 (33.6%) women. MC use among women reporting spousal separation was 31.1% against 37.6% among those leaving with their spouse. Women with highest household wealth quintile had a higher proportion reporting MC use (45.9%) compared to women who had lower/middle (33.3%), higher (21.9%) and lowest (20.0%) wealth quintiles. Women in polygamous unions (32.0%) and those married for 10 years and more (38.7%) had a higher proportion reporting MC use compared to women in monogamous unions (28.6%) and those married for <10 years (26.7%). These were not statistically significant. Conclusions: This study did not establish an association between spousal separation and MC use. This is not in tandem with previous research findings. FCS36.3 EMERGENCY CONTRACEPTION IN EUROPE: CHANGES IN ACCESS AND OTHER UPDATES K. Gemzell-Danielsson 2 , C. Moreau 4 , S. Cameron 3 , C. Puig Borras 1 . Consortium for Emergency Contraception, Targu Mures, Romania; 2 Karolinska Institutet, Stockolm, Sweden; 3 University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK; 4 INSERM, Paris, France

1 Europea

Objectives: Emergency contraception (EC) can reduce a woman’s risk of becoming pregnant after unprotected intercourse. It is an essential component of women’s reproductive rights. In January 2015 the European Union Commission recomended to make ulipristal acetate EC pills available directly from pharmacies without a prescription, which draws a new map of access to EC. How ever, diversity in service delivery modalities and guidelines still lead to acess inequalities. This session will provide an update on EC accessibility in Europe, present counselling guides for pharmacist and health providers), and provide an update on EC pills mechanisms of action. Method: Data on accessibility and use of EC in Europe is scarce. In 2012/2013 ECEC conducted an expert based survey and collected sales data, to provide a comprehensive overview of EC in Europe. This mapping is being updated in 2015 in order to register changes in accessibility. Results: Until 2015, LNG EC was more widely used in countries with non prescription access. Norway, Sweden and France have the highest estimated proportion of users: 14%, 12% and 10% respectively (estimated as number of EC units sold per year divided per number of women 15–49 years). Italy, Hungary, Germany, Poland and the Czech


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Republic, show the lowest records of use, below 3%. Use in other European Union states range from 4 to 9%. Conclusions: Our data confirm that access to EC is still uneven in Europe In light of this situation, in 2013 ECEC developed a template guide to facilitate the process of developing or updating national EC guidelines. In 2015 ECEC is developing a tool so that pharmacists are well equipped to help women chose the best EC option for them, in countries where EC pills are directly available for women in pharmacies. FCS36.4 UNINTENDED PREGNANCY AMONG WOMEN ATTENDING ANTENATAL CLINICS AT MISURATA TEACHING HOSPITAL F. Elrishi. Misurata Teachin Hospital, Misurta, Libya Objectives: To determine the prevalence and demographic associations of unintended pregnancy among pregnant women presenting for antenatal care to Misurata Teaching Hospital. Method: The monthly average clinic attendance in 2014 was 520 women. A stratified random sample of 489 mothers who attended antenatal clinics in last fourth of 2014, 3 women not responded to interview. 486 respondents were interviewed after their consents using a structured questionnaire. Items in the questionnaire included socio-demographic characteristics, obstetric variables, attitude of pregnancy, and contraceptive use including decision of discontinuation and awareness of contraception. The data was collected, analyzed and statistical comparison using test of difference of proportions using Z-score statistic at 5% of significance. Results: Of the respondents, 35.8% their current pregnancies were unintended. Concerning residency; the level of unintended was comparable among urban and rural women (31% versus 23.1%). The older women >30 years old reported slightly higher level of unintended pregnancy (38.2% vs. 34%) and 62.1% interbirth interval <24 months. Regarding the socio-economic variables, about three-fourths of the respondents were house wives, and average economic level, while 65.5% of unintended pregnancies have high education (p=.028) compared to 48.1% among wanted pregnancies. 22.4% of unintended pregnancies were grandmultiparous. While 67.2% of the unintended pregnancies were used contraceptives; 37.5% of wanted pregnancies (P=0.0007). Conclusions: Unintended pregnancy was common and these women occurred more frequently already had five or more children, often leading to birth spacing of under two years. There is a need for effective social and health education programs reduce unplanned pregnancy amongst multiparous women. hs of the respondents were house wives, and average economic level, while 65.5% of unintended pregnancies have high education (p=.028) compared to 48.1% among wanted pregnancies. 22.4% of unintended pregnancies were grandmultiparous. While 67.2% of the unintended pregnancies were used contraceptives; 37.5% of wanted pregnancies (P=0.0007). FCS36.5 THE COST OF UNINTENDED PREGNANCIES (COUP) IN CANADA: ESTIMATING DIRECT COST, ROLE OF IMPERFECT CONTRACEPTIVE ADHERENCE, AND THE POTENTIAL IMPACT OF INCREASED USE OF LONG-ACTING REVERSIBLE CONTRACEPTIVES A. Black 1 , E. Guilbert 5 , F. Hassan 2 , I. Chatziheofilou 2 , J. Lowin 2 , M. Jeddi 6 , A. Filonenko 4 , J. Trussell 3 . 1 University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Canada; 2 IMS Health, London, UK; 3 Princeton University, Princeton, USA; 4 Bayer Pharma AG, Berlin, Germany; 5 National Institute of Public Health of Quebec, Quebec, Canada; 6 McMaster University, Hamilton, Canada Objectives: Unintended pregnancies (UP) are associated with a substantial and potentially avoidable cost burden. In Canada, 40% of pregnancies are unintended however the full cost burden in Canada

has not been determined. Our objectives were to: (1) Quantify the direct cost of UPs in Canada; (2) Estimate the proportion of UPs atributable to imperfect contraceptive adherence; (3) Estimate the number of UPs that could be avoided by increasing use of long-acting reversible contraceptive (LARC); and (4) Calculate potential direct cost savings associated with increased LARC use. Method: A cost-burden model was constructed to estimate the annual number of UPs, the direct costs of UPs, and the proportion of UPs that could be attributed to imperfect contraceptive adherence. The model considered women age 18–44 years using women aged 20–29 years as the base case analysis. The change in annual number of UPs and impact on cost-burden were analyzed in 3 separate scenarios of increased LARC usage. One-way sensitivity analyses were conducted to assess the respective impact of all key variables on the 3 scenarios of increased LARC use. Results: There are over 180,700 UPs annually in Canada with an associated direct cost of over $320 million. UPs in women aged 20–29 years accounted for 58% of UPs with an annual cost of $175 million. Sixty-seven percent of this cost ($117 million) was attributable to contraceptive non-adherence. In all switching scenarios, higher LARC uptake resulted in significant cost savings with the largest savings ($12 million) seen when 10% of oral contraceptive users switched to IUCs. Minimum duration of IUC usage required before cost savings was realized was 12 months. Conclusions: Imperfect contraceptive adherence results in a substantial number of UPs. UPs are associated with a high and potentially avoidable cost burden in Canada. Significant cost savings could be generated by increasing LARC uptake, particularly in women aged 20–29. Greater accessbility of and use of LARCs may have significant benefits for the reproductive health of Canadian women by decreasind the number of UPs. Canadian society as a whole would also benefit by decreasing the economic burden of unintended pregnancies. FCS36.6 PROGRESS IN INCREASING AWARENESS AND AVAILABILITY OF THE INTRAUTERINE DEVICE IN BONSAASO, GHANA N. Robinson, S. Geller. University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA Objectives: The intrauterine device (IUD) is an effective, yet underutilized contraceptive method in low-resource settings. IUD use in rural Bonsaaso, Ghana was 0% in 2012. Research suggests that provider and patient barriers such as biased contraceptive counseling and lack of IUD knowledge and availability contribute to low uptake. The purpose of this study was to assess the long-term impact of a three-day provider family planning workshop on awareness and perceived availability of the IUD among women accessing family planning clinics within one year of training. Method: Semi-structured interviews and focus groups were conducted with 42 contraceptive users one year following a family planning workshop for providers which included a review of contraceptive counseling techniques, eligibility criteria for contraceptive use, and the IUD insertion. Interview and focus group content were analyzed and emerging themes were identified. Results: Twelve of 42 users were offered the IUD and two selected the method. Though there was greater awareness about the IUD and its availability, uptake was impacted by lack of comprehensive counseling specific to the IUD, poor understanding of how the IUD functions and poor understanding of the benefits the method offers users. Of those who chose the IUD, the desire for pregnancy spacing and dissatisfaction with other methods led to IUD selection. Conclusions: Provider training alone marginally increases IUD awareness and availability. A more robust intervention focusing on provider bias and community sensitization is needed to improve the quality of contraceptive counseling and to more aptly meet the needs of contraceptive users.

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FCS36.7 EFFECTS OF THE ETONOGESTREL-RELEASING CONTRACEPTIVE IMPLANT INSERTED IMMEDIATELY POSTPARTUM ON BREAST MILK VOLUME: A RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL G. Braga, E. Ferrioli, S. Quitana, R. Ferriani, C. Vieira. University of Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto/Sao Paulo, Brazil Objectives: Effective, reversible postpartum contraception is important to decrease the chance of rapid repeat pregnancy, especially in vulnerable populations. One of the limitations for recommending immediate postpartum insertion of the etonogestrel (ENG) implant is the low quality of the evidences of its effect on breast milk amount. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate infants’ breast milk intake when etonogestrel-releasing implant was inserted immediately postpartum. Method: Twenty-four healthy women with healthy and term newborns who desired the etonogestrel implant for contraception were randomized in two groups: implant group (insertion of implant 24– 48h after delivery) and control group (no hormonal). Deuterium (D2O) was ingested by mothers on early postpartum (24–48h after birth) and 28 days after first D2O administration dose. Saliva samples were collected from the mother and her baby before D2O administration dose and 1, 2, 3, 4, 13 and 14 days after D2O administration. Deuterium concentration on the mother and infant saliva samples were measured by mass spectrometry and breast milk intake was estimated. Results: After the first dose of D2O, the breast milk intake by newborns (NB) was similar between groups (Implant: 343.6±102.5 mL/day vs. Control: 388.2±170.4 mL/day, p=0.54). After the second dose of D2O, the breast milk intake by NBs for newborns was also similar between groups (Implant: 775±277.6 mL/day vs. Control: 815.4±184.1 mL/day, p=0.63). Exclusive breastfeeding rate and the weight of the NBs were similar between the groups in the first six weeks after birth. Conclusions: The amount of breast milk intake by the newborns was not affect by the immediately postpartum insertion of the ENG implant. This finding may help to improve the safety evidences of early beginning of progestogen contraceptives after delivery. FCS36.8 QUALITY ASSURANCE IN IUD SERVICES AND REPORTED COMPLICATIONS: A CROSS SECTIONAL STUDY S. Srivastava 1 , S. Philiphs 2 , N. Chaudhary 2 . 1 Population Services International, Lucknow, UP, India; 2 Population Services International, Delhi, India Objectives: Access to safe and effective contraception increases the contraceptive prevalence rate, and reduces maternal mortality. The IUD is an highly effective, safe, cost-effective long acting family planning method. IUD-related complications are rare but can occur even when trained providers perform insertion. The complications that need immediate management include: pregnancy with IUD, missing strings, perforation, expulsion (partial and complete) or infection. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to analyze the total number of IUD complications reported from the trained providers and compare them with reported similar global rates. Method: PSI’s Women’s Health Program involves social franchise network of 1100 private doctors (Ob/Gyn or MBBS) across 3 states of India. Quality assurance (QA) is a key component of network clinical care. PSI provides support for training, quality assurance, demand generation activities and complications management. Supportive supervision visits are performed by PSI medical team members to ensure quality service delivery. All reported complications are managed by network providers or at referral centers. This retrospective study analyzed complication and adverse event data reported between Jan-


uary 2013 and July 2014. Event incidence has been calculated per referrals by outreach (IPC) workers. Results: Between January 2013 and July 2014, 118,757 IUDs were inserted by network providers. Out of 1100 trained network providers, only 104 reported complications or adverse events. Complications rates from IPC referrals for suspected events during this period were: IUD with pregnancy 0.06%, pregnancy with partial expulsion of IUD 0.02%, string problems 0.018%, complete expulsion of IUD followed by pregnancy 0.16/1000, infection 0.009%, perforation 0.04/1000, ectopic tubal pregnancy 0.003%, heavy bleeding 0.015%. Conclusions: Rates of complications in this network experience are lower than other reported experiences. Reasons for differences may include effective training on- balanced counseling, quality client screening, following standard infection prevention practices, insertion by no-touch technique and ensuring quality service delivery, all of which can minimize the rate of complications and avert adverse events following IUD insertion. However, given the very low rates, encouraging active reporting of complications is clearly a challenge, and requires both collaboration and trust amongst the providers.

FCS37. Genital Prolapse/Gynecological Care for the Older Woman FCS37.1 STUDY ON PELVIC ORGAN PROLAPSE AMONG WOMEN OF A VILLAGE OF SIRAHA DISTRICT OF NEPAL S.B. Singh, P. Adhikari, B. Shakya. B. P. Koirala Institute of Health Sciences, Dharan, Nepal, Dharan, Sunsari, Nepal Objectives: To assess the contributing factors of pelvic organ prolapse (POP) and knowledge about POP among the women of Karjanah village in Siraha district of Nepal. Method: A cross-sectional study was done to enrol 249 women from four wards of Karjanah village in Siraha district. The participants consented for interview and pelvic examination. Pre-tested semistructured questionnaires were used. Data were analysed by using SPSS 16 v. Results: Most of the participants (29.30%) were in the age group of 31–40 years. Most of them (95%) married at age below 18 years. Majority of the females (76%) were below 20 years at their first child birth. About 10% of the women did heavy work soon after delivery. About 8% of the women suffered from pelvic organ prolapse. Heavy physical work after delivery of child and delivery of child without the assistance of healthcare workers were the contributing factors of POP. Four fifth of them were aware about POP but did not take it as a serious gynaecological condition. Conclusions: Early age pregnancy was common among women in Karjanah. Pelvic organ prolapse (POP) was a problem in the village. Heavy physical work and home delivery were the contributing factors of POP. Women had awareness about POP but were less concerned to seek medical help. FCS37.2 MANCHETER OPERATION, AN OPERATION FOR YOUNG WOMEN WITH UTERINE PROLAPSE WITH FIVE YEARS FOLLOW-UP Y. Yao, J. Han, K. Zhang, Y. Chen, F. Zhu, Y. Wang. Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing, China Objectives: To evaluate the outcome of Manchester operation for treatment of uterus prolapse of young women. Method: Manchester operations were performed on 32 women between February 2001 and February 2015. Preoperative and postoperative symptoms, POP-Q scores quality-of-life questionaire were studied to assess after the operation. 6 patients were evaluated by pelvic MRI for decision of the procedure.


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Results: Average age was 45.3 years old. Uterus prolapse of all were stage II or above with mean cervix length of 6.23cm. Mean operation time and blood loss was 84.0±22.1min and 56.9±75.1ml with no complication during and after the operation. Follow-up rate was 100% with a median follow-up of 70 months. Subjective cure rate was 100%. Objective cure rate was 93.4% while cure rate of median defect was 100%. PFIQ-7, POPDI-6 and UDI-6 score after 2 years were significantly lower after operation. MRI results were in accord with clinical staging and showed long cervix which help choosing the procedure. Conclusions: Evaluation of Manchester for uterus prolapse reveals good outcome. There was significant improvement on anatomy and quality of life after operation. MRI assessment is helpful in preoperative decision. FCS37.3 LONG-TERM OUTCOMES OF THE SELF-CUT MESH-RELATED MODIFIED TOTAL PELVIC RECONSTRUCTIVE SURGICAL REPAIR FOR PELVIC ORGAN PROLAPSE IN CHINA: A 7-YEAR PROSPECTIVE COHORT STUDY L. Zhu 1,2 , L. Zhang 1,2 , T. Xu 3 , J. Lang 1,2 . 1 Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing, China; 2 Peking Union Medical College, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing, China; 3 Department of Epidemiology and Statistics Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & School of Basic Medicine, Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China Objectives: The aim of this study was to analyze the long-term outcomes and safety of the modified total pelvic reconstructive surgical repair for pelvic organ prolapse (POP) in China. Method: Two hundred and eighty-five patients who underwent prolapse surgery with the new economic surgical method were followed up for 7 years in the PUMCH. Assessment, which included the pre- and postoperative Pelvic Organ Prolapse Quantification (POP-Q) stages. The Chinese versions of the pelvic floor impact questionnaire short form (PFIQ-7) and the pelvic organ prolapse/urinary incontinence sexual questionnaire short form (PISQ-12) were used to evaluate the self-perception and sexual function of the patients. Meshrelated complications and pain conformed to the IUGA/ICS joint terminology. The paired-sample t-test, one-way ANOVA, Wilcoxon rank sum test and COX survival analysis were used to analyze the data. Results: Our study showed a 96.8% (240/248) positive outcome rate. Thirty-nine (15.7%) patients presented with POP-Q stage II or greater. The reoperation rate was 0.8% (2/248). Posterior compartment was mostly involved with symptomatic recurrence (50%). Vaginal complication was an independent risk factor of worsening of the POP-Q stage (OR=3.4, 95% CI 1.4–8.3). Significant improvements were observed in the symptom scores compared with baseline, as recorded by the PFIQ-7 (P<0.05). The PISQ-12 questionnaire didn’t show significant improvement of sexual function (P≥0.05). Thirty-two patients (12.9%) reported complications, with 22 (8.9%) being vaginal mesh contraction or exposure (C1-C3). Fourteen patients (5.6%) complained of pain. Conclusions: The modified total pelvic reconstructive surgical repair for advanced POP had a good long-term result and low complication rate. FCS37.4 SEXUAL FUNCTION AFTER SACROCOLPOPEXY E.-H. Yoo, Y.C. Ko, Y.-M. Kim, J.Y. Park, S.Y. Pyun, G.H. Han. KyungHee University hospital at Gangdong, Seoul, Republic of Korea Objectives: To compare sexual function and determine changes in anatomical and functional outcomes before and 12 months after sacrocolpopexy with either hysterectomy or subtotal hysterectomy. Method: This retrospective study examined a cohort of 55 sexually

active women who underwent either laparoscopic supracervical hysterectomy with sacrocolpopexy (n=28) or total abdominal hysterectomy with sacrocolpopexy (n=27) for stage II to IV pelvic organ prolapse. Pelvic floor support was measured with POP-Q exam. Pelvic floor and sexual function was measured with Korean version of Pelvic Floor Distress Inventory-Short Form 20 (PFDI-20) and Pelvic Organ Prolapse/Urinary Incontinence Sexual Function Questionnaire-Short Form 12 (PISQ-12). Results: Baseline pelvic floor symptoms, demographics and PISQ-12 questionnaire scores were similar between the two groups. Overall improvements in sexual function were seen based on PISQ-12 scores after sacrocolpopexy, but were not statistically significant (25.1 vs. 31.2, p=0.16) and no differences were seen in PISQ-12 scores between the groups. Responses to the PISQ-12 question of avoiding sexual intercourse because of vaginal bulging showed significant improvement after surgery. No recurrences of prolapse occurred. Conclusions: In women with pelvic organ prolapse, sexual function was not likely to be improved after sacrocolpopexy with either hysterectomy or subtotal hysterectomy regardless of sparing of the cervix, addition of concomitant surgery for anti-incontinence or posterior colporrhaphy or postoperative use of antimuscarinics. FCS37.5 EVALUATION OF PESSARY SERVICE FOR WOMEN WITH PELVIC ORGAN PROLAPSE (POP) S. Ibrahim 1 , M. Najdy 2 , V. Tyagi 3 , W. Agur 1 . 1 University hospital Crosshouse, Ayrshire and Arran, UK; 2 Wishaw general hospital, Lanarkshire, UK; 3 Southern general hospital, Greater Glasgow and Clyde, UK Objectives: Evaluating pessary service provided in West of Scotland. Method: Women were asked to complete a content-validated questionnaire. Multicenteric service evaluation ran from June-December 2014. No eithics was required. Results: Mean duration of pessary use was 3.5 years (SD 3). 68% used ring pessary while 32% used other types. 82/102 had satisfaction rate of 80%. 25% of those seen by a doctor prefer to see someone else, compared to 12% of those seen by a nurse. Significant correlation between satisfaction with pessaries and improvement of bladder symptoms (p=0.02). 9% found pessary affected either walking or sex-life. 83% used their final comments to compliment the service. Self management would be considered by 9%. 43% would consider pelvic floor exercises and 20% would consider surgery. Conclusions: Most women are satisfied with the pessary service. FCS37.6 A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY-OUTCOME OF SHIRODKAR’S ABDOMINAL SLING SURGERY IN TREATMENT OF PROLAPSE IN NULLIPAROUS AND CHILDBEARING AGE GROUP R. Antartani, R. Mahajan. KIMS, Hubli, Karnataka, India Objectives: 1)To evaluate place of Shirodkar’s sling surgery in mordern OBG in treatment of prolapse in child bearing age group. 2) To discuss the pregnancy outcome and fertility in patients who have undergone the Shirodkar’s sling operation. Method: Retrospective study conducted in the department of OBG, KIMS Hubli, Karnataka from january 2006 to October 2014. Results: Out of 63 patients who were operated, 10 patients delivered vaginally without complications n recurrence. Conclusions: Shirodkar sling surgery best technique for management of nulliparous prolapse and in childbearing group with good fertility rate and minimal complications and recurrence.

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E. Petri. University of Greifswald, Greifswald, Germany

R. Shukla, R. Patel, J. Ganjiwale. Pramukhswami Medical College, Karamsad, Gujarat, India

Objectives: Urethral coitus is a rare condition with only 37 cases reported so far.We describe the so far oldest women after 30 years of satisfied sexual life, her treatment and a review of the literature. Method: Case report and a review of the literature. Results: Congenital malformations like vaginal atresia of imperforate hymen might result in an unwilling coitus through the urethra, in adolescents rape might be the cause of urethral lacerations. We report on a women having 32 years of satifactory urethral coitus, in the last years with postcoital urinary incontinence. We performed a peritoneal neovagina, with persistent urinary incontinence a colposuspension. The aptient was happy with the new quality of intercourse and was continent. Conclusions: Atypical urinay incontinence and dyspareunia might be caused by a coitus per viam urethram. FCS37.8 POSTMENOPAUSAL BLEEDING (PMB) AND BENIGN CONDITIONS – STUDY IN RURAL BELT OF INDIA G. Chowdhury. Rajendra Institute of Medical Sciences, Ranchi, Jharkhand, India Objectives: Vaginal bleeding after 6 months of amenorrhea from presumed menopause should be considered as suspicious and warrants investigations (Incidence 3%). Benign conditions though most frequent and can cause considerable distress. Method: Study in Gynecology department, RIMS, a rural based tertiary center (Jan’10-July’12). 51521 patients, 1200 Pmb. Aim: to exclude malignancy, confirm diagnosis, treat accordingly. (Data in percentage). Diagnostic Evaluation. Detailed history, assessment of risk factors, full clinical examination. Investigations: Routine Pap smear, appropriate biopsy, smear, cytology, TVS, HSG combined with TVS, saline sonohysterography, CT, MRI (as required). Results: Pmb 1200, 900 (75%) benign lesions. Demographics: 612 (68%) had sexual life <18 yrs. 585 (65%) married ≥18 yrs. 513 (57%) para ≤5. 700 (78%) of low SES. 555 (61.66%) Hindu community (no circumcision). Organ pathology: Uterus 682 (75.77%). Cervix (Cx) 165 (18.33%). Vagina 53 (5.88%). Age & lesions: 50–54 yrs.: Endometrial (Em) – hyperplasia 326 (36.2%), TB 18 (2%). 50–59 yrs.: Em. Atrophy 250 (28%). 50–60 yrs.: Fibroid 84 (9.3%), Chronic cervicitis 83 (9.2%), Senile vaginitis 53 (6%), Decubitus ulcer 36 (4%), Cervical polyp 46 (5%), Pyometra 4 (.44%). Conclusions: It is mandatory and warranted to investigate every Pmb as it is the most common presenting symptom and warranting sign. 300 (25%) in present study had malignant lesions. Community education, mass screening, regular follow up, timely intervention is necessary even with slight bleeding. Em. Thickness >4mm, bulky uterus considered malignant unless until proved.

Objectives: Menopause is physiological process, with potential to lead to various pathological or psychological complications. Several females approaching menopause suffer variety of distress leading to change in their quality of life. Although literature suggests effect of menopause on various aspects of women’s life, there is scarcity of studies from rural setup in the regard. It is important to assess extent of menopause related changes, awareness about it and coping mechanisms in rural couple. This study aimed to find prevalence of menopausal symptoms, its severity and effect on quality of life of rural women and the couples’ coping mechanisms. Method: Cross Sectional questionnaire based survey between December 2013 to April 2014 was conducted by approaching 250 families from 2 villages of rural Gujarat, India. Inclusion criteria was women attaining menopause naturally within last 10 years and having her husband available for data collection. Hundred couples such consenting for participation were included in study. Data on demographic variables, Menopause specific quality of life and personal health of women and coping of couple were collected from the couple according to their convenience, maintaining their privacy. Results: Prevalence of menopausal symptoms was found to be 47%. Mean (SD) age at menopause was 45 (6.9) years. Prevalence of atleast one symptoms related to vasomotor was 21.3%, physical 91.5%, psycho-social 44.7% and sexual was 0%. ’Quality of life’ and ’Bother’ analysis revealed that all those with menopausal symptoms also had their quality of life affected and were bothered from mild to moderate extent. The husbands of women with menopausal symptoms were aware of their condition, however, neither of them exhibited use of any active coping mechanism. Avoidant emotional coping strategy appeared to be followed by all. Conclusions: Couple were found to be aware of menopause but the symptoms arising as consequence of it seem to be accepted as natural age related changes. This could possibly be the reason for not taking any active coping strategy despite reporting of mild to moderate botheration by women and awareness in both. Probably they do not perceive this as a problem related to menopause that can be controlled with some timely attention. Implementation of health education and creating awareness about various consequences of menopause and the available treatment options might be beneficial to improve the health status of these women.

FCS38. Gynecological Care for the Older Woman FCS38.1 THE POSTMENOPAUSAL ORAL SUPPLEMENTATION WITH RED CLOVER BASED ISOFLAVONES IMPROVES CLIMACTERIC SYNDROME BUT NOT AFFECTS CARDIOVASCULAR RISK SERUM PROFILE G. Mainini 1 , C. Scaffa 2 . 1 “San Leonardo” Hospital, Castellammare di Stabia, Naples, Italy; 2 Private practice, Naples, Italy Objectives: The purpose of this prospective randomized study on a healthy postmenopausal population was to evaluate a red clover based isoflavones oral supplementation for the treatment of climacteric syndrome, by the improvement of neurovegetative symptoms, and its safety on cardiovascular risk serum profile, by the impact on serum lipids and clotting profile. Method: 150 healthy postmenopausal women were randomly assigned to receive phytoestrogens tablets, amounting a total daily intake of 60.8 mg red clover isoflavones (genistein 1.0%, daidzein 2.0%,


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biochanin A 0.7%, formononetin 8.5%, ononin 0.8%, sissotrin 0.4%) plus 19.2 mg soy isoflavones (n=75), or placebo containing calcium and vitamin D3 (n=75). We evaluated: daily number of hot flushes and Kupperman Index at baseline and after one and three months; serum total, HDL- and LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, PT, PTT, fibrinogen and ATIII at baseline and after three and six months. Results: 128 patients completed the study, 67 in the active group and 61 in the placebo group. In the active group, the treatment led to a significant reduction (p<0.05) of daily hot flushes already after one month (from 9.2±9.7 to 5.4±7.0) and of Kupperman Index after three months (from 11.5±7.2 to 7.5±5.6); a similar superiority trend is registered comparing these results to those of placebo group. On the other hand, no significant variation in total cholesterol, LDLcholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, PT, PTT, fibrinogen and ATIII were found. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that a red clover based isoflavones supplementation in healthy postmenopausal women is promptly effective on climacteric syndrome improving neurovegetative symptoms and safe on cardiovascular risk serum profile not modifying lipids and coagulation.

osteoporosis were excluded. The intervention time was 9 months. Muscle mass was estimated by Total-body DXA and muscle strength by handgrip strength and chair-rising test. The plasma concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitaminD [25(OH)D] were measured by HPLC. Statistical analysis was by intention-to-treat, using ANOVA, Student’s t-test and Tukey test. Results: After nine months average values of 25(OH)D increased from 15.0±7.5 ng/ml to 27.5±10.4 ng/ml (+45.4%) in VITD group, and decreased 16.9±6.7 ng/ml to 13.8±6.0 ng/ml (−18.5%) in placebo group (p<0.001). In VITD group, there was significant increased (+25.3%) in muscle strength of the lower limbs by chair-rising test (p=0.036). In women in the placebo group, there was considerable loss (−6.8%) in the muscle mass (p=0.030). Conclusions: The supplementation of vitamin D alone in postmenopausal women provided significant protective factor against the occurrence of sarcopenia, with significant increases in muscle strength and control of progressive loss of body muscle mass. Financial support from FAPESP, process number 2011/14447-1.



W. Shiela, S. Devi. Sri Sathya Sai Medical College and Research Institute, Chennai/Tamil Nadu, India

A. Kekre, J. Kamaraj. Christain Medical College Hospital, Vellore Tamil Nadu, India

Objectives: To evaluate thyroid dysfunction in AUB and non responding cases of menorrhagia. Method: A cross sectional hospital based study in Tamil Nadu, South India. 136 women with AUB attending Gynaec OPD of Sri Sathya Sai Medical College and Research Institute near Kalpakkam Nuclear Power Station were the study subjects. Weight, BP checked, BMI calculated, T3, T4, TSH done, USG Pelvis for ovarian, uterine morphology, endometrial thickness was done. Endometrial biopsy taken for all study subjects. Results: Hypothyroidism was seen in 38% young women, 11.76% middle age women, 7% perimenopausal women. 80% of women were obese, 10% had PCOD,15% had subclinical hypothyroidism. Proliferative endometrium 56%. In women who presented with menorrhagia not responding to treatment 41% had hypothyroidism. Conclusions: The national average of hypothyroidism is 15% in india. Prevalence of hypothyroidism is 58.23% in our study. our institution is within 40 km radius of Kalpakkam Nuclear Reactor and at the foothill of mountains where iodine sourse is less. Undetected thyroid dysfunction was diagnosed incidentaly while investigating for infertility PCOD and AUB. Screening for, T3, T4, TSH and USG pelvis help in detecting clinical, subclinical hypothyroidism and occult PCOD in women suffering from AUB.

Objectives: To study Metabolic syndrome in psot menopausal women and study its association with lower urinary tract symptoms. Method: This is a cross sectional study done in a Christian Medical College Hospital Vellore India.154 postmenopausal women were invited to participate. A written informed consent was obtained for all the patients. The study was approved by the Ethics & the Institutional review board. A complete clinical history and physical examination including measurement of waist circumference and Blood pressure was done. Blood samples were sent for serum Triglycerides, Cholesterol, HDL, LDL, and Fasting plasma glucose. Symptoms related to urinary tract was assessed using BF-LUTS questionnaire. Metabolic syndrome was diagnosed according to the New International diabetes Federation criteria IDF-2005. Results: The mean ± SD age of the patients was 58±7.2 years. The mean ± SD) age of menopause was 48±4.9 years. 64% of women had metabolic syndrome while (36%) women did not have. The mean (SD) age of women with metabolic syndrome was 58 (7.2) years and 58 (5.6) years without metabolic syndrome. 90.9% women had flow symptoms. 17.5% had voiding symptoms. 57.1% had incontinence symptoms. 6.5% had sexual symptoms. 14.4% had QOL symptoms. The mean ± SD of fasting plasma glucose was 129.05±56.35mg/dL in women with metabolic syndrom and 102.44±33.93mg.dL is women without (P<0.0001). Conclusions: Of the154 post menopausal women 67% had metabolic syndrome while 36% had no metabolic syndrome. 90.9% of women in metabolic and non metabolic group had predominantly flow symptoms while only 6.5% had sexual symptoms. No statistically significant difference was found in lower urinary tract symptoms between women with and without metabolic syndrome. Metabolic syndrome did not influence the genesis of LUTS in post menopausal women.

FCS38.3 EFFECT OF VITAMIN D SUPPLEMENTATION ALONE ON MUSCLE FUNCTION IN POSTMENOPAUSAL WOMEN: A RANDOMIZED, DOUBLE-BLIND, PLACEBO-CONTROLLED CLINICAL TRIAL L. Cangussu, J. Nahas-Neto, C. Orsatti, E. Schmitt, L. Delmanto, E. Nahas. Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Botucatu Medical School, Sao Paulo State University - UNESP, Botucatu/Sao Paulo, Brazil Objectives: To evaluate the effect of supplementation of vitamin D alone (VITD) on muscle function in postmenopausal women. Method: In this double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 160 postmenopausal women were randomized into two groups: VITDgroup, vitamin D3 supplementation 1000IU/day orally (n=80) or placebo group (n=80). Women with amenorrhea ≥12 months and age 50–65 years, with a history of falls (previous 12 months) were included. Those with neurological or musculoskeletal disorders, vestibulopathies, drug use that could affect balance and osteopenia/

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FCS38.5 RANDOMIZED, CONTROLLED, TWO CENTERS CLINICAL TRIAL OF RECOMBINANT HUMAN-SOURCE COLLAGEN VAGINAL GEL IN THE TREATMENT OF VAGINAL DRYNESS X. Dong 1 , X. Luo 1 , X. Guo 2 , L. Hu 1 . 1 The Second Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, China; 2 The First Affiliated Hospital of Shanxi Medical University, Taiyuan, Shanxi, China Objectives: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of recombinant human-source collagen vaginal gel in the treatment of vaginal dryness. Method: Randomized controlled two centers clinical trial was conducted. According to the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 40 cases in the test group were given recombinant human-source collagen vaginal gel and 40 cases in the control group were given Hyaluronic Acid Derivative Vaginal Gel (HYALOFEMME) for twenty days. Vaginal dryness index (VDI), vaginal elasticity, vaginal humidity, vaginal discharge, vaginal pH, the symptom remission of vulva vaginal dryness and pain during intercourse, symptom remission time and patients satisfaction were detected 3–7 days after treatment or 3–7 days after menorrhea. Results: The effectiveness of VDI increased in the test group and control group was 62.3% and 39.5%. The improvement of vaginal elasticity in the test group was higher than that in the control group. There was on obvious different of vaginal moisture, vaginal discharge, vaginal dryness symptom, sexual intercourse pain in two groups but there was some improvements before and after treatment in the test group. The vaginal PH in two groups was no different. Symptoms alleviate time was similar in two groups. Patient satisfaction degree in the test group was 63.1% and 23.7% in the control group. Conclusions: The recombinant vaginal gel can increase vaginal elasticity, improve vaginal atrophy and relieve pain of sexual intercourse, by increasing the secretion, improving the vaginal moisture and dryness, as well as reduce the symptoms of vulva vaginal dryness, and will not affect the vaginal PH. So the recombinant vaginal gel was safe and efficient in the treatment of vaginal dryness. FCS38.6 ESTRADIOL AND PROGESTERONE RECEPTORS GENE EXPRESSION IN ENDOMETRIAL POLYP’S TISSUE OF PRE- AND POSTMENOPAUSAL PATIENTS V. Breusenko, E. Kareva, L. Bekhbudova, N. Kotsyubinskaya, T. Ivanovskaya, Y. Golova, O. Mishieva, G. Goluhov. Pirogov Russian National Research Medical University, Moscow, Russia Objectives: To determine role of estrogen (ERα, ERβ, mER) and progesterone (nuclear PR, mPR, PGRmC1) receptors gene expression in polyp’s tissuein endometrial polyp’s origin and development in preand postmenopausal women, that can help to solve treatment issues. Method: 87 patients were included in the study (29 premenopausal, 58 postmenopausal): 54 with fibroglandular polyps (FGA), 21 with glandular polyps (FGA), 12 with adenomatous polyps of the endometrium (APE). The levels of expression of mER genes, ERα, ERβ, mPR, PGRmC1, PR-A, PR-PCR were identified in the polyp’s tissue with RT-PCR. Results: Comparing to the patients with FGA, we found an increased expression of ERβ (by 76.6 times, p=0.03), mPR (by 76.6 times, p=0.03), PGRmC1 (by 32.4 times, p=0.03) genes in pre-menopausal women with GPE, while in postmenopausal women – the increased expression of PR-A in FGA was recorded. In patients with APE in premenopausal women we detected signs of dedifferentiation in the tissue of the polyps: reduction of gene expression mER and ERα compared to GPE. Detected increase of mRNA PR-A supports motivation for the use of gestagen as a part of preventive treatment FGA in postmenopausal women. Conclusions: Severity of proliferative processes in the adenomatous


polyps is indicated not only in PR-A expression increase (p=0.04), but also in ERβ expression increase (p=0.022). Steroide-receptor transcriptome in FGA, GPE and APE tissue differs from each other and depends on the period of a woman’s life. In this connection we consider promising use of data in the expression of steroid hormone receptors for the development of individual schemes of anti-relapse therapy. FCS38.7 HOW OFTEN ARE HOT FLASHES DURING SENILITY? A.M. Fonseca 1 , P.Y.A. Cezarino 1 , R.V. Bagnoli 1 , J.O.P. Massabki 1 , W.M.Y. Arie 1 , R.S. Azevedo Neto 3 , A.Y. Hayashida 1 , W. Jacob-Filho 2 , J.M. Soares Jr 1 , E.C. Baracat 1 . 1 Disciplina de Ginecologia do Departamento de Obstetrícia e Ginecologia do Hospital das Clínicas da Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil; 2 Disciplina de Geriatria da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil; 3 Departamento de Patologia da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil Objectives: To evaluate the menopausal symptoms during the senility period, mainly hot flashes. Method: Retrospective study at Endocrinology Gynecology outpatient from Gynecology Section of Obstetrics and gynecology Department of Faculdade de Medicina da USP. The length of study was 10 years. We included patients aged more than 65 years old. We evaluate the gynecological symptoms during the senility period. Results: 910 patients informed data on the gynecological affections during the senility period. The most frequent is hot flashes (n=197; 21.64%), followed by osteoarthrosis (n=151; 16.59%), asthenia (72; 7.91%), dry vagina (63; 6.92%), urinary incontinence (n=39; 4.28%), pelvic pain (n=20; 4.28) and others. Conclusions: Hot flashes are the amin symptoms on menopausal women. During the senility period hot flashes are one of the most important symptoms. FCS38.8 CLINICAL EVALUATION OF NEW ERBIUM YAG LASER THERMO THERAPY IN COMPARISON WITH HORMONAL REPLACEMENT THERAPY FOR VAGINAL ATROPHY A. Gaspar 1 , H. Brandi 1 , V. Gomez 1 , D. Luque 1 , Z. Vizintin 2 . Department Faculty of Medicine Mendoza University, Mendoza, Argentina; 2 Fotona, Ljubljana, Slovenia

1 Gynecology

Objectives: The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy and safety of two minimally invasive procedures for treatment of vaginal atrophy; a new Erbium YAG laser procedure and hormonal replacement therapy with estriol. Method: 50 vaginal atrophy patients were randomly divided in two equal groups. Group A patients were submitted to 2 months estriol therapy: while the B group patients received 3 sessions of ErYAG laser treatment, with 3 weeks interval between the sessions. Therapy efficacy was measured using maturation value, pH value, VAS scores for atrophy symptoms: Dyspareunia, Dryness, Irritation and Leukorrhea. On 6 patients from each group biopsies were taken (before and 3 months post-op). Follow-ups were at 1 month, 3 months and 6 months after the therapy. Results: Both groups showed improvement in atrophy, but laser therapy showed better and longer lasting effects. Maturation value improved at 6 months follow-up from 22.5 to 24.7 points (A) while the B group improvement was from 20.8 to 47.9 points. pH value improved at 3 months for 7.2% (A) and for 17.6% (B). Dyspareunia improved for 48% (A), and for 72% (B); Dryness for 68% (A), and for 76% (B); Irritation for 48% (A), and for 60% (B) and Leukorrhea for 81% (A), and for 94% (B). Both groups tolerated the therapy well and adverse effects were mild and transient. Conclusions: Hormonal replacement therapy is considered to be the first choice for vaginal atrophy, but this new minimally invasive


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Er:YAG laser procedure seems to be safe and efficacious alternative with potential to offer to vaginal atrophy patients longer period of symptom free life.

FCS39. Gynecological Care for the Older Woman FCS39.1 EFFECTIVENESS OF MINDFULNESS-BASED STRESS REDUCTION FOR MENOPAUSAL SYMPTOMS IN CHINESE WOMEN: A RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL S.-X. Wang 1 , X. Huang 1 , R.-M. Zheng 1 , J.-L. Wu 1 , X.-H. Liu 2 . 1 National Center for Women and Children’s Health, China CDC, Beijing, China; 2 Beijing Learning and Cognition Laboratory, Department of Psychology, Capital Normal University, Beijing, China Objectives: The study aims to assess the effectiveness of Min-fulnessbased Stress Reduction (MBSR) in improving menopausal symptoms and to explore new methods of health care for menopausal problems. Method: 63 premenopausal and postmenopausal Chinese women aged 40 to 60 were randomized to MBSR group for eight-week MBSR training (N=31) and control group without intervention (N=32). The modified Kupperman Index (KI) has been applied in outcome assessment before and after the intervention. Results: Although the difference was not significant between two groups, the modified KI total score of MBSR group was significantly reduced by 3.6. And irritability, palpitation and urogenital atrophy score were also decreased by 0.8, 0.3 and 0.5 respectively. Among the women with “total scores ≥15” of the two groups, the differences of modified KI total score and hot flash/sweating score were significant. In addition, the irritability, palpitation and urogenital atrophy score of MBSR group were significantly reduced by 1.3, 0.4 and 0.8 respectively. Conclusions: MBSR can have certain effect on improving menopausal symptoms in Chinese Women, especially for women that suffered from more severe symptoms. FCS39.2 NON-INSTRUMENTAL SCREENING FOR LOW BONE MINERAL DENSITY IN POSTMENOPAUSAL AND AMENORRHEIC WOMEN A. Smetnik, V. Smetnik, A. Donnikov, G. Sukhikh, O. Yakushevskaya, S. Yureneva, T. Ivanets, D. Trofimov, S. Mullabaeva. Federal State Budget Institution Research Center for Obstetrics, Gynecology and Perinatology Ministry of Healthcare of the Russian Federation, Moscow, Russia Objectives: To work out non-instrumental screening for low bone mineral density in women with estrogen deficit (secondary, noniatrogenic) of different age based on clinical, biochemical and molecular-genetic markers. Method: 54 women with secondary hypothalamic amenorrhea (HA), 55 with premature ovarian insufficiency (POI) and 191 postmenopausal women (without hormone replacement therapy) living in the Russian Federation were enrolled in cross-sectional study. Body mass and body mass index (BMI, kg/m2 ), bone mineral density (BMD) by Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, levels of reproductive hormones, markers of bone and lipid metabolism were evaluated. Single nucleotide polymorphisms of genes that regulate differentiation and function of bone cells (COL1A1, CYP19A1, ESR1, ESR2, LEP, LEPR, LRP5, TNFRSF11B, RANKL, SOST, VDR) were assessed by polymerase chain reaction. Results: 48.2% of women with HA and 23.6% with POI had low BMD. We determined moderate positive correlations between BMI and BMD in all groups of women with estrogen-deficit. Via logistic regression analysis we worked out a screening for low BMD in women with amenorrhea: y = 2.67 + 0.22×(duration of amenor-

rhea, years) − 0.29×(BMI) + 0.74×(atherogenic index). AUC 0.79 (95% CI: 0.68–0.89), p<0.001. Probability (P)>50% (y >0) – highrisk group (Sp=85%, PPV=70%); P<27% (y <−1.0) – low-risk group (Se=87%, NPV=88%). The probability of postmenopausal osteoporosis can be determined by formula: y = 6.65 − 0.07×(body mass, kg) − 0.97×(LEPR, rs8179183) + 0.56×(RANKL, rs9594759). AUC 0.75 (95% CI: 0.68–0.82), p=3×10–9 . y >0 – high-risk group (Sp=73%, PPV=85%); y <−1.0 – low-risk group (Se=97%, NPV=83%). Conclusions: Non-instrumental screening for low bone mineral density in women with secondary amenorrhea includes the assessment of duration of estrogen-deficit, BMI, atherogenic index; in postmenopausal women the probability of osteoporosis can be determined based on body mass and genotype of leptin receptor (LEPR, rs8179183) and receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL, rs9594759). FCS39.3 REPRODUCIBILITY OF p16INK4a BIOMARKER LEVELS, AS MEASURED BY ELISA, AMONG HIV-POSITIVE WOMEN IN WESTERN KENYA WITH NORMAL CERVICAL EXAMS DURING A 12-MONTH FOLLOW-UP C. Mungo 1 , M. Maloba 2 , M. Huchko 1 . 1 Kaiser Permanente Hospital, San Francisco, CA, USA; 2 Family AIDS Care and Education Services (FACES), Kisumu, Kenya; 3 UCSF Obstetrics, Gynecology & Reproductive Sciences Department, San Francisco, CA, USA Objectives: Cervical cancer disproportionately affects women in low and middle-income countries (LMIC), and cytology-based programs are not feasible for use in these settings. This has prompted a search for alternative cervical-cancer screening methods that can be adopted in LMIC’s to address the high disease burden. In this study, we seek to evaluate the reliability of a proposed biomarker assay for p16INK4a among HIV-positive women in western Kenya. Method: This prospective study took place at the FACES clinic in Kisumu, Kenya. Participants underwent cervical cancer screening using VIA, colposcopy and collection of cervical HPV p16INK4a samples. Women with negative colposcopies were rescreened at 12-months, and cervical p16INK4a samples were collected. Among women with negative colposcopies at both baseline and follow-up, we investigated the reproducibility of p16INK4a biomarker levels within the same woman. Biomarker levels were determined using an ELISAbased biochemical assay. We compared median p16INK4a levels between baseline and follow-up using the paired t-test. We examined the correlation using correlation coefficients and a Bland-Atman plot of differences versus average. Results: Among the ninety-three women who had normal cervical exams, mean p16INK4a levels increased significantly between baseline and follow-up period, at 20.2 U/ml vs 30.1 U/ml, p<0.01. The correlation coefficient between the values at the two time points was 0.61 (p<0.01), indicating a moderate but not perfect degree of agreement. A Bland-Altman plot of difference versus average of the two measures showed a mean difference of 10 units/ml, indicating poor agreement between the two measurements. Conclusions: Our results suggest that there is variability in levels of p16INK4a biomarker as measured by ELISA in HIV-positive women in low-resource settings with normal screening as determined by colposcopy over a 12-month follow-up period. As a result, elevations in p16INK4a biomarker levels may not be a reliable marker of dysplasia in this group of women. Further research looking at clinical and demographic factors associated with this variability, as well as replication of this result will be important.

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FCS39.4 COORDINATED MEDICAL AND GYNECOLOGIC HEALTH SERVICE DELIVERY FOR A POPULATION OF ADULT WOMEN WITH DISABILITIES IN THE UNITED STATES: A 10 YEAR REVIEW OF THE HEALTH OUTCOME DATA FROM TWO LARGE REGIONAL HEALTHCARE SYSTEMS: UNIVERSITY OF PITTSBURGH MEDICAL CENTER AND CHRISTIANA CARE HEALTH SYSTEM A. Smalls 1 , S. Corey 2 , P. Bulova 2 , J. Lecomte 1 . 1 Christiana Care Health System, Newark, Delaware, USA; 2 University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA Objectives: Access to Gynecology health care services has been identified as an area of unmet healthcare need for women with disabilities in the US. The US prevelance of disability is currently estimated at 21.8% with rates anticipated to rise in the next decade as the population ages. There are limited healthcare systems in the USA that provide coordinated gyn and medical exams for women with disabilities. Two regional healthcare systems, Magee-Women’s Hospital Center for Women with Disabilities (University of Pittsburgh Medical Center) and the Wilmington Outpatient Health Center of the Christiana Care Health system will present their outcome data regarding the care of a population of women with disabilities. Method: Multiple steps are required for clinicians to effectively perform gynecologic evaluations and gynecologic procedures for patients with disabilities. Office Accessibility issues are often the first line obstacle to women with disabilities receiving gynecologic healthcare services. A discussion of the various ACOG-approved, patient positioning techniques for the successful performance of gynecologic exams will be reviewed. ACOG guidelines for frequency of Gyn preventive health screenings exams and current testing recommendations based on the patient’s age, reproductive health status and individual medical health risks will be discussed. A review of the facility space, room design, specialty equipment needs, staff training and issues of physical accessibility will be reviewed. Results: Two large, regional healthcare systems within the Unites States have established coordinated medical and gynecologic outpatient clinical care sites for women with disabilities: Magee-Women’s Hospital Center for Women with Physical Disabilities of the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center and the Wilmington Outpatient Center of the Christiana Care Health System. A retrospective review of the extensive health outcome data obtained from the 10+ years of clinical expertise will be presented from these specialty care sites. The medical co-morbidities along with the gyn health conditions identified in this population of women over their lifespan will be reviewed. Conclusions: As one of the goals is for longer and healthier lives for women with disabilities, it will be imperative to meet all their preventive and reproductive gynecologic healthcare needs along with their general medical healthcare needs. Coordinated gynecology and general medical care for women with disabilities can be performed once healthcare providers are educated regarding several key issues specific to the care of women with disabilities: 1) the proper techniques of gyn exams, 2) the specialty equipment needed for a gyn exam, and 3) the knowledge of the medical and gyn complications that are most commonly encountered in this population of women.


FCS39.5 MENOPAUSAL WOMEN PROFILE, MORBIDITIES AND MANAGEMENT OF MENOPAUSAL SYMPTOMS OF MENOPAUSE IN BENIN: CROSS ANALYTIC STUDY ABOUT 2716 CASES IN COTONOU J.L. Denakpo 1 , A. Kerekou 2 , B. Aguemon 1 , S. Hounton 3 , I. Teguete 4 , S. Hounwedo 1 , H. Marret 5 , R.X. Perrin 1 , E. Alihonou 2 . 1 Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Mere et Enfant Lagune, Cotonou, Benin; 2 Centre National Hospitalier et Universitaire de Cotonou, Cotonou, Benin; 3 UNFPA, New York, USA; 4 Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Bamako, Bamako, Mali; 5 CHU Bretonneau, Tours, France Objectives: Few studies are dedicated to the menopause in Africa, and particularly in Benin. Even though the menopausal women become more numerous in Benin, life expectancy continue to increase. The objective of the study was to determine the profile of the menopausal women, and to analyze the morbidity and the management of the symptoms of the menopause at Cotonou. Method: It is an analytical and transverse study realized in august 2014 at Cotonou. 2716 women in a female population of 5155 people of 40 and more years old were concerned by this study. Results: 52.5% of the women of 40 and more years old were menopausal. The average age of menopause was 47.5 years (95% IC: 42.6–52.4 years). Factors susceptible to influence the menopause age are: the menarche before 15 years old (OR=1.45), the first menstruations (OR= 3.03), the fibroma (OR = 1.49). The most frequent clinical appearances were hot flashes 58.7%, The inter-current affection, the most frequent was the arterial high blood pressure. Only 4.4% of the menopausal women were under THM. The factors which limit the coverage of the menopausal at Cotonou are the lack of information (66.8%). Conclusions: Even if it is not possible to prevent or handle the menopause, we can limit the negative effects in Africa by fighting against the obesity, the arterial high blood pressure and the tobacco. FCS39.6 EXCEPTIONAL BREAST TUMOR: ADENOMYOEPITHELIOMA. A CASE REPORT A. Miranda Calvo 1 , A.B. Romay Bello 2 , J.M. Roman Santamaria 3 . Hospitales, Madrid, Spain; 2 Hospital Clinico Universitario de Santiago, Santiago de Compostela, La Coruña, Spain; 3 Hospital Clinico San Carlos, Madrid, Spain 1 HM

Objectives: Analyzing published cases of adenomioepitelioma to understand the behavior of these very rare and difficult diagnosis tumors. Method: We present adenomyoepithelioma case in a pregnant woman. Adenomyoepithelioma breast is a rare tumor of benign characteristics usually very difficult diagnosis presented by both the imaging and histology. Treatment consists of surgery, even if the lesion is benign by FNA or CNB must resection with wide margins in all cases performed because of frequent local recurrences. Results: 36 years, gestational age 10 + 3 weeks. Exploration: nodule 3 cm adhered to deep planes with negative axillary examination. Breast ultrasound: solid nodule, multilobulated, heterogeneous, irregular margins (20 mm). FNA cylinder of breast tissue: focal proliferation, cribriform pattern lined by columnar epithelium without atypia. Moderate chronic inflammatory infiltrate resulting discrete anisocarioseis the affected epithelium. No signs of malignancy. Nodal FNA: insufficient material obtained. Lumpectomy: 2.5 cm fibrous lesion, well-demarcated proliferation of tubular structures lined by columnar cells with spindle nuclei, oval nuclei without atypia or mitosis, markedly positive for actin. Apocrine metaplasia, proliferative index Ki67 <1%. Pregnancy progressed favorably. Patient currently asymptomatic.


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Conclusions: Adenomyoepithelioma is a rare tumor that should be considered in the differential diagnosis of solid breast tumors. Imaging tests show nonspecific changes reflecting the malignant nature of the tumor. Potential recurrence with wide local excision and the possibility of hematogenous metastases and to a lesser extent via the lymphatics should be noted.Requires FNA and/or CNB for differential diagnosis. However, the definitive diagnosis is often not possible specifying complete excision.

FCS40. Gynecological Malignancies FCS40.1 LAPAROSCOPIC RESTAGING SURGERY FOR WOMEN WITH UNEXPECTED OVARIAN MALIGNANCY J.S. Choi, J. Bae, W.M. Lee. Hanyang University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea Objectives: To evaluate the feasibility, surgical outcomes, and complications of laparoscopic restaging surgery for women with unexpected ovarian malignancy. Method: We conducted a retrospective chart review of 12 women who underwent laparoscopic restaging surgery. We evaluated the demographic, clinical characteristics, and surgical outcomes. Results: The median age and median BMI (m/kg2) were 49 years (range, 22–63 years) and 24.2 m/kg2 (range, 18.9–25.3 m/kg2). Median operating time was 260 minutes (range, 155–570 minutes). The median number of harvested pelvic and paraaortic lymph nodes were 23 (range, 6–41) and 14 (range, 2–40). Three out of 12 women (25.0%) were upstaged from initial presumed stage. There were two intraoperative complications, IVC laceration and cisterna chyli rupture, which were well controlled by laparoscopic primary closure. None of the operations were switched to laparotomic restaging surgery. Conclusions: Laparoscopic restaging surgery, performed by a specialized laparoscopic onocologists with sufficient laparoscopic experience and a well-trained operating team, is both feasible and effective in the management of unexpected ovarian malignancy. FCS40.2 HETEROGENEITY OF TUMOR CHEMOSENSITIVITY IN OVARIAN EPITHELIAL CANCER, ANALYZED USING IN VITRO TUMOR CHEMOSENSITIVITY ASSAY H. Li, Z. Jin. Beijing Shijitan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China Objectives: Ovarian epithelial cancer (OEC) has the worst prognosis among gynecological tumors, primarily due to the heterogeneity of chemosensitivity between patients. This study was designed to determine the heterogeneity of chemosensitivity in OECs using an in vitro method. Method: OEC specimens were collected from 61 patients who underwent cytoreductive surgery. Viable ovarian cancer cells obtained from malignant tissues were tested for sensitivity to paclitaxel, carboplatin, topotecan, gemcitabine, docetaxel, etoposide, bleomycin, and 4-hydroperoxycyclophosphamide using an in vitro adenosine triphosphate -tumor chemosensitivity assay (ATP-TCA). Results: All OEC specimens were evaluable (100%). The highest sensitivity from all agents tested was observed for paclitaxel (83.6% in all specimens, 100% in recurrent specimens), followed by carboplatin (59% and 62.5%, respectively), and topotecan (45.9% and 62.5%, respectively). All specimens were resistant to bleomycin. There were significant correlation of sensitivity between paclitaxel and docetaxel; among carboplatin, topotecan and gemcitabine. (all P<0.001). Early-stage (I, II) OEC specimens showed lower chemosensitivity to paclitaxel or carboplatin than advanced-stage (III) specimens (P<0.05). High-mild differentiated OEC specimens showed

lower chemosensitivity to paclitaxel than low differentiated OEC specimens (P=0.028). Conclusions: Remarkable heterogeneity of chemosensitivity was observed in OEC specimens. Early-stage and well-differentiated cases are more prone to chemotherapy resistance. ATP-TCA could be an effective method for guiding the choice of chemotherapy drugs, for avoiding ineffective treatment regimens and investigating novel chemotherapy agents to improve patient prognosis. FCS40.3 REVERSAL OF OVARIAN CANCER PACLITAXEL-RESISTANT BY INHIBITION OF JAK2 USING RNAI TECHNOLOGY AND ITS SPECIFIC ANTAGONIST AG490 H. Li. Beijing Shijitan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China Objectives: The up-regulated expression of JAK2 has been associated with the drug resistance in ovarian cancer, however the detail role of JAK2 gene in drug resistance of ovarian cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy is unclear. The objective of this study is to determine the influence and possible mechanism of JAK2 in ovarian cancer chemotherapy resistance. Method: Firstly, we established paclitaxel-resistant cell line OC3/ TAX300 using synthesized interference sequences (shRNA) of JAK2 to construct lentiviral vector and transfected it into OC3/TAX300 cell. Secondly, the paclitaxel-resistant cell line OC3/TAX300 was treated with different concentrations of JAK2 inhibitor AG490. Real-time PCR and Western blot analysis were performed to assess the mRNA and protein expression levels of JAK2 and STAT3, respectively. Results: The OC3/TAX300 ovarian cancer cells transfected with Lentivirus vector mediated JAK2 siRNA reduced the expression of JAK2 and STAT3. Furthermore, the cell growth was significantly inhibited. The ultrastructure changes of cell apoptosis appeared in JAK2 gene silencing group observed by transmission electron microscope. Silencing JAK2 gene caused the increase of cell apoptosis and cell cycle distribution in G2/M phase. After treatment by AG490, expression levels of JAK2, STAT3, BCL-2 and MDR1 were also inhibited. The inhibition of cell proliferation increased and the cell cycle was arrested in G2/M phase. Conclusions: These finding indicated that using RNAi technology and JAk2 inhibitor AG490 could effectively suppress the expression of JAK2 and STAT3 in OC3/TAX300 ovarian cancer cells, suggesting JAK2-STAT3 signal transduction pathway may participate in the biological behavior of Paclitaxel resistant ovarian cancer. FCS40.4 A RARE CASE OF PLACENTAL SITE TROPHOBLASTIC TUMOR WITH METASTASIS TO NASAL CAVITY A. Shrestha, S. Tamrakar, S. Manandhar, B. Shrestha. Dhulikhel hospital, Kathmandu University Hospital, Kavre, Nepal Objectives: Gestational Trophoblastic Tumors can have varied presentation and even locally invasive tumor like placental site trophoblastic tumor can present with matastasis to nasa cavity. Method: It is a case which underwent emergency laparotomy for acute abdomen with excessive bleeding per vaginum and mass per vaginum and during her stay at hospital had nasal bleeding. Results: She was diagnosed as a case of Placental site trophoblastic tumor in histopathology with nasal metastasis. Conclusions: Gestational Trophoblastic Tumors can have varied presentation and even locally invasive tumor like placental site trophoblastic tumor can present with matastasis to nasal cavity. The treatment being hysterectomy for placental site trophoblastic tumor, underwent five cycles of chemotherapy for nasal metastasis.

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FCS40.5 IL-17A AND IL-21 CYTOKINES COMBINED WITH SURGICAL STATUS PROVIDE A PRACTICAL SCORING SYSTEM TO PREDICT THE OUTCOME OF PATIENTS WITH OVARIAN CARCINOMA Y.-L. Chen 1 , C.-Y. Chou 2 , C.-A. Chen 3 , W.-F. Cheng 3 . 1 Cathay General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan; 2 National Cheng Kung Univ. Hospital, Tainan, Taiwan; 3 National Taiwan Univ. Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate whether a combination of clinical and immunologic parameters can predict survival in patients with ovarian cancer. Method: Ascites specimens and medical records from 144 ovarian cancer patients in our hospital were used as the derivation group to select target clinical and immunologic factors to generate a risk scoring system to predict patient survival. Eighty-two cases from another hospital were used as the validation group to evaluate this risk scoring system. Results: The surgical status and expression levels of interleukin (IL)17a and IL-21 in ascites were selected for the risk scoring system in the derivation group. The areas under receiver operating characteristic (AUROC) curve for disease-free survival (DFS) was 0.84. And the AUROC curves of the overall score for OS was 0.76 for all of the studied patients. Good correlations between overall predictive risk score and survival of the ovarian cancer patients were demonstrated by sub-grouping all participants into 4 groups (p for trend <0.001 for DFS and OS). Conclusions: A combination of clinical and immunologic parameters can be used for a practical scoring system to predict the survival of patients with ovarian carcinoma. IL-17a and IL-21 can potentially be used as prognostic and therapeutic biomarkers. FCS40.6 THE EXPRESSION AND SIGNIFICANCE OF EPITHELIALMESENCHYMAL TRANSFORMATION RELATED PROTEIN E-CADHERIN, N-CADHERIN AND SNAIL IN ENDOMETRIOSISASSOCIATED OVARIAN CANCER Y. Zhu 1 , H. He 1,2 , F. Wang 1,2 , W. Lin 1 . 1 Tianjin central hospital of Obstetric & Gynecology, Tianjin, China; 2 Gradute School of Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin, China Objectives: To investigate the expression of epithelial-mesenchymal transformation related protein E-cadherin, N-cadherin and Snail in endometriosis-associted ovarian cancer, and analysis the relationship between EMT and the clinical stage and lymph node metastasis of EAOC. Method: Using immunohistochemistry (SP) to detect E-cadherin, Ncadherin and Snail in 30 cases of EAOC, 30 cases of ovarian endometriosis. Results: The expression rate of E-cadherin, N-cadherin and Snail in EAOC was 30%, 83.3% and 90%, in EMs was 76.7%, 33.3% and 40% (P<0.05). In EAOC,the higher expression levels of N-cadherin and Snail and the lower expression level of E-cadherin were associated with clinical stage and lymph node metastasis, but age, tumor size and histological type. There was negative correlation between expression of E-cadherin and N-cadherin, Snail in EAOC (r=−0.416, P<0.05; r=−0.457, P<0.05), there was positive correlation between expression of N-cadherin and Snail (r=0.667, P<0.05). Conclusions: E-cadherin, N-cadherin and Snail take part in the progression and development of EAOC,Snail may enhance the EMT of endometriosis through regulating the expression of E-cadherin and N-cadherin and promotes the development and metastasis.


FCS40.7 WEDELOLACTONE INHIBITS BREAST CANCER-INDUCED OSTEOCLASTOGENESIS BY DECREASING AKT/MTOR SIGNALING C.-J. Hsieh 1 , P.-L. Kuo 2 , Y.-C. Hsu 1 , Y.-F. Huang 1 , E.-M. Tsai 3,4 , Y.-L. Hsu 3,4 . 1 Department of Traditional Chinese Medicine, 2 Institute of Clinical Medicine, College of Medicine, 3 Center for Research Resources and Development, 4 Graduate Institute of Medicine, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan Objectives: The bone is the most common metastatic site of breast cancer. Bone metastasis causes pain, pathologic fractures, and severely reduces the quality of life. Breast cancer causes osteolytic bone metastases, which is dependent on osteoclast-mediated bone resorption. While current treatments rely on palliative antiresorptive agents, there is a need to develop a drug to prevent bone metastasis of breast cancer. Method: Osteoclasts were generated from human CD14+ monocytes cultured with M-CSF/RANKL. The drugs were added to evaluate inhibition effect of osteoclastogenesis through decreased osteoclastic differentiation and bone resorption. The effects of breast cancer-mediated osteoclastogenesis and interaction of osteoblasts and osteoclasts were performed by using MDA-MB-231 conditioned medium. The molecular signaling pathway was also investigated. Results: Wedelolactone (WDL), a natural coumarin isolated from plants, suppressed human osteoclast differentiation and activity in vitro in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, WDL inhibited the upregulation of osteoclasts stimulated by MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. The activity of WDL on osteoclasts and breast cancer-mediated osteoclastogenesis was associated with the inhibition of Akt/mammalian target of the rapamycin signaling pathway (mTOR). Blocking Akt and mTOR by specific inhibitors significantly decreased osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption. Furthermore, WDL regulated breast cancer-enhanced interaction of osteoblasts and osteoclasts by decreasing M-CSF expression in MDA-MB-231-stimulated osteoblasts. Conclusions: WDL has protective potential against breast cancerinduced bone destruction by directly decreasing cancer cell mediated osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption and by restoring the balance of osteoblast-osteoclast interaction. Thus, this study suggests that WDL may be a potential natural agent for preventing and treating bone destruction in patients with bone metastasis due to breast cancer. FCS40.8 A CASE REPORT AND NURSING CARE FOR A YOUNG PATIENT OF OVARIAN CANCER BY USING WATSON CARING THEORY G. Guvenc 1 , E. Sahin 1 , M. Seven 2 . 1 Gülhane Military Medical Academy, Ankara, Turkey; 2 Koc University, Istanbul, Turkey Introduction: Typically, ovarian cancer is more common in older women. However, patients who have a genetic predisposition may develop the condition at a much earlier age. In this case report, Watson’s theory of human caring was used as a guide to discuss a young patient who had been suffered from ovarian cancer. Case presentation: A 23-year-old woman had ovarian cancer presenting with a 4 week abdominal pain and constipation. The patient felt hopeless with after learning the cancer. During the hospitalization period, the data were collected by nursing care, observation, conversation with patient and family members, and medical staff. Nursing diagnoses identified according to NADNA and a care plan was done by using Watson Caring Theory. Results: The patient’s major health problems were: a) pain (tumor with surgery related), b) activity intolerance and fatigue (pain, side effects of medications, generalized weakness), c) nausea (treatment related), d) hopelessness (cancer), e) anxiety (threat or perceived threat to physical and emotional integrity, changes in role function),


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f) risk for imbalanced nutrition (poor appetite secondary to disease, side effects of therapies). For this patient, caring theory and therapeutic communication skills were used to establish a sense of trust and good communication. Conclusions: The patient’s health problems handled according to Watson’s theory of human caring. The authors helped the patient, to relief physical, psychological and spiritual symptoms, organize the life, and enhance self–worth. In conclusion, the patient felt being respected and cared with regards to dedication and hope. Nursing is a caring profession, and nursing theories and models continue to be a positive influence on nursing practice.

FCS41. Gynecological Malignancies FCS41.1 LAPAROSCOPIC VERSUS OPEN HYSTERECTOMY FOR ENDOMETRIAL CARCINOMA J. Mamo, A. Micallef Fava, I. Knyazev, D. Chetcuti. Mater Dei University Hospital, Msida, Malta Objectives: Review of patients undergoing laparoscopic in comparison with the conventional open laparotomy as the surgical management for endometrial carcinoma. Method: Patients presenting with postmenopausal bleeding who were diagnosed to have endometrial carcinoma after undergoing outpatient endometrial biopsy were managed by Hysterectomy and Bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy. The laparoscopic approach is compared with the open laparotomy approach for the hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy in patyients with Endometrial carcinoma. Results: With the introduction of of minimally invasive surgery including laparosciopic hysterectomy in our unit, patients diagnosed with endometrial carcinoma were being offered the laparoscopic approach for the surgical management of their disease. Twelve out of 29 patients with endometrial carcinoma were managed laparoscopically. The longer operative time in the use of laproscopic approach was compensated by a short hospital stay. The earlier mobilization in patients undergoing the laparoscopic approach compared to the conventional open laparotomy with the bigger incision. The latter necessitated more analgesia and a longer stay in hospital in patients undergoing hysterectomy for endometrial carcinoma. Conclusions: Earlier recovery from operation, shorter stay in hospital, quicker referral and earlier administration of adjuvant therapy were the main advantages of the laparoscopic approach. FCS41.2 MICRORNA-106B PROMOTES CELL MIGRATION BY TARGETING DAB2 IN CERVICAL CARCINOMA L. Geng 1 , Y. Cheng 1 , Y. Guo 1 , K. You 1 , Z. Li 2 , Y. Zhang 2 . 1 Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, 2 Institute of Vascular Medicine, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing, China Objectives: The role of miR-106b and its target gene DAB2 (disabled2) on the migration of cervical cancer cells was explored. Method: The mRNA expression of miR-106b and DAB2 in cervical samples was detected using real time quantitative PCR. The protein expression of DAB2 was examined by Western blot. Dual luciferase reporter assay was used to identification of DAB2 as a miR-106b-directed target gene. Scratch and transwell assay were used to determine the effects of miR-106b and DAB2 on the migration of Hela cells. Results: The expression level of miR-106b was clearly up-regulated in cervical cancer tissues. On the contrary, DAB2 expression was decreased in cervical cancer specimens. Dual luciferase reporter assay showed that the relative luciferase activity of WT-DAB2–3’UTR decreased approximately 30% after overexpression of miR-106b in

HEK293T cells, the results of Mut-DAB2–3’UTR had no difference compared with the control group. DAB2 was identified as a miR106b-directed target gene. Overexpression of miR-106b in Hela cells significantly promoted cell migration compared with the control group (P<0.05). However, inhibition of DAB2 with siRNA, the rate of migration was reduced remarkably (P<0.05). Conclusions: miR-106b promotes the migration of cervical cancer cells by directly targeting DAB2. These data suggested that miR-106b and DAB2 could play an important role in the pathogenesis of cervical carcinoma, and miR-106b may be as a candidate of biomarker and a potential therapeutic target in cervical cancer. FCS41.3 THE IMPACT OF CIGARETTE SMOKING ON OVARIAN CANCER SURVIVAL: A POOLED ANALYSIS OF 20 CASE CONTROL STUDIES FROM THE OVARIAN CANCER ASSOCIATION CONSORTIUM C. Præstegaard 1 , A. Jensen 1 , T. Schütt Svane 1 , H.A. Risch 2 , M.A. Rossing 3,4 , J. Chang-Claude 5 , M.T. Goodman 6,7 , K. Moysich 8 , K. Matsuo 9 , E.L. Goode 10 , K.L. Terry 11 , J.M. Schildkraut 12,13 , L.F.A.G. Massuger 15 , E.V. Bandera 14 , N. Wentzensen 16 , A. Whittemore 17 , R. Sutphen 18 , H. Anton-Culver 19 , U. Menon 20 , A. Gentry-Maharaj 20 , A. Wu 21 , C. Leigh Pearce 21,22 , P.M. Webb 23,24 , S. Krüger Kjaer 1,25 . 1 Virus, Lifestyle and Genes, Danish Cancer Society Research Center, Copenhagen, Denmark; 2 Department of Chronic Disease Epidemiology, Yale School of Public Health, New Haven, Connecticut, USA; 3 Program in Epidemiology, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington, USA; 4 Department of Epidemiology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA; 5 German Cancer Research Center, Division of Cancer Epidemiology, Heidelberg, Germany; 6 Cancer Prevention and Control, Samuel Oschin Comprehensive Cancer Institute, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, California, USA; 7 Community and Population Health Research Institute, Department of Biomedical Sciences, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, California, USA; 8 Department of Cancer Prevention and Control, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, New York, USA; 9 Department of Preventive Medicine, Kyushu University Faculty of Medical Science, Nagoya, Aichi, Japan; 10 Department of Health Science Research, Division of Epidemiology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, USA; 11 Obstetrics and Gynecology Epidemiology Center, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA; 12 Department of Community and Family Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina, USA; 13 Cancer Control and Population Sciences, Duke Cancer Institute, Durham, North Carolina, USA; 14 Cancer Prevention and Control Program, Rutgers Cancer Institute of New Jersey, The State University of New Jersey, New Brunswick, New Jersey, USA; 15 Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands; 16 Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, Maryland, USA; 17 Department of Health Research and Policy Epidemiology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California, USA; 18 Epidemiology Center, College of Medicine, University of South Florida, Tampa, Florida, USA; 19 Department of Epidemiology, Director of Genetic Epidemiology Research Institute, UCI Center for Cancer Genetics Research & Prevention, School of Medicine, University of California Irvine, Irvine, California, USA; 20 Women’s Cancer, UCL EGA Institute for Women’s Health, London, UK; 21 Department of Preventive Medicine, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center, Los Angeles, California, USA; 22 Department of Epidemiology, University of Michigan School of Public Health, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA; 23 Population Health Department, QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute, Brisbane, Australia; 24 School of Population Health, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia; 25 Department of Gynaecology, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark Objectives: Ovarian cancer is a highly fatal disease with the worst

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prognosis among the gynecological cancers. In cancers with a high mortality such as ovarian cancer, it is of great clinical and public health importance to obtain information about prognostic factors. Cigarette smoking is associated with an increased risk of mucinous ovarian tumors but whether it is also associated with ovarian cancer survival (both overall and for histologic subtypes) is not fully solved. In a large pooled analysis, we assessed the association between multiple measures of cigarette smoking and overall and progression-free survival among women diagnosed with epithelial ovarian cancer. Method: We obtained data from 20 case-control studies of ovarian cancer, including a total of 9318 women diagnosed with epithelial ovarian cancer. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate study-specific hazards ratios (HRs) which were combined into a pooled hazard ratio (pHR) with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) using random effects models matched on study site and adjusted for potential confounders including age, race, grade and stage of disease. Results: Among women diagnosed with ovarian cancer, those who were former (HR=1.11, 95% CI: 1.04–1.19) and current smokers (HR=1.19, 95% CI: 1.09–1.30) at diagnosis had a poorer overall survival compared with women who never smoked. Furthermore, consistent dose-response associations between poorer overall survival and an increasing number of cigarettes per day, longer duration of smoking and decreasing time since smoking cessation were observed. The risk estimates for the histologic subtypes generally resembled those observed for ovarian cancer and the results for progression-free survival were virtually identical. Conclusions: Our results suggest that cigarette smoking is a negative prognostic factor for survival in women diagnosed with ovarian cancer, although the magnitude of the associations was modest. FCS41.4 META-ANALYSIS OF LAPAROSCOPY AND LAPAROTOMY FOR THE TREATMENT OF ENDOMETRIAL CARCINOMA X. Li, J. Wang, Y. Zhang, T. Li, L. Fang. The Third Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China Objectives: To contrast laparoscopic surgery with open surgery by the results of RCT, evaluate the safety and feasibility of laparoscopic surgery in the treatment of endometrial cancer. Method: We searched foreign and Chinese databases, including Cochrane Library, PubMed, Embase, VIP, China info, Sino Med and relevant journals and magazines from 1992 until October 2014, including the studies of randomized controlled trials which compared laparoscopic and open surgery for treatment of endometrial cancer. Two independent investigators screened literatures in accordance with the inclusion criteria and extracted relevant data respectively, then used the Cochrane handbook’s quality assessment criteria 5.1.0 to evaluate the quality of included studies. Finally, conducted the Meta-analysis with RevMan5.3 software. Results: In the treatment of endometrial cancer, the result showed that laparoscopic surgery had less intra-operative blood loss [MD=−94.14, 95% CI: (−104.04, −88.24), p<0.00001], shorter postoperative exhausting time [MD=−7.40, 95% CI (−9.01, −5.78), p<0.00001], fewer postoperative complications [OR=0.52, 95% CI (0.38, 0.72), p<0.0001], while the hospitalization time of it was shorter [MD=−3.29, 95% CI (−3.71, −2.86), p<0.00001]. But it had longer surgery time [MD=29.89, 95% CI (20.09, 39.68), p<0.00001] and more intra-operative complications [OR=1.34, 95% CI (1.06, 1.69), p=0.01] than open surgery. For the number of pelvic lymphadenectomy [MD=0.35, 95% CI (−0.45, 1.14), p=0.40], tumor recurrence rate [OR=1.12, 95% CI (0.89, 1.41), p=0.33] and overall survival [OR=1.01, 95% CI (0.79, 1.27), p=0.96] the difference was not statistically significant. Conclusions: Meta- analysis of the included 14 RCT suggested that laparoscopic surgery had advantages of less intra-operative blood


loss, shorter postoperative discharge time, fewer complications, and shorter hospitalization time compared with open surgery in the treatment of endometrial cancer. But laparoscopic surgery has had a longer surgery time and more intra-operative complications than open surgery. There is was no statistical difference between two kinds of surgical treatment in the number of pelvic lymphadenectomy, the tumor recurrence rate, tumor-related mortality, overall survival and disease-free survival. The studies included in this Metaanalysis have higher quality, so the conclusion has higher credibility. FCS41.5 ABNORMAL SPECTROSCOPY SCANS MAY PRESAGE PERSISTENT OR PROGRESSIVE CERVICAL DYSPLASIA L. Twiggs 1 , L. Flowers 2 , M. Winter 3 , D. Sternfeld 4 , M. Lashgari 5 . 1 University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida, USA; 2 Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia, USA; 3 Orange Coast Women’s Medical Group, Laguna Hills, California, USA; 4 Saddleback Women’s Medical Group, Laguna Hills, California, USA; 5 University of Connecticut, Hartford, Connecticut, USA Objectives: The objective was to determine whether reflectance and fluorescence spectroscopy could predict progression of cervical disease from normal histology or CIN1 to CIN2/3. Data from a US pivotal study that evaluated multimodal hyperspectroscopy (MHS) as a triage test included 804 women with follow-up visits for up to two years. The percentage of abnormal scans at the initial visit was predicted to be greater in women that developed CIN2+ over two year follow-up vs. those who did not. Method: Women underwent an MHS scan with the LuViva® Advanced Cervical Scan. They were followed for two years per current guidelines. Separate chi-square tests were conducted for women with either CIN1 or Normal histology at initial visit. For these two groups, chi-square values were calculated for three possible followup outcomes: normal histology, CIN1 or CIN2/3. For 804 women tracked during follow up, 232 had abnormal screening tests that resulted in colposcopy and biopsy, which revealed 89 women with CIN1 and 46 women with no dysplasia at the initial visit that were evaluated for progression to CIN2/3 during two year follow-up. Results: A trend of increasing likelihood of an abnormal MHS scan at initial visit was associated with increasing histological grade found during follow-up (Chi-square = 8.851; p=0.012). When the initial histology was normal and follow-up resulted in a diagnosis of CIN 2/3, the initial MHS scans were abnormal in a high percentage of patients (83.3% or 5/6). In contrast, when the initial histology was normal and follow-up resulted in a diagnosis of CIN1, the initial MHS scans were abnormal in only 35.7% cases (5/14); chisquare = 5.032 (not significant). Conclusions: A high percentage of abnormal MHS scans were associated with progression from both normal histology and CIN1 to CIN2+. In addition, abnormal MHS scans appear to be a marker of persistent CIN1. While we cannot rule out the possibility that some of the CIN2+ cases represent under-called diagnoses at the time of the MHS scan, the results support the concept that women with abnormal initial MHS scans may be a harbinger of more severe disease on follow up and therefore these patients should be followed more closely despite histology findings of normal or CIN1.


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FCS41.6 METABOLIC CHANGE IN FDG-PET BY MEASURING THE SINGLE LARGEST LESION ONE CYCLE AFTER INITIATION OF CHEMOTHERAPY FOR GYNECOLOGIC MALIGNANCIES PREDICTS CHEMOTHERAPEUTIC EFFECTS AND PATIENTS’ SURVIVAL Y. Tanaka, Y. Ueda, T. Egawa-Takata, S. Matsuzaki, E. Kobayashi, S. Mabuchi, K. Sawada, K. Yoshino, T. Kimura. Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Suita, Osaka, Japan Objectives: The objective of this study is to investigate the predictive value of early F-18-Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) for assessing tumor response to chemotherapy and patients’ survival in gynecologic malignancies. Method: Thirty-one patients who received chemotherapy for gynecologic malignancies were enrolled from June, 2010 to December, 2014. CT and PET-CT scan were performed before initiation of chemotherapy to determine baseline results, and were repeated one cycle after the initiation of chemotherapy. The response to treatment was evaluated after three cycles according to the Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) version1.1. The PET response was analyzed in terms of maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax ) of the single largest lesion between the baseline and one cycle after initiation of chemotherapy. Metabolic response is defined as a 30% reduction in SUVmax . Results: The median age of the patients was 63 years old (range 47– 86). Of the 31 patients, 11 patients received platinum-based regimens and 20 patients received non-platinum regimens. The mean progression-free survival (PFS) of the patients with metabolic response was 15.5 months (range 5–38). In contrast, the mean PFS of the patients with no metabolic response was 5.7 months (range 1– 30). There was a statistically significant difference between the percentage decrease in SUVmax and PFS (p=0.002, Man-Whitney U-test). There was a strong correlation between metabolic response and RECIST, regardless of chemotherapy regimens (platinum-based group; p=0.006, non-platinum group; p=0.046, Fisher exact test). Conclusions: Early FDG-PET assessment by measuring the single largest lesion one cycle after initiation of chemotherapy is promising tool for predicting tumor response and patients’ survival, regardless of chemotherapy regimens. FCS41.7 LOGISTIC REGRESSION MODEL FOR PREDICTING POST-MOLE GESTATIONAL TROPHOBLASTIC NEOPLASIA FROM A LARGE COHORT OF WOMEN WITH HYDATIDIFORM MOLE J. Qin 1 , J. Luo 1 , J. Su 1 , D. Wu 2 , S. Wang 2 , W. Lu 2 . 1 Department of Ultrasound, 2 Department of Oncology, Women’s Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China Objectives: Although hydatidiform mole is benign, it possibly develops into malignancy, termed post-mole gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (pGTN), especially for complete hydatidiform mole (CHM) that has a malignancy rate of 15%. Recently, the routine use of ultrasonography has led to diagnosis in the first trimester rather than second trimester, but the malignancy rate has not been reduced. Our previous study showed that high risk factors, such as maternal age ≥40 years, large-for-date uterus, theca lutein cysts ≥6 cm, have limited power for predicting malignancy. The current study intends to setup a logistic regression model including multiple factors to improve the predictive power. Method: The prediction model was trained on the retrospective 346 cases that were treated in our institute from January 2005 to August 2012 (training set). The model was further tested on patients that have been prospectively recruited since September 2012 and the expected set size is 150 patients (test set). Recorded for both sets were the following information: age, pregnant day, serum hCG, pre-

and post- operational ultrasound features (the length, width and anteroposterior diameter of uterus and cavity mass, ovarian cyst, Color Doppler signals) and 2-year follow-up outcomes. The software used for statistical analysis was R version 3.1.1 for Mac. Results: The training set included 74 cases developing into pGTN and 262 cases without malignancy within following 2 years. The fitted logistic model was: Log (p (malignancy=1)/p(normal=0)) = −2.23 + 4.39e-07 × hCG + 4.11e-5 × pre-uterus volume + 2.30 × abundant blood in post-uterus. This model had 71.6% sensitivity and 87.5% specificity on the cut-off value of 0.146 using 5-fold cross-validation of training set. Until now, of the test set of 98 cases, 14 cases developed into pGTN and 26 cases had normal results within a 2-year follow-up, the remaining cases are still being monitored. Evaluated on test set, the performance was 85.7% sensitivity, 88.5% specificity. Conclusions: The regression model on the base of pre- and post- operation ultrasound and serum hCG has the potential value to predict results of CHM on the stage of CHM treatment. After validated in a larger patient set, it will be potentially used for post-operation management. FCS41.8 MANAGEMENT OF GESTATIONAL TROPHOBLASTIC DISEASE BASING ON MODIFIED WHO RISK FACTOR SCORING SYSTEM-2009 T. Kar, A. Kar, S. Dash. S.C.B.Medical College, Cuttack, Odisha, India Objectives: In spite of its dismal course of Gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD), only recently there is more awareness, newer chemotherapy and changing surgical indications. Introduction of new FIGO (2002) scoring system which was revised by WHO in 2009 has changed dramatically the management protocol. Therefore this study was undertaken to stratify GTD by this risk scoring system and to evaluate the management techniques and quantify the type of chemotherapy to be given with follow up. Method: All GTD cases will be subjected to FIGO staging and allocated a prognostic score using the modified WHO risk factor scoring system. Cases with score <7 are considered low risk and >7 are among high risk groups. The treatment will be planned accordingly and a single/multiple drug chemothearapy will be adminstered. The patients will be followed up for prognostic evaluation. Results: Out of total 50 cases of GTD, 28 were hydatidiform mole, 14 persistent GTD, 2 invasive mole and 6 choriocarcinoma. Among 22 gestational trophoblastic neoplasia, 19 belonged to stage I and 3 were stage III. But according to WHO scoring, 16 were low risk and 6 were high risk group. 16 patients received single agent and 6 patients combination chemotherapy. Complete response was seen in 14 and 5 cases respectively. Conclusions: The patients of GTD were stratified according to FIGO staging and modified WHO risk factor scoring system and management technique was modified.

FCS42. Gynecological Malignancies FCS42.1 THE LOCAL THERAPEUTIC EFFECT OF RADIATION THERAPY ON PLATINUM-RESISTANT RECURRENT OVARIAN CANCER DETECTED BY FDG-PET/CONTRAST ENHANCED CT H. Asano 1,5 , R. Kinoshita 2 , T. Kitahara 3 , S. Nishi 1 , H. Watari 4 , E. Nomura 5 . 1 Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Ebetsu City Hospital, Ebetsu, Japan; 2 Department of Radiation Oncology, Hokkaido University Hospital, Sapporo, Japan; 3 Department of Radiation Therapy, Oji Hospital, Tomakomai, Japan; 4 Department of Gynecology, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo, Japan; 5 Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Oji Hospital, Sapporo, Japan Objectives: Single-agent chemotherapy is standard in recurrent

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ovarian cancer (OC) after developing platinum-resistance (PtR), which is defined as relapsing within 6 months after platinum-based chemotherapy. In this setting, both response rate (RR) and the prognosis remains poor; RR is approximately 15% and median overall survival is about 12 months. FDG-PET/contrast enhanced CT (PET/CECT) can detect the site of smaller recurrent lesions more accurately. Thus it may improve local therapies including radiation therapy (RT), surgical resection (SR), arterial injection chemotherapy (AIC), etc. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the local therapeutic effect of RT for recurrent OC lesions detected by PET/CECT. Method: In this study, 32 recurrent OC patients treated by RT in Oji hospital were retrospectively assessed. Twenty-nine patients had stage III/IV diseases. Total of 185 lesions were diagnosed by PET/CECT, of which 158 lesions were detected after developing PtR, while the remaining 27 lesions had not developed PtR. RT was delivered with 10MV-X ray using appropriate techniques for each lesion, and median duration until evaluation of therapeutic effects after RT was 3 months. The effect of RT for each lesion was evaluated using CECT based on RECIST criteria, and chi-squared test and one-way ANOVA were used. Results: Median size of lesion was 1.5 cm, and median radiation dose was 40 Gy. RR in each lesion was 82% (CR 57% + PR 25%), and the abdominal lesions (144 lesions) were more sensitive than others (87% vs. 65%, P=0.003). No significant difference of RR was observed between Pt-resistant and Pt-sensitive lesions (82% vs. 80%, P=0.783). Mean size of Pt-resistant lesions in CR, PR, SD, and PD was 1.5 cm, 2.0 cm, 2.1 cm, and 2.7 cm, respectively (P=0.0051). No severe adverse effects were observed. Conclusions: RT achieved the high therapeutic effect on recurrent OC lesions even after developing PtR, and smaller lesions may have been more sensitive. Moreover, RT could be performed for lesions that were difficult to undergo other local therapies such as SR. Further study should identify the therapeutic effect of combination with early detection of recurrent lesions by PET/CECT and RT on the prognosis after developing PtR. FCS42.2 GRADE 3 ENDOMETRIOID ENDOMETRIAL CARCINOMA MAY BE CONSIDERED AS TYPE II ENDOMETRIAL CARCINOMAS: A COMPARATIVE STUDY Z. Zheng, X. Li. The Third Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China Objectives: Traditional classification of endometrial carcinoma is based on clinical behavior and etiology (eg, types I and II). However, it is unclear whether grade 3 endometrioid endometrial carcinoma (G3EEC) should be definitely considered as type I endometrial carcinomas. In the present study, the clinical-pathological features and survival of 4811 endometrial cancers [grade 1 and grade 2 endometrioid endometrial carcinoma (G1/G2EEC), G3EEC, uterine serous carcinoma (USC) and clear cell carcinoma (CC)] were compared to determine whether G3EEC could be more akin to type I or II cancer. Method: Between January 2000 and December 2010,4811 patients were extracted from the collaboration hospitals in the center for endometrial cancer control and presentation in Guangdong, China. We performed a retrospective study of clinicopathological parameters and survival data in three different populations including G1/G2EEC (n=4026), G3EEC (n=619) and USC/CC (n=166). Results: G3EECs were different from G1/G2EECs including a lower BMI, a lower proportion of nulparity, a higher rate of advanced stage at presentation, a higher invasion of lymph-vascular spaces and a higher lymph node metastasis incidence. In above features, G3EECs appeared similar to USCs/CCCs. The 5-year overall survival (OS) rates for G1/G2EECs, G3EECs and USCs/CCCs were 94.9%, 78.4% and 81.3%. Using a Cox regression analysis, G3EECs and USCs/CCCs had a sig-


nificantly decreased OS compared to G1/G2EECs (HR: 4.147, 95% CI: 2.573–6.683; HR: 3.601, 95% CI: 1.885–6.88). No significant differences were noticed in OS (P=0.544) between G3EECs and USCs/CCCs. Conclusions: According to clinicopathologic features and outcome, G3EEC may be better characterized as type II endometrial cancer. FCS42.3 NON-INVASIVE ASSESSMENT OF PRIMARY TREATMENT STRATEGY FOR FIGO STAGE III–IV OVARIAN CANCER PATIENTS – A HELPFUL NOVEL INDEX AT THE MULTI-DISCIPLINARY TEAM MEETINGS M. Aarenstrup Karlsen 1,2 , C. Lindberg Fagö-Olsen 2 , E. Høgdall 1 , T. Henricksen Schnack 2 , C. Høgdall 2 . 1 Molecular Unit, Department of Pathology, Herlev University Hospital, Herlev, Denmark; 2 Gynecologic Clinic, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark Objectives: For ovarian cancer patients, primary surgery followed by adjuvant chemotherapy is considered the first choice of treatment, and complete tumor removal is an important prognostic factor. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy is preferable when macroradical removal of the tumor is impossible. However, no preoperative predicting tool of macroradicality is available. The purpose of this study was to develop a novel index for preoperative, non-invasive prediction of complete primary cytoreduction in patients with advanced (stage III-IV) ovarian cancer; hereby, optimizing the planning of individual treatment strategy for each patient. Method: Collection, handling and storage of blood samples were performed according to strict guidelines by the Danish CancerBiobank. Clinical data was provided by the Danish Gynecologic Cancer Database (DGCD). Serum levels of HE4 and CA125 were analyzed using kits from Abbott Diagnostics. Age, performance status and presence of ascites at preoperative ultrasonography in addition with CA125 and HE4 were tested in a multivariate model in order to improve the diagnostic accuracy of the biomarkers. Results: A total of 181 patients with advanced epithelial ovarian cancer were enrolled. Exclusion criteria was treatment with neoadjuvant chemotherapy (n=13) and performance status 4 (n=1). 167 patients (138 stage III and 43 stage IV) were treated with primary debulking surgery. Complete resection of the tumor was achieved in 50 cases (30%). The Receiver Operating Characteristics curves demonstrated an Area Under the Curve (AUC) of 0.772 for HE4, 0.684 for CA125 and 0.683 for age. The multivariate model, consisting of HE4, age, performance status and presence/absence of ascites at ultrasound, demonstrated an AUC of 0.854. CA125 was excluded by backward reduction. Conclusions: A multivariate model combining HE4, age, performance status and presence of ascites at ultrasonography may be a useful preoperative index for selecting patients to either primary debulking surgery or neoadjuvant chemotherapy. FCS42.4 COMPARISON OF DIFFERENT SCREENING METHODS USED IN THE RURAL CERVICAL CANCER SCREENING PROJECT IN CHINA X. Luo, J. Wu, J. Di, B. Song, R. Zheng, L. Ma, J. Cheng. The National Center fo Women and Children’s Health, China CDC, Beijing, China Objectives: To compare the diagnostic effect of current three screening methods used in the rural cervical cancer screening project in China and to provide scientific proof for making screening plans for cervical cancer and precancerous lesions. Method: To analyze the statistical data of the cervical cancer screening of 6,633,783 rural women aged 35 to 64 in 747 program counties in 2013. These counties used either Pap grading, TBS, or VIA/VILI to report the primary screening results. The data was from the webbased data reporting system of national major maternal and child health services surveillance. The histopathology result was taken as


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the gold standard to evaluate the final diagnostic results of cervical cancer and precancerous lesions (CIN II, CIN III, and adenocarcinoma insitu), as well as the early detection of cervical cancer of different primary screening methods. Results: Of 747 program counties,127 (17.0%) counties, covering 1,306,192 (19.7%) women, used Pap grading report, 554 (74.2%) counties, covering 4,731,820 (71.3%) women, used TBS, and 66 (8.8%) counties, covering 595,772 (9.0%) women, used VIA/VILI to conduct the primary screening. The positive rate of Pap grading, TBS and VIA/VILI was 5.1%, 2.7%, and 9.4%. Using Pap, TBS, and VIA/VILI as primary screening methods, the detection rate of cervical cancer was 14.8/100,000, 16.7/100,000, and 21.5/100,000 (χ2 =11.059, P=0.004); the detection rate of precancerous lesions was 91.0/100,000, 144.9/100,000, and 90.3/100,000 (χ2 =307.403, P=0.000); the early detection rate was 89.4%, 92.6%, and 84.5% (χ2 =2.759, P=0.252). Conclusions: Among the three screening methods, TBS had a lower positive primary screening rate but higher detection rate of precancerous lesions and the early detection rate. VIA/VILI had a higher positive primary screening rate but lower detection rate of precancerous lesions and the early detection rate. The PAP grading report was between the other two methods. The use of TBS may achieved relatively high detection rate in rural China. FCS42.5 PREDICTION OF GROIN NODAL STATUS IN INVASIVE VULVAR CARCINOMA (IVC): THE ROLE OF 18 F-FDG PET/CT AND SENTINEL NODE BIOPSY (SNB) IN CLINICALLY N0 PATIENTS CURRENTLY NOT INCLUDED IN SNB RECOMMENDATIONS G. Garganese 1 , S. Fragomeni 1 , V. Rufini 2 , G. Perotti 2 , L. Zagaria 2 , A. Collarino 2 , M.T. Evangelista 1 , A. Naldini 1 , C. Rossitto 1 , A. Giordano 2 , G. Scambia 1 . 1 Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Division of Gynecologic Oncology, Catholic University of the Sacred Heart, Rome, Italy; 2 Institute of Nuclear Medicine, Catholic University of Sacred Heart, Rome, Italy Objectives: Identify in clinically N0 vulvar cancer patients, a subset where SNB accuracy and negative predictive value (NPV) prove acceptable, outside of current recommendation to SNB procedure. To achieve this objective the conventional preoperative imaging methods were integrated with 18 F-FDG PET/CT study targeted to the prediction of groin lymph nodes status. Method: From July 2013 to December 2014 all patients with IVC who had access to the Division of Gynecologic Oncology of the Catholic University of the Sacred Heart, were evaluated. Only patients with clinically negative inguino-femoral lymph nodes (LNs) and bulky/multifocal/bilateral IVC or absent disease after complete diagnostic excision were enrolled. The preoperative evaluation was performed using standard imaging (CT scan, US, FNA cytology if required) combined with 18 F-FDG PET/CT. All patients underwent radical excision of the vulvar lesion associated to SNB and radical inguinal lymphadenectomy (IFL) (mono or bilateral). Patients submitted to previous chemotherapy or radiotherapy were excluded. Results: Eighteen patients with IVC and negative groin LNs at preoperative imaging were included. 18 F-FDG PET/CT was suspected for LNs metastases in 11/36 (31%) groins. Vulvar surgery consisted of 7 partial and 11 radical vulvectomy. A total of 31 SNB followed by IFL were performed (5 unilaterally, 13 bilaterally). The median number of SN removed was 2 (range 1–7). The median number of LNs removed per groin was 9 (range 4–18). We found LNs metastases in six of 31 (22%) groins and SN was always positive. The SN false negative rate was 0 (NPV 100%). 18 F-FDG PET/CT NPV was 94%. Conclusions: Preliminary data of this Phase 2 study, show the efficacy of 18 F-FDG PET/CT in preoperative assessment of inguinal LNs status. We also highlighted that in cN0 patients currently excluded from SNB recommendations, this procedure seems to be feasible and

oncologically safe. Larger series are certainly necessary to confirm these results. FCS42.6 THE ANTI-TUMOR PHARMACOPHORE IN FLOWER SOUP BY BLOCKING TLR4/MYD88-NF-KB SIGNALING PATHWAY TO INHIBIT THE ACTIVATION OF TAMS IN ENDOMETRIAL CARCINOMA X. Bao 1 , L. Li 1 , J. Li 2 , X. Xue 1 . 1 Beijing University of Chinese Medicine Affiliated DongzhiMen Hospital, Beijing, China; 2 Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, Beijing, China Objectives: Endometrial carcinoma (EC), is one of the common female tract genital malignant tumor. Tumor Associated Macrophages (TAMs) are within the tumor tissue infiltration of inflammatory immune cells, plays a decisive role in tumorigenesis in progress. Dongzhimen Hospital gynecology Professor Guo Zhiqiang after years of clinical experience with flower soup (Berberine 30g, Barbata 15g,Hedyotis diffusa 15g, Astragalus 20g)has a significant effect in endometrial cancer. This study firstly found observed TAMs in vitro, specifically TAMs Ishikawa cancer cells proliferation and seeked for anti-tumor pharmacophore of the flower decoction and monomer compound from the Chinese medicine in Ishikawa cells co-cultured with TAMs and Ishikawa cells. Method: With with the Immunohistochemistry assay,we found the endometrial hyperplasia and endometrial cancer in paraffin sections CD163, CD206 and distribution of NF-kB p65 expression. With the MTT, we observed the TAMs how to inflect the Ishikawa cells proliferation in rats. By Elisa method, We detected the expression of of IL10 in anti-tumor parmacophore from the flower soup. Western Blot method was used to detect the expression of NF-kB p65. The expression of the TLR4/MyD88 signaling pathway under the TAMs activation were used by RT-PCR detection. Results: CD163 and CD206 expression at different levels in the cytoplasm of endometrial hyperplasia and endometrial stromal tissue. NF-kB p65 expression increased with progression of endometrial cancer was increasing. TAMs control cells CD206, CD163 molecule expression and supernatant IL-10 significantly increased compared with U937 blank. The expression of NF-kB p65 TAMs in the control group was significantly higher than that of U937 control group. TAMs plus Hedyotis diffusa flavonoid was a statistically significant compared with any other two group. TLR4/MyD88 expression in diffusa flavonoid, banzhilian flavonoid and lotus soup flavonoid were significantly lower than that TAMs. Conclusions: Ishikawa cells and U937 human macrophage cell coculture model could be successfully induced activation TAMs. TAMs had a role in the promotion of human endometrial Ishikawa cell proliferation. Flower soup component flavonoids, barbata flavones and Hedyotis diffusa flavonoids were possibly blocking TLR4/MyD88-NFkB signaling pathway to inhibit the activation of TAMs, which may play the role of anti-endometrial cancer. FCS42.7 THE SIGNIFICANCE OF PRIOR TUBAL OCCLUSION IN ENDOMETRIAL CARCINOMA M. Li, L. Zhao, M. Li, Y. Liu, J. Wang, L. Wei. Peking University People’s Hospital, Beijing, Xi Cheng District, China Objectives: The exfoliation of endometrial carcinoma might migrate through fallopian tube for intraperitoneal spread and extraabdominal diseases. So we analyzed the influence of prior tubal occlusion to the patients with endometriod carcinoma and other pathological types (non-endometroid carcinoma) in order to evaluate the significance of prior tubal occlusion among women with endometrial carcinoma. Method: Medical records of patients diagnosed with endometrial carcinoma between July 1995 and June 2012 were reviewed. Patients

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with endometriod and non-endometriod carcinoma both were separated into two groups based on the presence or absence of prior tubal ligation. Groups were compared with respect to patient characteristics, stage distribution and histopathologic findings which included uterine myometrial infiltration, cervical stromal invasion, adnexon involvement, intravascular cancer emboli, parametrium involvement, positive lymphnodes, positive cytological washings and other pelvic organs involvement. Results: We identified 558 patients, 496 of whom (88.9%) with endometriod carcinoma and 62 of whom (11.1%) with nonendometriod carcinoma. The patients who had tubal ligation in this two groups were 99 (20.0%) and 15 (24.2%),respectively. In endometriod carcinoma group, patients with tubal ligation were significantly less likely to have positive cytologic washings (0.2% vs 13.9%, P=0.002), and when the depth of muscular invasion was less than 1/2 myometrium, the difference was even larger (0.0%VS12.2%, p=0.000). But the other factors were similar between the two groups.In nonendometriod carcinoma group,there was no significant difference between tubal ligration group and the other in all factors. Conclusions: Patients with a history of endometriod carcinoma and prior tubal occlusion are significantly less likely to have positive cytologic washings,especially when the depth of muscular invasion was less than 1/2 myometrium. Prior tubal occlusion may not prevent the development of endometrial carcinoma. FCS42.8 MOLECULAR MARKERS ASSOCIATED WITH UTERINE LEIOMYOSARCOMA DEVELOPMENT N. Garcia 1 , N. Bozzini 1 , I. Cunha 2 , G. Baiocchi 2 , F. Soares 2 , E. Baracat 1 , K. Carvalho 1 . 1 Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil; 2 A C Camargo Cancer Center, Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil Objectives: To investigate a gene signature that might be useful as uterine leiomyosarcoma development predictor. Method: The gene expression analysis was performed using Real Time Open Array Platform (Life Technologies, USA). We evaluate 112 genes expression in 176 samples (20 myometrium, 103 leiomyomas, 16 uncommon leiomyoma and 37 leiomyosarcomas cases). Patients were recruited at Obstetrics and Gynecology Department from the Hospital das Clinicas da Faculdadade de Medicina da Universidade de Sao Paulo (Sao Paulo/Brazil). All patients signed a preinformed consent and the study was approved by our institutional ethical board. Tissue samples obtained by surgery were snapping frozen in liquid nitrogen or paraffin embedded until further processing. Results: Among 112 genes, we found AXIN1, FZD9, HHAT, MTSS1, PTCH2, SUFU and TLE1 downregulation in LMS patients. Additionally, women with >50 years old showed downregulation of WISP1. All the others samples showed enhanced amount of these genes independent of the hormonal status. Conclusions: Our results showed that AXIN1, FZD9, HHAT, MTSS1, PTCH2, SUFU and TLE1 down or lack of expression corroborate for LMS development in patients, but, the role of these molecular markers interactions must be better investigated. FCS42.9 IDENTIFICATION OF CANCER STEM-LIKE CELLS FROM EPITHELIAL OVARIAN CANCER AND INVESTIGATION OF METALLOPROTEINASE-10 GENE AS REGULATORY PART IN OVARIAN CANCER STEM-LIKE CELLS T. Kuroda 1,2 , Y. Hirohashi 2 , T. Torigoe 2 , T. Mariya 1,2 , T. Asano 1,2 , Y. Tabuchi 1,2 , M. Mizuuchi 1,2 , M. Iwasaki 1 , N. Sato 2 , T. Saito 1 . 1 Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 2 Department of Pathology, Sapporo Medical University, Sapporo, Hokkaido, Japan Objectives: Cancer stem-like cells (CSCs) are defined as a small pop-


ulation of cancer cells that have high tumorigenicity. Furthermore, CSCs are resistant to several cancer therapies, and thought to be responsible for cancer recurrence after treatment and distant metastasis. In this presentation, we isolated CSC population by aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1) assay from epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) cell lines (serous adenocarcinoma and clear cell adenocarcinoma) and primary ovarian cancer cells. Furthermore, we investigated whether metalloproteinase-10 (MMP10), which was enriched in ALDH1-high cells of ovarian cancer cells, was one of the candidate genes which regulated stemness in EOC. Method: We isolated ovarian CSCs as ALDH1-high population from 6 EOC cell lines (3 serous adenocarcinomas and 3 clear cell adenocarcinomas) by the ALDH1 assay. Then we evaluated tumor-initiating ability of ALDH1-high cells as CSC population by sphere-forming assay in vitro, and xenograft transplantation in vivo. We also investigated the ALDH1-high population in primary cancer cells, both from solid cancer tissue and from ascites. Furthermore, we screened gene profiles of ALDH1-high cells and identified MMP10, then we made this candidate gene over-expressed or knocked down in EOC cell lines and evaluated their stemness by the method written above. Results: ALDH1-high cells showed greater sphere-forming ability, higher tumorigenicity and greater invasive capability in serous and clear cell adenocarcinoma cell lines. ALDH1-high cells could also be isolated from 8 of 11 primary ovarian carcinoma samples. MMP10overexpressed ovarian cancer cell lines showed higher sphereforming ability, higher tumorigenicity and increased ALDH1-high cell population by flow cytometry, and these population had more expression of stem-cell marker genes such as SOX2 or Nanog. These characteristics were impaired when inhibited the expression by siRNA. Conclusions: Ovarian CSCs were enriched in ALDH1-high cells in both EOC cell lines and ALDH1-high cells were also identified from primary ovarian cancer cells. Taken together, the results that MMP10 regulated the stemness for ovarian cancer cells might drive us to indicate that MMP10 could be one of the novel target of molecular therapies for epithelial ovarian cancer.

FCS43. High Risk Pregnancy FCS43.1 STRATEGIES FOR SMOKING CESSATION IN PREGNANCY: A COSTEFFECTIVENESS AND DECISION ANALYSIS A.C. Eke 1 , I.T. Agaku 3 , G.U. Eleje 2 , I.U. Ezebialu 1 . 1 Michigan State University, Lansing, Michigan, USA; 2 Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Nnewi, Anambra State, Nigeria; 3 Epidemic Intelligence Service (EIS), Center for Diseases Control and Prevention (CDC), Atlanta, Georgia, USA; 4 Anambra State University Teaching Hospital, Awka, Anambra State, Nigeria Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of various interventions for smoking cessation in pregnancy. Method: Using decision-analysis modeling, we compared the costeffectiveness of counseling versus nicotine replacement therapy (NRT), cognitive behavioral therapy, motivational interviewing and pharmacotherapy for smoking cessation in pregnancy from a societal perspective. Baseline probabilities and costs estimates were derived from published literature. We conducted sensitivity analyses using both deterministic and probabilistic models. Cost estimates reflect 2014 US dollars. Results: Counseling had an incremental cost effectiveness ratio (ICER) of $1103 per QALY compared with NRT. The ICER for all other strategies ranged from $1224 to $10147 per QALY. While sensitivity analysis indicated that the cost of managing incorrectly identified smokers (false negative result) was an important driver of the model,


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formal identification approaches did not seem to be cost effective at any feasible estimate of this cost. The combination of counseling and bupropion was cost effective compared with motivational interviewing (ranging from $1632–$5336 per QALY gained) and counselling alone (range $654–$2385). Conclusions: Combination therapy with counseling and bupropion were most cost effective. FCS43.2 ACUTE RENAL FAILURE (ARF) IN SEVERE PRE-ECLAMPSIA & ECLAMPSIA (MATERNAL OUTCOME) G. Chowdhury. Rajendra Institute of Medical Sciences, Ranchi, Jharkhand, India Objectives: ARF describes an abrupt decline in renal function characterized by urine output <400 ml/24hr or <20 ml/hr. Diagnosis by rising blood urea, serum creatinine, metabolic acidosis, hyperkalemia. Pre-renal: renal hypo perfusion (severe pre-eclampsia, eclampsia), severe volume depletion (haemorrhage). Renal: usually a consequence of thrombotic microangiopathy-HELLP syndrome. Severe Pre-Eclampsia and Eclampsia complicates as ARF in 15%, with placental abruption & HELLP, incidence rises by 10% & 36% respectively. Method: In RIMS, a rural based tertiary center, Jan’09 to Jan’13, 27535 pregnancies admitted. Evaluation: Physical examination-BP, PR, RR, CVS, chest, knee jerk, urine output. CVP line established, indwelling catheter, separate I.V therapy line. Investigations: CBC, BT & CT, Blood Urea, serum creatinine, electrolyte, BUN, acid- base balance, urine analysis, USG. Treatment modality: 1. To ensure kidney function 2. Earliest delivery Treatment: Incipient phase: restoration of intravenous volume - blood, crystalloid. Diuresis with Frusemide. Anuria phase: fluid, electrolyte balance, caloric requirement maintained, Hyperkalemia, Hypophosphatemia, Hypocalcemia, metabolic acidosis prevented, iatrogenic agents. Polyuria phase: fluid & electrolyte replacement. Recovery phase: fluid intake by thrust. Results: Deliveries: 27535. • Pre-Eclampsia (950 – 3.5%, 1 in 29) • Eclampsia (1311 – 4.65%, 1 in 21) Complications: 436 (19%): Abruptio 210 (9.28%), HELLP 115 (5.08%), and PPH 97 (4.29%), DIC 14 (.61%). Majority primigravida 1650 (73%). • 1356 (60%) between 20 and 29 yrs • 1876 (82%) unbooked • 1877 (83%) of low socio-economic status. ARF 140 (6.9%): • Severe pre-eclampsia 39 (27.85%) • Eclampsia 50 (35.71%) • Abruptio 22 (15.71%) • PPH 13 (9.28%) • DIC 5 (3.57%) • HELLP 11 (7.85%) Delivery: Caesarean section 118 (84%), vaginal 22 (15.7%). Puerperal complications 79 (56.43%): • Wound infection 21 (15%) • Pyrexia 15 (10.7%) • Urinary tract infection 8 (5.71%) • Sepsis 7 (5%) • Multiple complications 28 (20%)

Prognosis: good. • Brisk diuresis following delivery 108 (77.2%) • Needed dialysis 32 (21.5%) Maternal mortality nil. Conclusions: Present study is concerned with etiology, clinical course, management & maternal outcome. The main factors responsible are no antenatal check-up, early pregnancy, ignorance, low SES, lack of health consciousness & care, delayed referral. ARF with Eclampsia is not very infrequent, bears high risk of bilateral renal cortical necrosis & consequently chronic renal failure but efficient, timely management gives good prognosis. FCS43.3 MATERNAL MTHFR GENE POLYMORPHISMS AND THE RISK OF DOWN SYNDROME OFFSPRING A. Mahfouz. Tanta Daculty of Medicibe, Tanta, Egypt Objectives: To study the frequency of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) 677C to T mutation in Egyptian mothers having a child with Down syndrome (DS) and matched control mothers. Method: Eighty mothers, age <40 years, with previous history of bearing a DS with karyotypically confirmed full trisomy 21 plus 30 healthy mothers with healthy children as matched control mothers. A case-control study to examine the association of genetic polymorphism in the MTHFR gene implicated in folate metabolism that known to let down the activity of this enzyme. Estimation of maternal plasma homocysteine (Hyc): methionine (Met) ratio and lymphocyte methotrexate (MTX) cytotoxicity to assess the occurrence of MTHFR 677C to T mutation. Results: T polymorphism is more prevalent among mothers of infant with DS compared with the controls, with an odd ratio of 1.9. In addition, mothers of infant with DS have significantly increased plasma levels as well as lymphocyte MTX cytotoxicity relative to the control. Conclusions: Aberrant folic acid metabolism secondary to MTHFR polymorphism leads to a significant reduction in plasma methionine and increasing the materials risk for having DS infant. FCS43.4 CANDIDA GLABRATA SEPSIS ASSOCIATED WITH CHORIOAMNIONITIS IN AN IVF TWIN PREGNANCY: SHOULD WE DELIVER? S.Q. Tan 1 , O.T. Ng 2 , C.C. Khong 1 . 1 KK Women’s and Children’s Hospital, Singapore, Singapore; 2 Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Singapore, Singapore Objectives: Candida glabrata chorioamnionitis in pregnancy is rare, but the current literature suggests a very high fetal fatality in such cases. It is known to have an association with cervical stitch, amniocentesis, chorionic villous sampling, and assisted reproductive techniques like in-vitro fertilization. To date, there are only 16 reported cases worldwide. Given the increasing global use of artificial reproductive techniques these days, it is important to raise awareness of this condition and highlight its potential lethal complications. Method: We report a case of in-vitro fertilization acquired Candida glabrata chorioamnionitis successfully treated through systemic maternal antifungal treatment prior to delivery. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of its kind in the literature. Results: Our patient presented at 24-weeks-gestation with fever-ofunknown-origin, and a positive vaginal swab for Candida glabrata. Amniocentesis confirmed Candida glabrata chorioamnionitis for one twin. Systemic maternal fungal treatment was started while awaiting fetal maturity. Fetal wellbeing were assessed through inpatient monitoring. A multidisciplinary decision was made for delivery at 28-weeks despite the absence of fetal distress in view of reported high lethality associated with this condition. The validity of this judgment is supported by the presence of Candida glabrata cultured from

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the amnion, a sterile site despite a significant duration of antifungals. Neonatal swabs and cultures were tested negative. Both twins remained well. Conclusions: The increasing global use of artificial reproductive techniques these days makes it imperitive to raise awareness of the potential fetal lethality associated with this rare infection of Candida glabrata. Routine vaginal yeast culture before embryo transfer may help avoid such complications. Early recognition of the potential complications of Candida glabrata infection in pregnancy is important. It would be prudent to consider early delivery once fetal maturity is achieved despite normal fetal monitoring. FCS43.5 CONSERVATIVE SURGICAL MANAGEMENT (MYOMETRIAL RESECTION) VERSUS RADICAL SURGERY (PERIPARTUM HYSTERECTOMY) FOR WOMEN WITH PLACENTA PERCRETA P.S. Sachdev. Isra University, Hyderabad, Pakistan Objectives: To compare maternal morbidity and mortality of two surgical procedures, conservative (myometrial resection) versus radical (peripartum hysterectomy) for managing women with placenta percreta. Method: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of all patients diagnosed with placenta percreta admitted at Isra University Hospital Hyderabad, Sindh, Pakistan from December 2011 to October 2014. Patients were divided into two groups A and B depending on surgical procedure used to manage the patients with placenta percreta. Patients in group A had radical surgery (peripartum hysterectomy) and patients in group B had conservative surgery (myometrial resection). The following outcome were compared: need for blood transfusion, intraoperative and postoperative haemorrhage, urinary tract injuries, intensive care unit admission, duration of stay in intensive care and maternal death. Results: There were 1956 deliveries, 27 (1.40%) cases were of placenta previa, and 19cases of placenta percreta. 6 patients had perioperative hysterectomy while 13 patients had myomectrial resection. Mean number of blood transfusion in group A was 3,200 ml while in group B was 1,515 ml (P<0.01). There was one case of intraperitoneal hemorrhage required re-laparotomy, two cases of urinary tract injuries, one maternal death in group A while none in group B. All patients with placenta percreta required ICU admission, however, in group A, the duration was 5±1 days versus 3±1 in group B. Conclusions: Conservative surgical technique of myomectrial resection for placenta percreta is comparatively a safer procedure with less morbidity and mortality in comparision to perioperative hysterectomy. FCS43.6 ROLE OF FETAL AORTIC ISTHMUS PULSATILITY INDEX IN THE PREDICTION OF PERINATAL OUTCOME ASSOCIATED WITH PRETERM FETUSES WITH INTRAUTERINE GROWTH RESTRICTION N. Nour Eldine, S. Abdelnaby El Gelany, A. Abdelmegeed. Minya University, Minya, Egypt Objectives: Umbilical artery Doppler clearly identifies an “at-risk” fetus, and changes in ductus venosus Doppler may have a better association with subsequent neonatal morbidity than that based on umbilical Doppler abnormality in early preterm FGR. The most important independent risk factor for an adverse perinatal outcome is gestational age, especially before 32–34 weeks, when the risk is higher. Blood flow pattern in aortic isthmus reflects balance between both ventricular outputs and the differences in impedance of both vascular systems. So, it helps to predict perinatal morbidity and mortality. Method: A prospective study of the fetal AoI in a cohort of premature IUGR fetuses attending to Minia University Maternity Hospital,


Egypt between January 2012 and January 2013. Fifty-seven participants were divided into two groups according to fetal aortic isthmus pulsatility index (AoI PI) just before birth (group A = 30 with normal AoI PI and group B = 27 participants with Abnormal AoI PI). Results: Total morbidity and mortality rates were significantly higher in the group of abnormal fetal AoI PI. There was statistically significant difference for neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) and neonatal sepsis (95% CI 0.024–0.622, P-value 0.008) and (95% CI 0.053–0.934, P-value 0.03) but not for intrauterinefetal death and early neonatal death. Fetal AoI PI showed variable performances to predict the perinatal morbidity and mortality in relation to other studied vessels as shown in the receptor operating curves (ROCs). Conclusions: The authors suggest that aortic isthmus Doppler measurements are complementary to other Dopplers in early identification of fetal complications of the fetal growth restriction before deterioration and appearance of fetal acidosis. FCS43.7 OBSTETRIC AND PERINATAL OUTCOME OF PREGNANCIES WITH TERM LABOUR AND MECONIUM STAINED AMNIOTIC FLUID AND MAS S. Ziadeh. Jordan University of Science and Technology, IRBID, Jordan Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the MSAF in term of fetal distress, MAS, and perinatal morbidity and mortality. In a prospective of women with a singleton cephalic pregnancy of completed 38–41 weeks of gestation and with no pedefined risk factor. Method: A total of 3850 deliveries at Jordan hospital were studied between 2004 and 2006. 390 (10.3%) of the deliveries had meconium in the amniotic fluid copared prospectively with 400 similar pregnancies with clear AF as a control group with similar pregnancies. The criteria of inclusion were term (38–41) singleton gestation, cephalic presentation, umbilical blood gas analysis and birth weight. recorded data included materna age, GA, abnormal FH patterns, mode of delivery, birth weight and presence of meconium. Results: We studed 3850 live born, singleton term infants, 390 were accompanied by by MSAF. Table 1 shows that there was a statistcal significane increase in the birth weight, chorioamnionitis, C/S between those pregnancies wiyh moderate to thick meconium compared to mothers with clear AF. Table 2 shows labour outcome and grade of meconium. the incidence of MAS respiratory distress were significantly were significantly increased in those with MSAF. Meconium aspiration was significantly increase in those infants who required ventilator support. Table 4 shows the need for supplementation oxygen or required assisted ventilation in delivery room. Conclusions: MSAF is a frequent problem thatis associated with an increase in the risk of neonatal morbidity and mortality management requires awareness of this potential risk despite improvement in obstetrical and neonatal care, MAS continues to be a neonatal disorder with high mortality and morbidity. As MAS is a major cause of mortality in developing countries, studies focusing on prevention and early treatment should be continued to reduce mortalty and morbidity. The SOGC recommended NO longer recommend routine intrapartum suctioning of the oropharynx and nasopharynx of neonates delivered following labours complicated by meconium. FCS43.8 17-HYDROXY-PROGESTERONE DOES NOT REDUCE THE RISK OF SPONTANEOUS PRETERM DELIVERY IN WOMEN WITH CERVICAL INSUFFICIENCY AND HISTORY-INDICATED CERCLAGE F. Samson, A. Yacko, S. Shumaker, D. Tate, G. Mari, L. Gomez. University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, TN, United States of America Objectives: We sought to investigate the synergistic effect of weekly


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administration of 17-hydroxy-progesterone (17P) in women with cervical insufficiency who already had history-indicated cerclage placement. Method: We performed a cohort (retrospective) study performed at two tertiary care institutions. Women with cervical insufficiency who underwent history-indicated cerclage from January 2009 until December 2013 were divided into two groups: those receiving supplemental weekly injections of 17P from 16–20 weeks’ gestation until delivery (17P group, n=29), and those without supplemental 17P (cerclage-only group, n=17). T-test, chi-square and adjusted analyses were performed where applicable. A P-value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Demographic characteristics (maternal age, ethnicity, parity, prior preterm deliveries and tobacco use) were comparable in both groups. The gestational age at delivery was similar for the 17P group (median 36 weeks 5 days) and the cerclage-only group (median 36 weeks 1 day). The rate of delivery before 37 and 33 weeks was not significantly different among both groups (17P group: 48% and 17%; cerclage-only group: 53% and 17%, respectively). The rate of delivery before 35 weeks was greater for the cerclage-only group (41% vs. 25% 17P group) but not statistically significant, P=0.3). These results remained non significant after adjusted analyses. Conclusions: In our cohort, the use of supplemental 17P in women in with history-indicated cerclage due to cervical insufficiency did not impact significantly in reducing the rate of spontaneous preterm delivery when compared with cerclage placement alone.

FCS44. High Risk Pregnancy FCS44.1 EVALUATION OF INTENSIVE CARE MANGEMENT ON MATERNAL AND FETAL OUTCOME OF SEVERE PREECLAMPSIA AND ECLAMPSIA (EL-MINIA MATERNITY HOSPITAL EXPERIENCE) N. Noreldin, M. Tawfik, M. Hamdy, A. Elsherief. Elminia Faculty of Medicine, El-Minia, Egypt Objectives: To evaluate the effect of intensive care mangement on maternal and fetal outcome of severe preeclampsia and eclampsia in El-Minia Maternity Hospital. Design: A prospective study. Setting: A specific 6 bed ICU in El-Minia Maternity University Hospital. Patients: A total of 936 patients admitted to ICU due to severe preeclampsia, eclampsia and HELLP syndrome. Main outcome measures: Data were evaluated for control of blood pressure, prevention and control of convulsions, maternal and perinatal outcomes. Results: A total of 936cases were admitted divided into four groups. Group (1)39.74% with severe preeclampsia without HELLP syndrome, Group (2) 20.1% eclampsia without HELLP syndrome; Group (3)33.33% eclampsia with HELLP syndrome, Group (4) 6.83% with HELLP syndrome without eclampsia. No statistically significant difference regarding parity or gestational age. Cesarean section rate was highest among group (3). There was a statistically significant difference in average total duration of hospitalization among groups, more time in women with HELP. Maternal morbidity was significantly higher among groups 3, 4. There were 3 maternal deaths (3.02%). Conclusions: Intensive care management of severe preeclampsia and eclampsia remarkably improving both maternal and perinatal outcomes.

FCS44.2 PROPHYLACTIC PREOPERATIVE BALLOON-ASSISTED OCCLUSION OF HYPOGASTRIC ARTERIES IN ABNORMAL PLACENTATION: 5 YEARS EXPERIENCE Y. Habash 1 , H. Darwish 2 . 1 Suez Canal University, Faculty of Medicine, Ob/Gyn Department, Ismalia, Egypt; 2 Suez Canal University, Faculty of Medicine, Radiology Department, Ismalia, Egypt Objectives: The aim of our study is to describe and evaluate the technique of prophylactic balloon- assisted occlusion of the anterior division of the internal iliac arteries (hypogastric arteries) in abnormal placentation. Method: The records of 44 patients with a diagnosis of placenta previa/accreta/percreta were retrospectively reviewed. Patients were divided into two groups. Thirty-two patients underwent prophylactic temporary balloon- assisted occlusion, followed by cesarean section. A review of cases was done over a period of 5 years (1 March 2008– 30 February 2013). After previous agreement with the interventional radiologist, & after admission, patient in balloon occlusion group underwent the procedure of hypogastric artery balloon occlusion under fluoroscopy & using minimal radiation exposure. Intra-operatively, the balloon was inflated as needed. Twelve patients underwent cesarean section without endovascular intervention. Results: Patients in the balloon occlusion group had significantly less in estimated blood loss than the non balloon occlusion grouped (1.9 L vs. 2.8 L), same group delivery at a later gestational age than in those in non-balloon occlusion group (35.8 weeks vs. 34.3 weeks). There was no statistical difference in mean volume of replaced blood products, operating room time or postoperative recovery time. Conclusions: Our results support that in patients with placenta accreta/percreta, pre- operative prophylactic temporary balloon occlusion diminishes intra-operative blood loss. We conclude that balloon- assisted occlusion of the hypogastric arteries is a safe and effective in an attempt to minimize blood loss in patients with abnormal placentation. FCS44.3 OUTCOME OF TEENAGE PREGNANCY IN RURAL INDIA WITH PARTICULAR REFERENCE TO OBSTETRICAL RISK FACTORS AND PERINATAL OUTCOME I. Dutta. IQ City Medical College, Durgapur, India Objectives: The aim of the present study is to evaluate the outcome and complications in Teenage Primigravida when compared to Primigravidae of adult age group. Method: A massive study involving 984 patients was undertaken. It was a prospective case control study was done for 30 Months from July 2010 to January 2013 at Shri Adichunchanagiri Hospital and Research Centre, B.G. Nagara. During this period booked and unbooked cases were included in the study and for every teenage primigravidae one subsequent adult primigravidae were studied. Patients with Major skeletal deformity such as kyphoscoliosis, polio, Pelvic fracture, Diabetes mellitus, Renal disorders, Morbid obesity, All cases of molar pregnancy and Primigravidas admitted for abortion were excluded. Results: Among 492 teenage and equal adult primigravidae, 51.8% of teenage were unbooked compared to 13.6% adults. 68.4% of teenage were anemic compared to 33.32% of adults, antenatal complications like anemia, Hypertensive Disorders of Pregnancy, Oligohydroamnios, Hypothyroid were significantly more in teenagers (69.5%) compared to adults (19.3%), 33.7% of teenagers had preterm birth compared to 8.72% in adults. 48.3% of teenagers had LSCS compared to 21.9% of adults. Indication was CPD in majority of teenagers (45.4%). 31.74% of teenagers had low birth weight child compared to 16.6% in adults and 34.5% of teenage neonates required NICU admission compared to 12.4% in adults. Conclusions: Noted that teenagers had significant number of compli-

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cations in pregnancy including anemia, more preterm incidences and higher rate of LSCS followed by higher number of NICU admission. Pregnancy itself has a tremendous effect on teenage and her family. Teenage pregnancy is more common in low socio-economic status, due to lack of education, awareness of complications of teenage pregnancy, and various other factors. Hence awareness programmes should be taken up to educate poor in our rural setup. As early marriage cannot be prevented in our Culture so possibly the awareness regarding late conception can be taken up as of utmost importance.

Mode of delivery was vaginal in 23 (85.18%). Labour was spontaneous in 18 (66.66%) and it was induced in 9 (33.33%) patients with prostaglandin E2. Hepatic encephalopathy were found in 6 (22.2%), DIC in 2 (7.40), PPH 4 (14.81), APH 2 (7.40%). Maternal death was recorded in 6 (22.22%) patients. Regarding perinatal outcome 19 (70.3%) babies were born alive. Nine (33.33%) were premature. Intrauterine death was found in 8 (29.62%). Conclusions: Acute viral hepatitis E has a high mortality in pregnancy, termination of pregnancy improves the outcome.



N. Agarwal, S. Bathwal, A. Deorari, A. Kriplani, N. Bhatla, V. Kulshrestha. All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India Objectives: To assess efficacy of intra-amniotic surfactant in preterm deliveries in reducing incidence and severity of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) and to compare requirement of postnatal intratracheal surfactant in study versus control group. Method: RCT was conducted after ethical clearance in 40 pregnant women either in established preterm labour or for caesarean section at 28–34 weeks gestation. Excluding criteria were fetalmalformations, ruptured membranes, chorioamnionitis or positive shake test. Antenatal corticosteroid was administered in all eligible women. In study group (n=20), 3 mL surfactant (Neosurf) was administered intra-amniotically, as near to fetal face as possible, under ultrasound guidance within 2–8 hours of expected delivery whereas no intra-amniotic surfactant was given in control-group (n=20). Neonatal outcome was noted regarding occurrence of RDS, severity of RDS & postnatal surfactant requirement. Sub-groups 28–31 weeks & >31– 34 weeks were further analysed. Results: RDS occurred in 9/20 (45%) neonates in study-group compared to 14/20 (70%) in control-group (p=0.11). Severe RDS reduced seven folds 1/20 (5%) in study-group compared to 7/20 (35%) in controls (p=0.018). Postnatal intra-tracheal surfactant was required by 3/20 (15%) in study-group versus 10/20 (50%) in control-group (p=0.018). In 28–31 weeks subgroup, RDS severity was much reduced in cases versus controls: 1/7 (14.3%) versus 7/10 (70%), p=0.024. In >31–34 weeks none of neonates developed severe RDS. Postnatal surfactant requirement was also reduced in study group among both subgroups: 42.8% vs. 70% (p=0.35) in 28–31 weeks and 0% vs. 13% (p=0.03) in >31–34 weeks in study and control groups respectively. Conclusions: Intra-amniotic surfactant before delivery is safe & effective in prevention of RDS in preterm deliveries. It reduces severity of RDS and postpartum intra-tracheal surfactant requirement. It is more effective in early preterm deliveries (28–31 weeks). FCS44.5 MATERNAL OUTCOME WITH HEPATITIS E IN PREGNANCY N. Rizwan. LUMHS, Hyderabad, Sindh, Pakistan Objectives: To determine the maternal outcome in pregnancy women with Hepatitis E infection. Method: This study was carried out in department of Gynecology and Obstetrics Liaquat University Hospital from January 2012 to May 2013. All pregnant women with serologically proven HEV were included in study. All patients having viral infection other than HEV and cholestasis of pregnancy, preeclampsia etc were excluded. Diagnosis was based on clinical examination and investigation which included serological tests like hepatitis E IgM antibodies, viral serological for hepatitis A, B and C, LFT, CBC, Data were collected regarding age, parity, gestational age and fetomaternal outcome. Results: Twenty seven patients were admitted during the study period with Hepatitis E infection. Most were primigravidas 19 (70.37%).

N. Azzo, H. Rasheed, A. Saleem, I. Al Hamdani. Medical City/Baghdad Teaching Hospital, Baghdad, Iraq Objectives: To evaluate the effect of hyperuricemia on maternal and fetal outcome in pre-eclamptic patients at term. Method: Cross section study, conducted in High risk pregnancy clinic in Baghdad Teaching Hospital, from September 1st 2012–August 31st 2013. 364 pre-eclamptic women at term were grouped according their serum uric acid level into normal (<6mg/dL) – 159 patients and hyperuricemia (>6mg/dL) – 205 patients. Each had measure blood presure, proteinuria, uric acid. we record birth weight and APGAR SCORE at 5 minutes. Results: Women in hyperurecimia group were more likely to have severe proteinurea (3g/24hours) – 58%, also give birth earlier (37– 38 weeks)-80% while the normal uric acid group had (severe proteinurea-47%) and 58% of them delivered at 37–38 weeks. APGAR score below (7) at 5 minutes was more common in hyperuricemia group 63% compered to 7% in normal group. The newborn babies of hyperuricemic mothers had significantly low birth weight (28% below 3000g) compared to the normal group (4% below 3000g). There was moderate correlation between serum uric acid and blood presure, moderate inverse correlation with APGAR SCORE at 5 minutes and birth weight. Conclusions: Hperuricemia is significantly associated with severity of pre-eclampsia, severe proteinuria, lower birth weight and lower APGAR score at 5 minutes. FCS44.8 PREDICTORS OF ABNORMAL GLUCOSE TOLERANCE IN THE EARLY POSTPARTUM PERIOD IN PATIENTS WITH GESTATIONAL DIABETES S. Inoue, Y. Kozuma, T. Shinagawa, T. Horinouchi, D. Hori, .K. Ushijima. Kurume University School of Medicine, Kurume, Fukuoka, Japan Objectives: To investigate clinical predictors of abnormal glucose tolerance 5–7 weeks after delivery. Method: Subjects included 155 women diagnosed with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) between 2005 to 2013 whose pregnancy and delivery were managed at our center. Subjects were divided based on 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (75gOGTT) results 5–7 weeks after delivery: normal tolerance group (NGT) (n=113) with normal results and abnormal glucose tolerance group (AGT) (n=42) with borderline results or indicated diabetes mellitus. We extracted profiles in whom abnormal glucose tolerance 5–7 weeks after delivery was predicted using a classification and regression tree (CART) from parameters measured at diagnosis. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine prediction accuracy. Results: Subjects with a fasting plasma glucose (FPG) of ≥92 mg/dL and the immunoreactive insulin level 60 min after loading (IRI60min) of ≤100 μU/mL at diagnosis showed a significantly higher risk of developing abnormal glucose tolerance 5–7 weeks after delivery than subjects with FPG of <92 mg/dL (p<0.0001). Subjects with FPG of ≥92 mg/dL and IRI60min ≤100 μU/mL had the same risk as those with FPG of <92 mg/dL.


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Conclusions: Patients who met these criteria at diagnosis with gestational diabetes were at high risk of developing diabetes mellitus in future; by explaining this to patients, we expect to improve the antenatal examination rate and frequency of postpartum follow-ups. Further, this approach can lead to early detection of diabetes, and the associated complications can be prevented.

FCS45. High Risk Pregnancy FCS45.1 MATERNAL AND PERINATAL OUTCOME OF SEVERE PREECLAMPSIA AT THREE TEACHING HOSPITALS IN ADDIS ABABA K. Birhanu. Yekatit 12 Hospital Medical College, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Objectives: To determine the maternal and perinatal outcome of severe preeclampsia; to describe maternal and perinatal outcome at different gestational ages; to describe maternal and perinatal outcome of conservative versus aggressive management and to describe clinical and biochemical predictors of adverse perinatal outcome. Method: This is a 6 month prospective cross sectional study between October 2, 2006-April 2, 2007 at the three teaching hospitals of Addis Ababa University-MF. Data was collected from patient charts and interview. OR and 95% CI were used to compare important outcome predictors. Logistic regression computed to detect poor biochemical and clinical predictors of adverse perinatal out come. Results: Among 5610 deliveries during the study period, rate of severe pre eclampsia was 3.4%. The incidence of HELLP syndrome was 0.85% of total deliveries & 24.9% among cases of severe pre eclampsia. Case fatality rate was 2.6% with high incidence of maternal morbidities. ICU admission rate was 13%. PNMR was 306 per thousand births. There was no perinatal survival below 28 wks & below 1000gm.better perinatal outcome & significant prolongation of pregnancy were achieved in the conservative management group compared with those managed expeditiously. Platelet count & qualitative urine albumin were found to have statistically significant association with perinatal outcome. Conclusions: The rate of severe pre eclampsia & HEELP syndrome is higher than that reported from other studies. Maternal & perinatal out come was poor in this study, especially in cases diagnosed remote from term indicating need for improving maternal & fetal surveillance & appropriate patient selection for cases to be managed conservatively or expeditiously. Upgrading the existing facilities in NICU is important to increase survival rate of VLBW babies and to decrease the high rate of PNM in this study. Developing local management guideline for cases of severe preeclampsia remote from term based on the existing NICU feasibility seems timely. FCS45.2 DIAGNOSTIC ACCURACY OF URINARY ADIPSIN IN WOMEN WITH PREECLAMPSIA: A MULTICENTER DIAGNOSTIC TEST STUDY B. Peng 1 , L. Zhang 1 , J. Yan 2 , H. Qi 3 , W. Zhang 4 , L. Fan 4 , Y. Hu 1 , L. Lin 5 , X. Li 6 , R. Hu 6 , L. Xie 7 , J. Zhang 8 , L. Li 9 , R. Zhou* 1 . 1 Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, West China Second University Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, China; 2 Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Maternity and Child Care Service Centers in Fujian Province, Fuzhou, China; 3 Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, First affiliated hospital of Chongqing medical university, Chongqing, China; 4 Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Beijing Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China; 5 Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Beijing Friendship Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China; 6 Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital of Fudan University, Shanghai, China; 7 Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Sichuan Provincial People’s

Hospital, Chengdu, China; 8 Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, SUN YAT-SEN Memorial Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, China; 9 Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Daping Hospital of the Third Military Medical University, Chongqing, China. *Corresponding author. Objectives: The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the clinical value of the strip test of urinary adipsin for the diagnosis of preeclamosia. Method: In a multicenter diagnostic test study, we studied the diagnostic accuracy of the strip test of urinary adipsin in women presenting with preeclampsia after 20 weeks’ gestation between March 2014 to September 2014. A total of 458 pregnant women were recruited for this study, 204 preeclampsia and 254 healthy pregnant women as controls. The strip test of urinary adipsin was used to detect the adipsin in the urine of each patient. Results: The diagnostic value of the strip test of urinary adipsin for preeclampsia was demonstrated by their high sensitivity and specificity (95.10 and 97.64%). The positive predictive value, negative predictive value and diagnostic accuracy was 97.00%, 96.12% and 96.51%, respectively. The consistency analysis showed that the kappa value was 0.9292 and the upper limit and lower limit of 95% confidence intervals was 0.9632 and 0.8951 respectively, compared with the gold standard diagnosis of preeclampsia. Conclusions: The strip test of urinary adipsin is a rapid test for the diagnosis of preeclampsia with high sensitivity and specificity. It could greatly help the timely diagnosis of preeclampsia in clinical practice. FCS45.3 EVALUATION OF THE SERUM LEVELS OF COPPER AND ZINC AMONG PRE-ECLAMPTIC AND NON-PRE-ECLAMPTIC WOMEN AT NNAMDI AZIKIWE UNIVERSITY TEACHING HOSPITAL, NNEWI, NIGERIA O. Onyegbule 1 , G. Udigwe 1 , V. Okolie 1 , U. Ejelonu 2 , B. Iheukwumere 2 , C. Onumajulu 2 . 1 Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital., Nnewi/Anambra State, Nigeria; 2 Federal Medical Centre, Owerri/Imo State, Nigeria Objectives: The objective of this study was to compare the Zinc and Copper levels in the serum of Nigerian women with or without preeclampsia. Method: In this study, serum Zinc and Copper levels were determined using atomic absorption spectrometry in 54 patients and 48 healthy normotensive pregnant women. The mean, standard deviation, Student’s t-test and Pearson correlation were employed. Results: Serum Zinc was significantly lower in patients than in controls (8.27±0.60 vs. 12.16±1.83 μmol/l. P value <0.001) (t test). Serum Copper was significantly lower in patients than controls (8.14±1.80 vs. 16.62±3.17 μmol/l, P value <0.001). Conclusions: There was significant reduction in the levels of Zinc and Copper in patients with pre-eclampsia. Dietary supplementation of these trace elements may help to prevent pre-eclampsia. FCS45.4 THE EFFECT OF PRIOR INDUCED ABORTION ON SUBSEQUENT PREGNANCY OUTCOME: AN EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDY IN URBAN CHINA Q. Zhou 1,2 , H. Xu 1,2 , H. Liang 1,2 , Y. Ruan 3 , W. Zhang 3 , X. Li 1,2 . 1 Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital of Fudan University, Shanghai, China; 2 The Shanghai Key Laboratory of Female Reproductive Endocrine-Related Diseases, Shanghai, China; 3 Beijing Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China; 4 Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai, China Objectives: Prior induced abortion possibly has influence on subsequent pregnancy but it’s unclear. The aim of this study was to assess

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the induced abortion rate in urban China and evaluate its effect on future pregnancy. Method: This population-based epidemiological study have recruited reproductive women at their first prenatal-care visit from 38 medical centers and community-base hospitals in 14 cities from January 2011 to January 2012. Their prior induced abortion history and clinical characteristics were recorded. Their pregnancy followups were included. SPSS was applied for statistical analysis. Results: Of 112245 women included in analyses, 40354 (39.95%) had prior induced abortion history, among them 4601 (2.09%) women experienced 3 times or more induced abortion. Women with prior induced abortions had significantly higher risk of preterm birth, fetal growth restriction (FGR), postpartum hemorrhage and placenta problems (preeclampsia, placenta previa, placenta implantation and placenta adherent) (P=0.000). The effect of induced abortion on placenta related diseases was elevated along with its times, while those having 3 or more induced abortion at 1.91 times risks of placenta problem. Conclusions: High prior induced abortion rate in urban China had adverse effects on preterm birth, FGR, postpartum hemorrhage and placenta problems. The prevention of unplanned pregnancy and contraceptive issues is recommended for promotion of women health in urban China. FCS45.5 EVALUATION OF MEDIUM DOSE VERSUS STANDARD PRITCHARD REGIME OF MAGNESIUM SULFATE IN THE MANAGEMENT OF ECLAMPSIA IN DEVELOPING NATION S. Agrawal, V. Das, V. Verma, A. Agarwal, A. Pandey, V. Jain. King George’s Medical University, Lucknow, India Objectives: To compare efficacy and safety of medium dose of magnesium sulphate with standard Pritchard regime in the management of eclampsia in a developing nation. Method: The study was conducted over 1 year in the department of Obstetrics & Gynecology, KGMU Lucknow India. All eclampsia women after satisfying inclusion criteria were randomized in two groups using a computer generated random table. Group I received medium dose of magnesium sulphate (loading dose 10 g- 4 gm iv and 3 gm im in each buttock and maintenance dose of 3 gm im 4 hourly till 24 hours after delivery). Group II received the standard dose of Magnesium sulphater Pritchard regimen. Primary outcome was recurrence of seizures. Secondary outcome was magnesium toxicity, maternal and perinatal outcome. Results: There were 4892 deliveries during study period and 114 women had eclampsia (Incidence 2.3%). 75 women were enrolled in the study after satisfying inclusion criteria, (group I n=36, group II n=39). The difference in recurrence of fit was comparable in both groups (2.8% vs. 2.6%, p=0.954). There were 2 women with magnesium toxicity in group II as compared to none in group I (p=0.168). One woman in Group II developed severe respiratory depression and there were two maternal deaths in Group II as compared to none in Group I. The neonatal outcome was similar in both the groups (p=0.911). Conclusions: Medium dose regime of magnesium sulfate is comparable in efficacy, however less toxic than standard regimen. In developing nations like India, medium dose of magnesium sulphate appears to have a better safety profile with better maternal outcome.


FCS45.6 MATERNAL-FETAL OUTCOMES AND THROMBOPROPHYLAXIS IN WOMEN WITH SERUM MARKERS FOR THROMBOPHILIA AND PREVIOUS OBSTETRIC COMPLICATIONS E.A. Figueiró-Filho, C. Munaretto-Ferreira, V.M. Oliveira. Faculty of Medicine - Federal University of Mato Grosso do Sul (FAMED/UFMS), Campo Grande, MS, Brazil Objectives: The aim of the study was to evaluate the maternal-fetal outcomes of thromboprophylaxis with enoxaparin based on scoring system in women with serum markers for hereditary thrombophilia and previous obstetric complications. Method: A retrospective study was undertaken based on data collected from clinical records. We included 54 pregnant women with serum markers for hereditary thrombophilia undergoing therapeutic intervention with enoxaparin in the period from November 2009 to December 2013. The initial dose of low molecular weight heparin was guided by a scoring system. The maternal-fetal outcomes of previous pregnancies and, subsequently, the treatment were compared using the chi-square (χ2 ) test with the Yates correction and Fisher’s Exact Test; P<0.05 was considered significant. Results: The fetal/perinatal deaths (P<0.05) and spontaneous abortions (P<0.0001) reduced after intervention. The live births at full-term delivery (P<0.0001) and live births at preterm delivery (P<0.05) increased after intervention. Conclusions: The therapeutic intervention with enoxaparin based on scoring system during pregnancy seems to improve the fetal prognosis. FCS45.7 PROFILE OF OBSTETRICS MORBIDITY AMONG MATERNAL INTENSIVE CARE UNIT PATIENTS B. Shakya 1,2 , P. Chaudhary 1,2 , M. Tumbahangphe 1 . 1 Paropakar Maternity and Women’s Hospital, Kathmandu, Bagmati, Nepal; 2 National Academy of Medical Sciences, Kathmandu, Bagmati, Nepal Objectives: The objective of the study was to determine the outcome of the Obstetrics admissions to Maternal Intensive Care Unit in the setting of a tertiary care hospital. Method: This was a cross-sectional study undertaken at Paropakar Maternity and Women’s Hospital from April1, 2012 to March 31, 2013. Patients characteristics, gestational age, booking status, indication for intensive care unit admission, intervention, length of stay and outcome were analyzed. Results: During the study period, total of 19,247 deliveries occurred and 247 women were admitted to MICU accounting 1.28% of all deliveries. The most common indication of admission to ICU was hypertensive disorders in pregnancy (45.3%) followed by obstetrics hemorrhage (39.27%) and sepsis (4.04%). Ten cases (4.04%) of postpartum hemorrhage was managed by balloon tamponade, seven (2.83%) by B-lynch compression sutures and three (1.21%) necessitated cesarean hysterectomy. Among 18 cases of ruptured uterus, 13 (5.26%) were repaired while five (2.02%) required hysterectomy. Maternal mortality occurred in four (1.61%) cases. One case of severe pre-eclampsia died of pulmonary embolism, others due to anesthetic complication, septic shock and multiorgan failure. Conclusions: Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy and obstetric hemorrhage appear as the major risk factors influecing maternal outcome in obstetric patients.


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FCS45.8 A CASE-CONTROL STUDY OF THE ASSOCIATION BETWEEN GENITAL TRACT COLONIZATION WITH BACTERIAL VAGINOSIS AND PRETERM LABOUR A. Aderoba 1 , O. Olokor 2 , O. Iribhogbe 2 , A. Ande 2 . 1 Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Mother and Child Hospital, Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria; 2 Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria Objectives: To investigate the association between genital tract colonization with bacterial vaginosis (BV) and preterm labour; and to determine which adverse outcomes are linked to BV in pregnancy. Method: A prospective case-control study of 41 women with spontaneous preterm labour (i.e. labour less than 37 weeks gestational age) and women with spontaneous labour at term managed at a teaching hospital in Nigeria. Socioeconomic and clinical data were obtained. High vaginal swab for subsequent Gram staining was obtained. Bacterial vaginosis (BV) was determined using Nugent score on high vaginal swab samples. Birth weight was recorded at delivery. Multivariable analysis was used to assess the link between BV and preterm labour. Results: Genital tract colonization with BV in women with preterm labour was higher than that recorded for the control group (41.5% vs 12.2%; p<0.001). Multivariable analysis found that BV was associated with preterm labour (adjusted odds ratio 5.47; 95% confidence interval 1.16 – 25.70). Additionally, the mean birth weight of babies of women with BV during pregnancy is lower than those without BV in pregnancy (1880g vs 2710g; p<0.0001). Small for gestational age babies (36.4% vs 5%; p<0.01) and admission into neonatal intensive care unit (72.7% vs 36.7%; p<0.01) were most frequent among women with BV in pregnancy. Conclusions: This study shows BV is a risk factor for preterm labour in this environment; indicating that routine screening and treatment of BV in pregnancy might improve neonatal outcome.

FCS46. High Risk Pregnancy FCS46.1 PATIENT CHARACTERISTICS AND OUTCOMES IN ANTEPARTUM HAEMORRHAGE (APH) DUE TO PLACENTA PRAEVIA AND ABRUPTIO PLACENTA AT THE UNIVERSITY TEACHING HOSPITAL (UTH), LUSAKA, ZAMBIA Q. Siamalambwa 1 , M. Chisembele 2 . 1 University of Zambia, Lusaka, Zambia; 2 University of Zambia, Lusaka, Zambia Objectives: To explore patient characteristics and outcomes in APH due to placenta praevia and abruptio placenta at UTH, Lusaka, Zambia. Method: All women who presented with APH due to placenta praevia and abruptio placenta at UTH in Lusaka, Zambia from October, 2013 to January, 2014 and met the inclusion criteria were recruited into the study. Participants were interviewed post-delivery after they were clinically stable. Information on patient management was obtained from the patient’s medical records. The maternal outcomes looked at either well or near miss (hypovolaemic shock, DIC and PPH) and fetal outcomes included alive or stillborn. Results: 72 patients were recruited. Of these, 40 (55.6%) had placenta praevia and 32 (44.4%) abruptio placenta. The significant difference in patient characteristic was pregnancy induced hypertension (OR 36.3, P<0.001) in those with abruptio placenta compared to placenta praevia. Abruptio placenta was significantly associated with stillbirths (OR 31.7, 95% CI 6.86 to 212.64, P<0.001) and maternal near miss (OR 2.33, 95% CI 0.86 to 6.34, 0.052) although did not reach statistical

significance. Caesarean section in abruptio placenta was protective against stillbirth (OR 0.16, 95% CI 0.02 to 1.34 P=0.09) in those with a fetal heart. Conclusions: Despite similarities, some patient characteristics and outcomes in APH due to placenta praevia compared to abruptio placenta differ. Placenta praevia was characterised by previous deliveries by caesarean section whereas placenta abruptio was associated with pregnancy induced hypertension. Stillbirths were significantly associated with abruptio placenta and severe maternal complications (near miss). FCS46.2 IS IT POSSIBLE TO PREVENT AND MANAGE PRE-ECLAMPSIA AND ECLAMPSIA USING INTRAMUSCULAR MAGNESIUM SULPHATE ADMINISTRATION BY PRIMARY HEALTH CARE PROVIDERS AT THE COMMUNITY LEVEL L. Shamsuddin 1 , S. Hossain 2 , A.J. Faisel 3 . 1 OGSB, Dhaka, Bangladesh; Council, Dhaka, Bangladesh; 3 Engender Health, Dhaka, Bangladesh

2 Pop

Objectives: The general objective of the research was to review and assess the ability of community level facility-based service providers in screening and detecting PE/E patients, administering loading dose of intramuscular MgSO4 to the appropriate patients and referring them to the higher-level facilities in appropriate time. In addition, assess effectiveness of establishing referral mechanisms between service providers based at community level facility and higher-level service facilities and analyze cost of interventions were the objects among others. Method: The study was a quasi-experimental pre-posttest design without any control group. Interventions were provided in 19 Family Welfare Centers and 53 Community Clinics of two sub-districts for 9 months. Intervention included training of service providers on PE/E, measuring blood pressure, testing urine albumin, administering loading dose of MgSO4, orienting fieldworkers, and establishing a referral linkage. The effect of interventions was evaluated by comparing PE/E service statistics, comparing knowledge and skills of service providers and comparing quality of care through exit client interviews and observing client provider interaction. Same cohort of 105 service providers was assessed at the post-intervention survey. Results: Findings showed that knowledge on high blood pressure as a sign of PE improved significantly from 60 percent at the preintervention period to 91 percent at the post-intervention period. While there was no documented PE/E patient before intervention but 33 PE/E patients received services during intervention period in the project areas. It is revealed that service provider administered loading dose of MgSO4 IM injection correctly and referred them on time. No death occurred among mother or neonate those who had loading dose of MgSO4 at the community level facility by primary health care providers. Conclusions: It is safe to say that if trained primary health care providers (paramedics) can easily detect and manage preeclampsia and eclampsia and administer loading dose of intramuscular injection and referred them in appropriate time and recommended scale up in other parts of the country. However, findings showed that primary health care providers need mentorship particularly at the beginning of the intervention. The unit cost for scaling up the intervention per sub-district is calculated as US $7,948 and recurrent cost is US $2,052 per year. If refresher training is planned an additional cost of US $4,046 per upazila is required.

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FCS46.3 EXPRESSION OF SERUM AND GLUCOCORTICOID-INDUCIBLE KINASE-1 (SGK1) IN PREMATURE AGING PLACENTA X. Dong, Y. Zhan, T. Yu, J. Hu, X. Zhang. The Second Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, China Objectives: We intend to determine the role of SGK1 in premature aging placenta, and to investigate the pathogenesis of premature aging placenta. Method: The expression level of SGK1 in placenta was detected by immunohistochemistry, western blotting and real-time RT-PCR. The fibrosis extent of placenta was detected by Masson’s trichrome staining. In vitro, we investigated the effect of hypoxia on human trophoblast cells (HTR-8/SVneo), and the effect of SGK1 inhibitor on HTR-8/SVneo cells cultured in hypoxic conditions. Results: SGK1 was noted mainly in the membrane and cytoplasm of placental trophoblast cell. Western blotting and RT-PCR revealed that premature aging placenta had higher expression of SGK1 compared with normal placenta. Masson staining revealed that normal placenta tissue existed fibrosis, and the extent of fibrosis was increased in premature aging placenta. Meanwhile, the expression level of CTCF in premature aging placenta was increased. In vitro, Hypoxia increased SGK1and CTCF transcription in HTR-8/SVneo cells, and induced the production of more collagen fibers. Adding SGK1 inhibitor in HTR8/SVneo cells cultured in hypoxic conditions, decreased the SGK1and CTCF expression and collagen fibers. Conclusions: These data suggested that SGK1 play a decisive role in placental fibrosis. FCS46.4 EXPRESSION OF CELLULAR PRION PROTEIN AND COMMD-1 IN THE PLACENTAS OF CASES WITH NORMAL, PREECLAMPTIC PREGNANCIES WITH OR WITHOUT INTRAUTERINE GROWTH RESTRICTION A.O. Yeniel, A.M. Ergenoglu, G. Ozceltik, N. Selvi Gunel, B. Kaymaz, O. Zekioglu, A. Sener. Ege University School of Medicine, Bornova, Izmir, Turkey Objectives: To compare cellular prion protein (PrPC) and COMMD-1 expressions in the placentas of healthy women and women complicated preeclampsia and/or intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). Method: 72 women of which 16 women with preeclampsia, 19 women with preeclampsia and IUGR, 17 women with IUGR and 20 women healthy control were included. Placental tissue from each woman collected at the time of delivery. Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, western blot analysis, and immunohistochemical staining for mRNA expression, quantification and tissue localization of PrPC and COMMD-1 in each placenta were performed. Results: Both PrPc and COMMD-1 expressions were found to be lower in older gestational age. Compared to preeclampsia and IUGR, COMMD-1 mRNA was lower expressed in mixt group (p=0.011, p=0.000). Taken considered into the onset of the disease COMMD1 mRNA was lower expressed in early mixt group (p=0.000) than age matched healthy controls. COMMD-1 mRNA expression was lower in cases with placental insufficiency complicated by preeclampsia. In addition COMMD-1 mRNA expression was found significantly higher in late onset IUGR (p=0.026). However, taken considered into onset of diseases, PrPc mRNA expression was found significantly higher in late onset mixt group (p=0.021). Conclusions: Expression of COMMD-1 in placenta might be related to placental insufficiency complicated preeclampsia. The increased expression of PrPC in preeclamptic placenta seems to be a compensatory phenomenon for IUGR rather than related condition to preeclampsia. Copper hemostasis seems to be important pathogenesis in plasental insufficiency.


FCS46.5 VALUATION OF IRON REPOSITORY OF PREGNANT WOMEN WITH THE CARDIAC FAILURE ON THE BACK OF CONGENITAL HEART DISEASES A. Ogorodnyk, I. Davydova, A. Limanskaya. SI Institute of Pediatrics, Obstetrics and Gynecology of Nams of Ukraine, Kyiv, Ukraine Objectives: To define the condition of the iron repository of pregnant women with congenital heart diseases and cardiac failure versus class of heart failure at NYHA and concentration of NT-proBNP. Method: In the process of pregnancy 48 pregnant women with cardiac failure on the back of congenital cardiovascular pathology of class NYHA II-III were examined, main group, the control group includes 24 healthy women without cardiac pathology. Besides common clinical tests the in-depth study of iron metabolism (ferritin) and marker index of heart failure of NT-proBNP were conducted. Results: Indexes of iron metabolism shows its deficit of 87.5% of women in the main group. Ferritin indexes in the main group compose (14.6±0.9) μg/l in versus control group (24.8±1.2) μg/l (p<0.05). In the main group there was higher level of iron deficit by class of heart failure NYHA III (13.2±0.8) μg/l in comparison with group NYHA II (17.2±0.9) μg/l (p<0.05). Higher index of concentration of NT-proBNP – the lower concentration of ferritin in serosity (18.1±0.9) μg/l by the concentration of NTproBNP <130 pg/ml versus (12.8±0.9) μg/l by the concentration of NT-proBNP more than 130 pg/ml. Conclusions: Thus, the higher class of heart failure confirmed by markers of heart failure of pregnant women with heart failure on the back of congenital heart diseases – the greater deficit of iron repository is observed in such patients. Iron deficit demands correction to prevent hypoxia aggravation which is baseline by heart failure on the back of congenital heart diseases. Timely correction of iron deficit helps to better the perinatal results and lower maternal disease. FCS46.6 PRE-ECLAMPSIA. CAN WE PREDICT OR PREVENT IT? LITERATURE REVIEW C. Spyroulis. Betsi Caldawadar University HealthBoard, Rhyl, Debinshire, UK Objectives: Pre-eclampsia is a hypertensive disorder of pregnancy which is associated with raised BP (BP>140/90mmHg) accompanied by proteinuria after 20 weeks. Pre-eclampsia is one of 3 leading factors associated with direct maternal deaths between 2003–2005 (CEMACHE Report) and is also one of the leading mortality causes in pregnant women in developing countires. The mortality rate of pre-eclampia in developing countires, e.g. Ethipoia is 20–40%. In the last decade, we found out that, pre-eclampisa has two stages: a) the impaired placentation, b) clinical symptoms. Abnormal placentation initiates weeks before symptoms are apparent. Method: We reviewed the literature regarding prediction and prevention of pre-eclampsia by using the Cochrane Library and NHS Athens. We typed the words, prediction of pre-eclampsia and prevention of pre-eclampsia. We used the most recent data; from 2010 and onwards. For the prediction of the disease we reviewed 5 studies; 4 were multicentered studies and 1 was case control study. For the prevention, we reviewed 2 Cochrane studies regarding aspirin use and 2 regarding Vitamin D and E supplementation, 2 multicentered studies for Vitamin D and E supplementation and 1 experimental study regarding the use of Parvastatin in prevention of preeclampsia. Results: In Albaiges et al study, the senstivity to predict preeclampsia for women not required delivery was 45%, whereas for


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those who required delivery in future before 34 weeks was 90%, by testing for VEGF, PIGF and sFlt-1 factor. Papageorgiou et al study, identified that, the positive prediction rate of pre-eclampsia was 40% band 80% by using Doppler ultrasound of uterine doppler in the second semester, pre-eclampsia and severe pre-eclampsia, respectively. Vitamin supplementation to prevent pre-eclampsia is not supported by meta-analysis. Low dose aspirin before 16 weeks might be beneficial in low-risk women. 4 experimental studies support the use of pravastatin. Conclusions: Pre-eclampsia is possible to be predicted by testing VEGF, PIGF and slft-1 factor via immunohistochemistry. Doppler ultrasound of the umbilical artery, either by checking the PI or the presence of bilateral notch, is a helpful tool to predict pre-eclamsia. Prediction of pre-eclampsia is associated with closer surveillance and earlier diagnosis of pre-eclampisa which will lead to earlier treatment. There are multicentral studies which support the benefit of vitamin supplementation in the prevention of pre-eclampisa, but unfortunately meta-analysis dosen’t support due to insufficient strong evidence. Parvastatin is very promising drug to prevent preeclampsia, but we need studies in humans. FCS46.7 EXPRESSION OF HYPOXIA INDUCIBLE FACTOR-1α AND ITS EFFECTORS IN A RAT MODEL OF INTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS OF PREGNANCY F. Zhou 1,2 , X. Wang 1,2 , H. Chen 1 , P. Yu 1,3 , Y. Hu 1 . 1 Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, West China Second University Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China; 2 Key Laboratory of Birth Defects and Related Diseases of Women and Children (Sichuan University), Ministry of Education, Chengdu, China; 3 Laboratory of Cell and Gene Therapy, West China Second University Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China Objectives: Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) is a pregnancy-specific liver disorder resulting in prematurity, fetal distress and perinatal death. Whether the normal hypoxic stress response, which is mediated by hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF1α), a crucial mediator of stress response to pathological hypoxia in placenta, also operates in ICP is unclear. Method: Rats were administered with ethinylestradiol (EE) to induce cholestasis and then subjected to feto-placental ischemia reperfusion (IR); as controls, one group of rats received neither EE nor IR, another group received only EE, and another received only IR. Real-time PCR, immunohistochemistry and Western blotting were used to detect the expression of the following proteins and/or mRNA in placentas: HIF-1α, regulated in development and DNA damage response-1 (REDD1), mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), glucose transporter-1 (GLUT1), phosphoglycerate kinase-1 (PGK1) and lactic dehydrogenase A (LDHA). Results: HIF-1α, REDD1, GLUT1 and PGK1 staining was observed in the cytoplasm of trophoblasts in all four animal groups. Giving rats either EE or subjecting them to IR increased placental levels of HIF1α, REDD1, GLUT1 and PGK1 and decreased placental levels of mTOR and LDHA. Subjecting EE-treated rats to IR did not alter placental expression of REDD1 or mTOR, while it did increase expression of placental HIF-1α, GLUT1 and PGK1 and decrease expression of LDHA. In contrast to these changes in protein levels, mRNA levels did not differ significantly among the four rat groups for any of the proteins analyzed. Conclusions: Hypoxia-induced placental expression of REDD1 and mTOR is dysregulated in the utero-placental-fetal unit in pregnant rats with EE-induced cholestasis. This results in an impaired HIF-1αmediated hypoxia response, which may help explain the fetal distress observed in human ICP.

FCS46.8 PRE-PREGNANCY BODY MASS INDEX AND THE RISK OF ADVERSE PREGNANCY OUTCOME IN TWO THOUSAND TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS BANGLADESHI WOMEN S. Jahan. BIRDEM, Dhaka, Bangladesh Objectives: The aim of the present study were to evaluate the frequency of maternal complications and adverse fetal outcomes in a group of singleton pregnant women with type 2 diabetes mellitus who gave birth between January 2006 to December 2012, attended the obstetrics-diabetology out-patient clinic of a tertiary care hospital BIRDEM in Bangladesh, to compare the outcome in three groups. Method: The women were categorized into three groups according to their BMI (kg/m2 ): lean <18.5, normal from 18.5 to 24.9 and overweight >25.0–29.9 kg/m2 . Information regarding maternal age, parity, complications during pregnancy or delivery and perinatal outcomes were obtained from hospital records. The effect of prepregnancy BMI was analyzed by comparing the frequencies of various outcomes in three BMI groups by both univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis. The results were expressed as odds ratio (ORs) and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) & p values. Results: The risk of early neonatal death was also higher among women with higher BMI (ORs was 1.6 (1.1–2.3) for overweight). The rate of preeclampsia is higher among women with lean and overweight BMI in compares to normal BMI. Hypertensive disorders was also more common among lean and overweight compared to normal (ORs 3.8 (2.5–5.6), 1.6 (1.1–2.2) & 3.6 (2.5–4.5) lean, normal and overweight respectively). The risk of preterm delivery was significantly increased for overweight group and lean, as compare to normal weight. The risk of SGA was significantly more in lean compared to normal weight & overweight group. Conclusions: Pre-pregnancy overweight increases the risk of late fetal death and perinatal mortality. As overweight prevents small for gestation age infant in Type 2 Diabetes subjects, the Type 2 DM lean women were advised to take adequate diet to meet the basic requirements of pregnancy. On the contrary overweight women should reduce the body weight before pregnancy.

FCS47. High Risk Pregnancy FCS47.1 RISK OF FIVE AND MORE PREVIOUS CESAREAN SECTIONS G. Farid. Security Forces Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Objectives: To highlight and determine the maternal and neonatal outcome and asociated risks for patients who have undergone thier 6th and more cesarean sections (CS) bearing in mind the long term impact on woman’s health. Method: Retrospective cohort study in tertiary center (Security Forces Hosptial, Riyadh Saudi Arabia from June 2006-May 2010; 80 cases from 6th & more previous CS & control with 3–5 previous CS (randomly assigned). Correlation of CS number in both groups was conducted to intraoperative complciations (injury, adhesions), postpartum complications (e.g. PPH) & methods of treatment (internal iliac artery ligation, Bakry baloon), blood transfusion, admission to SICU, incidences of placenta previa/accreta. Other problems like paralytic ilues wound infection were noted. Neonatal outcome like birth weight, Apgar score & need to NICU were recorded. Results: The incidence of extensive adhesions was more (41.25%) in study than in control group (12.25%), so as bowel injury (2.5%). Placenta previa incidence was more (8.75%) in study group than in control (2.5%). Placenta accreta is 28.57% seen only in study group. Blood transfusion was more in study group (20%) as compared to 5%

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in control group. NICU admission are also doubled (27.5%) in study than control group (12.5%). Tables will be shown. Conclusions: The more number of repeat cesarean section, the more are the maternal & neonatal morbidities and hence burden on the budget of countries (more so in less previledged ones. Young training physicians should be alerted to that dangers expalined. In turn patients should be fully counselled about risks and bilateral tubal ligation strongly stressed after 3rd or 4th CS. Lectures and patient brochures should be widely spread. FCS47.2 THE DILEMMA OF SCREENING FOR GESTATIONAL DIABETES: WITH AN ATTEMPT TO REACH AN IDEAL VALUE G. Farid. Security Forces Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Objectives: To decide on the best blood levels to use for diagnosis of gestational diabetes (GDM) using modified glucose tolerance test (TT) with 75 gm load of glucose, after comparing the outcome of 3 different blood sugar level in 3 different years and correlation to maternal & fetal outcome, taking in account the cost effectiveness and accessibility to patients. Method: Retrospective study. 3 different values at different years. Group 1 (1993–1994); Group 2 (1996–1997), Group 3 (2003–2004) 75 g of glucose load used (FBS) >5.8 mmol/L for all. 2hours post prandial: Group 1>8.3 mmol/L, Group 2 >9.5 mmol/L, & Group 3 >7.8 mmol/L on selective screening (1&2) & universal screening Gp3. Comparison and analysis of maternal, fetal outcome and complication done. One way ANOVA test used. Results: The number of diagnosed GDM: Group 1 (May 1993–June 1994) 383 cases of 6411 (21.2%). Group 2 (996–1997) 604 of 6501 (33.6%) Group 3 (2003–2004) 917 of 6282 (51.0%) Total diagnosed was 1904 out of 17,975 (19,194 deliveries). There was statistical significance in abortion, gestational age & induction of delivery, maternal complications and shoulder dystocia, and insulin use (less in Group 3). Same fetal outcome except for length and diagnosis of congenital abnormalities. Cost was calculated. Conclusions: • Universal screening is superior to selective (10% of cases can be missed). • One stop clinic advisable access, care and encouragement • Planning delivery around 38 weeks or 39–40 weeks help reduce complications. Postpartum family planning & 6 weeks post partum modified GTT is vital. • Advice on exercise & diet is imperative. • BMI >27.3+5 lead to 2× risk of GDM • Continuous update of values of screening. FCS47.3 TEENAGE VERSUS ADULT PREGNANCY: MATERNAL AND NEONATAL OUTCOMES S. Jamali 1 , A. Rasekh Jahromi 1 , S. Javadpour 2 . 1 Dept. of Gynecology, Jahrom University of Medical Sciences, Jahrom, Iran; 2 Nursing Department, Jahrom University of Medical Sciences, Jahrom, Iran Objectives: Teenage pregnancy, a social problem distributed worldwide, has serious implications on maternal and child health, especially in the context of developing countries. This is of serious concern because maternal age plays a significant role in adverse outcome and complications of pregnancy. The aim of this study was to compare pregnancy outcomes among teenagers in comparison with adult women groups. Method: This is a retrospective study was conducted in 2049 pregnant women who attended to Peymanieh Hospital, Jahrom, Iran for delivery. The outcomes: maternal hemoglobin at delivery, IUGR,


birth weight, hypertension, gestational diabetes were collected via hospital documentation and compared between teenage and adult women, The data were analyzed by SPSS software program and the significance level was based at P<0.05. Results: Among 2049 pregnant women of this study, 154 cases were under the age of 19 years old. Frequency of adolescent pregnancy was 7.6%. The mean age was 18.22±0.97 year’s old.196 cases were above the age of 35 years. Their mean age was 37.07±2.01 years old. The incidence of anemia (p=000), low birth weight (RR= 11.57, CI=1.50– 89.26, P=0.02), IUGR (RR=0.08, CI=0.008–0.87, P=0.018) hypertension (p=.006), gestational diabet (p=.04), was significantly higher in the women in the adult group than in the women in the teenager group. Conclusions: Pregnancy at the ages above 35 was accompanied by a higher percentage of maternal and fetal complications compared to teenage pregnancy. Identification and diagnosis of high-risk pregnancy can be considered as the first step toward preventing the threats to the mother’s health. FCS47.4 HOW CAN WE IMPROVE TRAINING AND SERVICE PROVISION IN STILLBIRTH CARE? A META-SUMMARY OF RESEARCH IN STILLBIRTH BEREAVEMENT CARE A. Ellis 1,2 , C. Chebsey 1,2 , S. Bradley 1 , S. Jackson 3 , C. Storey 4 . 1 North Bristol NHS Trust, Bristol, UK; 2 University of Bristol, Bristol, UK; 3 University of Surrey, Surrey, UK; 4 International Stillbirth Alliance, Bristol, UK Objectives: This is a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies researching parents and staff experiences of bereavement care after stillbirth in high-income westernised countries. The project has been designed by an interdisciplinary team to inform research, training and improve care for parents who experience late intrauterine fetal death (≥24 weeks gestation). Focus was given to areas considered to be important in national guidance by the RCOG and Sands but for which there is scarcity of specific evidence to guide practice. This included but was not limited to; diagnosis, birth, post-mortem and the follow-up consultation. Method: Relevant databases and conference abstracts were searched, using SPIDER framework, up to March 2014 for studies researching parents and staff experiences of bereavement care (≥24 weeks gestation) in high-income westernised countries (Europe, North America, Australasia). We excluded studies unavailable in English, only researching the wider family, or only including parents with lethal fetal diagnosis or neonatal death but not stillbirth. Meta-analysis and quantitative aggregation (meta-summary) was used to extract findings and calculate frequency effect sizes for each theme. 54 studies were eligible. Themes were grouped by area of care; diagnosis, birth, post-mortem, follow-up; or labelled as overarching. Results: Main themes (frequency effect size) were: Overarching: Staff behaviours’ memorable impact (49%); Information at appropriate times (42%); Privacy not abandonment (28%); Research and training (23%); Public awareness (19%); Fathers have different needs (16%); Continuity of care (14%); Care after stillbirth prioritised not neglected (5%). Diagnosis: Give options & time (19%); Expect reactions (16%); Discuss concerns (12%). Birth: Support memory making (51%); Help prepare for birth (21%); Optimise pain relief (7%). Post-Mortem: Tailored discussions (19%); Factors influencing decisions (19%); Regret (9%); Distress (5%). Follow-up: Supportive systems & structures (49%); Post-natal information (28%); Debriefing (26%); Support groups (9%); Clear care pathways (5%). Conclusions: Many interesting, and often surprising, findings about parents and healthcare workers experiences were revealed. We


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present a summary of the findings, looking at interesting points in more depth. For example, behaviours and actions have a memorable impact on parents. Parents reported distress being caused by midwives hiding behind “doing” and ritualising guidelines. Staff described emotional, knowledge and system-based barriers to providing effective care. Staff described the same actions, distancing themselves from parents and focusing on tasks, as dysfunctional coping strategies. We discuss the implications for training, provision of care and future research.

Conclusions: In this study women who have suffered a previous stillbirth did not have statistically significant increase of recurrent stillbirth in a subsequent pregnancy. However, these women attended hospital earlier and more frequently than their more low-risk counterparts, and received more intense antenatal surveillance for complications of pregnancy, with increased rates of medical intervention. While increased monitoring has implications for delivery of service and resources, these pregnancies were still characterised by an increased risk of adverse perinatal outcomes.



S. Mir. Prime Hospital, Dubai, United Arab Emirates Objectives: To always keep in mind that ectopic pregnancy can be an occurrence within Intrauterine pregnancy when patient comes in pain even if Beta-HCG is doubling. Method: Heterotrophic pregnancy is a rare condition, occurs 1:30,000 pregnancies. We had a heterotrophic pregnancy diagnosed very early, in pregnancy, at 5 weeks gestation, treated successfully by Laparotomy salpingectomy, ectopic pregnancy was confirmed by Histopathology. Results: Histopathology proved that there are chorionic villi and ectopic pregnancy was confirmed. Conclusions: The possibility of heterotrophic pregnancy is more likely in women undergoing assisted conception and in populations with a high incidence of pelvic infections. The case reported here did not belong to either category. Heterotrophic pregnancy should be included as a differential diagnosis in women in the reproductive age group presenting with pelvic pain, even when there are no known risk factors. FCS47.6 PREGNANCY AFTER PREVIOUS STILLBIRTH M. Walsh 1 , A.M. Verling 2 , K. O’Donoghue 1,2 . 1 Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland; 2 Cork University Maternity Hospital, Cork, Ireland Objectives: Stillbirth in Ireland is defined as a child born weighing

>500 g or having a gestation of 24 weeks or more who shows no signs of life. This is a devastating outcome for expectant parents. The subsequent pregnancy can be one of anxiety and fear. These women are now considered “high-risk” for future pregnancy complications, and their pregnancy shoudl be managed accordingly to minimise the chances of another adverse pregnancy outcome. The aim of this study was to review the management and outcomes of the subsequent pregnancy in a cohort of women who had a stillbirth between 2007 and 2013. Method: This was a retrospective cohort study. All women who had a stillbirth in one large tertiary-referral institution between 2007 and 2013 were identified (n=260). From this group, 142 women were identified to have had a subsequent pregnancy since the stillbirth. Data were obtained from hospital and birth registers, and supplemented by detailed individual medical case-notes review. Results: One hundred and forty-two women attended with a subsequent pregnancy. Their mean age was 32 years (range 20–44). Twenty-five women suffered a miscarriage, of which only 9 were first trimester, and 117 women continued their pregnancy past 24 weeks. One woman suffered a repeat stillbirth (OR 1.6337; p=0.6). The stillbirth cohort attended on average 11 antenatal clinics compared to an average of 5 clinic visits (p<0.05) in the usual population. Sixteen pregnancies resulted in preterm deliveries (OR 2.6873; p<0.05) and 2.5% (n=3) resulted in a placental abruption (p<0.05). Caesarean section rate was 35% and 120 infants were liveborn with average birth weight 3173 (range 760–5060 g).

A. Philips 1 , A. Shetty 2 . 1 Aberdeen Royal Infirmary, Aberdeen, Scotland, UK; 2 Aberdeen Maternity Hospital, Aberdeen, Scotland, UK Objectives: To assess and compare neonatal and maternal outcomes in MC and DC twin pregnancies over a 3 year period at Aberdeen Maternity Hospital (AMH), and then to compare these outcomes with the wider literature. Method: Retrospective data was collected from the medical notes of 232 consecutive twin pregnancies who delivered at AMH between January 2010 and December 2012, and entered onto an SPSS database. Maternal demographics included age, parity, assissted reproduction (ART) and BMI and obstetric outcomes included preeclampsia, antepartum and post partum haemorrhage, Neonatal outcomes included gestation, mode of delivery, birth weight, neonatal unit (NNU) admission and any twin-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS) in MC twins. Statistically significant difference in the outcomes was set at <0.05 p-value. Results: The ratio of MC to DC twins was 1:4, 19% of DC twins were secondary to ART. There were more still births (MC 3.3%, DC 0.8%, p0.7) and low birth weight babies (MC 69% and DC 52%, p0.2) in the MC group, statistically not significant. Preterm delivery of <37 weeks (MC 96%, DC 89%, p0.01) and <32 weeks (MC 17%, DC 11%), and NNU admission (MC 64%,DC 41%, p<0.001) were significantly higher in MC twins. Seven MC twins were diagnosed with TTTS. In MC twins 50% had elective and 14% emergency CS, and in DC 48% and 16% respectively. Conclusions: MC twins had more adverse perinatal outcomes as compared to DC twins. The outcomes which correlated with larger studies were gestation at delivery, aspects of gestation with cervical length, status at birth, birth weight, gestation related birth weight, apgar scores and NNU admission rates, while TTTS was seen less frequently. There were numerous limitations to this study which meant certain outcomes could not be evaluated for every pregnancy. FCS47.8 THE USEFULNESS OF MATERNAL SERUM C-REACTIVE PROTEIN, LIPID PEROXIDE LEVELS, AND OXYGEN RADICAL ABSORBANCE CAPACITY IN PREDICTION OF INTERVAL BETWEEN MEMBRANE RUPTURE AND DELIVERY IN PRETERM PREMATURE RUPTURE OF MEMBRANES Y.H. Kim, H. Ryu, J.W. Kim, T.-B. Song. Chonnam National Univ. Medical School, Dept. of OB/Gyn, Gwangju, Republic of Korea Objectives: The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate the usefulness of maternal serum C-reactive protein (CRP), lipid peroxide, oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and other variables in predicting the interval between membrane rupture and delivery in patients with preterm premature rupture of membrane (PPROM). Method: Seventy two patients (gestational age <34 weeks) with PPROM and delivered by spontaneous vaginal delivery were analyzed. Patients were categorized into two groups; delivery within 3 days (group A) and after 3 days (group B) since PPROM. Maternal

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blood samples were collected at the time of admission. The levels of CRP, lipid peroxide, ORAC and protein carbonyl have been compared between group A and B. Other possible risk factors such as WBC count, amniotic fluid index (AFI), bishop score, and cervix length on admission were also compared. Results: Maternal serum CRP, lipid peroxide and ORAC levels were higher in group A compared with group B (p<0.05, p<0.005, p<0.005 respectively). Bishop score was higher in group A compared with group B (p<0.05). There were no statistically significant differences in AFI and cervix length between two groups. ROC curve analysis showed that CRP (cutoff value; 0.415 mg/L, area under the curve=0.673, p<0.01), lipid peroxide (cutoff value; 2.085 nmol/mg protein, area under the curve=0.795, p<0.001) and ORAC (cutoff value; 173.71 μM/μL, area under the curve=0.8, p=0.0001) level on admission are predictive of delivery within 3 days after PPROM. Conclusions: CRP, lipid peroxide and ORAC levels in maternal serum, and bishop score on admission may be useful to predict the interval between membrane rupture and delivery in patients with PPROM.

FCS48. High Risk Pregnancy FCS48.1 A COMPARATIVE STUDY BETWEEN THREE DIMENSIONAL ULTRASONOGRAGHY, COLOR DOPPLER AND MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING IN THE PRENATAL DIAGNOSIS OF PLACENTA ACCRETA H. Shawki, A. Mahran, A. Sanad, H. Bahaa, H. Fares. Minia University, Minia, Egypt Objectives: The 1ry aim of this study was to compare the accuracy of three dimensional (3D) transabdominal ultrasonography, color Doppler and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in prenatal diagnosis of placenta accreta. Method: This prospective study included 150 patients with suspected placenta accreta antenatally either by history (previous uterine surgery) or persistant low placental position after 28 weeks identified with two dimensional ultrasound among those attending the antenatal clinic at Minia Maternity university Hospital in the period between July 2012 and January 2014. 3D ultrasound, color Doppler and (MRI were done for all patients. Patients were followed up until delivery. The presence of placenta accreta was confirmed clinically at time of delivery and by histological examination of the placentae. The diagnostic accuracy these modalities was measured and compared with the final diagnosis. Results: The dignosis of placenta accreta was confirmed clinically and histologically in 110 patients (73.3%).3D ultrasonography identified 101 cases (87.3% sensitivity, 95.8% specificity, 81% PPV, 92.6% NNP, 92.3% diagnostic accuracy). Color doppler identified 95 cases ((84.9% sensitivity, 95.2% specificity, 79.6% PPV, 80.6% NNP, 85.8% diagnostic accuracy). MRI identified 97 cases ((84.2% sensitivity, 91.9% specificity, 77.5% PPV, 85.2% NNP, 87.2% diagnostic accuracy). Multiple regression analysis demonstrated that prior uterine surgery (OR=1.25, CI: 0.31–1.22) and placenta previa (OR=3.41, CI: 1.59–6.43) were the most specific risk factors for placenta accreta (P<0.01). Conclusions: High index of clinical suspicion is required for diagnosis of placenta accreta (prior uterine surgery and coexisting anterior lying placenta praevia). 3D ultrasonography, color doppler and MRI have good sensitivity and specificity for prenantal diagnosis of placenta accreta. 3D ultrasonography, color doppler are more simple, cheaper and easier to do as compared with MRI. However, in case of inconclusive results, MRI may be useful to clarify the diagnosis.


FCS48.2 ANTENATAL BODY MASS INDEX (BMI) AND WEIGHT GAIN IN PREGNANCY – ITS ASSOCIATION WITH OBESITY-RELATED COMPLICATIONS J.T. Maier, E. Schalinski, L. Hellmeyer. Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Vivantes Klinikum im Friedrichshain, Berlin, Germany Objectives: Overweight and obesity is a serious health risk in the developed and developing nations nowadays. It is a common finding among women in their reproductive age. Half of the patients entering their pregnancy in the United States have a BMI of more then 25.0 and are therefore overweight or obese. Moreover, there is a tendency towards more weight gain in pregnancy. Studies have shown that gestational overweight is associated with complications in pregnancy and birthing as well as short-time and long-time impact on neonatal outcome in childhood and adulthood. Method: 591 women visiting our tertiary perinatal center in 2014 were analyzed in antenatal BMI, gestational weight gain, as well as pregnancy outcome and complication together with neonatal weight and outcome. Pregnancy weight gain was assessed based on the IOM guidelines issued in 2009. Results: 29% of our population was overweight (BMI ≥25.0). General weight gain was similar in every BMI group (from 12.0 to 14.0kg). 59% displayed a gestational weight gain outside the recommendations. More then one third gained more then the appropriate amount (37%, p<0.001). Those patients were at risk of labor induction (55.0% vs. 45.7% labor induction in total, p=0.007) and exhibited significantly higher rates of secondary cesarean section (22.4% vs. 15.4%) and decreased chances of spontaneous vaginal birth (57.5% vs. 61.4%) (p=0.008). Furthermore, these women were shown to give birth to neonates with a higher birthweight (>75.centile, 28.3% vs. 21.3%, p<0.001). Conclusions: Altogether, one third of the analyzed population is already overweight or obese when entering their pregnancy. A higher gestational weight gain then the recommended amount was found in 37% of cases. We found an association with pregnancy and birthing complications as well as higher infant weight. This highlights the importance of preconceptive and prenatal advice, and if necessary, intervention on BMI and weight gain. FCS48.3 ENDOTHELIAL NO SYNTHASE GENOTYPE AND RISK OF PREECLAMPSIA IN UZBEK POPULATION D. Najmutdinova 1,3 , F. Nishanova 1 , N. Zakhidova 2 , T. Hegay 2 , F. Karimova 2 . 1 Republican Specialized Scientific and Practical Medical Center of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Tashkent, Uzbekistan; 2 Institute of Immunology, Uzbek Academy of Science, Tashkent, Uzbekistan; 3 Tashkent medical academy, Tashkent, Uzbekistan Objectives: To assess the association between two most commonly investigated NOS3 polymorphisms (rs2070744 and rs1799983) and preeclampsia on a homogeneous population of Uzbeks. Method: A total of 77 cases with preeclampsia and 29 female controls were recruited. The ISSHP definition of preeclampsia was used to identify women with new onset hypertension and proteinuria. Controls, matched for parity, had no history of hypertension in pregnancy. Genomic DNA was extracted from whole blood using standard salt-ethanol method. Genotyping of NOS3 polymorphisms (rs2070744 and rs1799983) were performed by amplification from 20 to 100 ng of genomic DNA on PyroMark Q24 using PyroMark Gold Q24 Reagents and “Amplisense Pyroscreen” VEGFA/NOS3screen reagents and qPCR. Results: Totally 77 cases and 29 controls were analyzed. For the control group, genotype frequencies were as predicted by HardyWeinberg equilibrium (HWE) for T786C, but not for G894T. Single locus analysis of T786C polymorphism revealed lack of associ-


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ation, while G-allele of G894T showed significant association with preeclampsia, therefore it could be considered as a risk allele in comparison with T-allele. Genotype distribution of the G894T polymorphism differed significantly among preeclamptic and normotensive women. In analysis under a recessive model of inheritance, women homozygous for the G allele were more likely to develop preeclampsia compared with carriers for the T allele. Conclusions: Our study suggests that Uzbek women homozygous for the G allele of G894T polymorphism are at increased risk of developing preeclampsia, but very large studies or meta-analysis will be required to confirm these findings and refine estimates of the effect size. FCS48.4 CONTRIBUTION OF PREPREGNANCY BODY MASS INDEX AND GESTATIONAL WEIGHT GAIN TO ADVERSE NEONATAL OUTCOMES: POPULATION ATTRIBUTABLE FRACTIONS FOR CANADA S. Dzakpasu 1 , J. Fahey 2 , R. Kirby 3 , S. Tough 4 , B. Chalmers 5 , M. Heaman 6 , S. Bartholomew 1 , A. Biringer 7 , E. Darling 8 , L. Lee 9 , S. McDonald 10 . 1 Health Surveillance and Epidemiology Division, Public Health Agency of Canada, Ottawa, ON, Canada; 2 Reproductive Care Program of Nova Scotia, Halifax, NS, Canada; 3 Dept. of Community and Family Health, College of Public Health, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, USA; 4 Depts. of Paediatrics and Community Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada; 5 Dept. of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada; 6 College of Nursing, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, Canada; 7 Dept. of Family and Community Medicine, University of Toronto, Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, ON, Canada; 8 Midwifery Education Program, Laurentian University, Sudbury, ON, Canada; 9 Perinatal Services British Columbia, Provincial Health Services Authority, Vancouver, BC, Canada; 10 Depts. of Obstetrics & Gynecology, Radiology, and Clinical Epidemiology & Biostatistics, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada Objectives: Low or high prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) and inadequate or excess gestational weight gain (GWG) are associated with adverse neonatal outcomes. This study estimates the contribution of these risk factors to preterm births (PTBs), small-forgestational age (SGA) and large-for-gestational age (LGA) births in Canada compared to the contribution of prenatal smoking, a recognized perinatal risk factor. Method: We analyzed data from the Canadian Maternity Experiences Survey. A sample of 5,930 women who had a singleton live birth in 2005–2006 was weighted to a nationally representative population of 71,200 women. From adjusted odds ratios, we calculated population attributable fractions to estimate the contribution of BMI, GWG and prenatal smoking to PTB, SGA and LGA infants overall and across four obstetric groups. Results: Overall, 6% of women were underweight (<18.5 kg/m2 ) and 34.4% were overweight or obese (≥25.0 kg/m2 ). More than half (59.4%) gained above the recommended weight for their BMI, 18.6% gained less than the recommended weight and 10.4% smoked prenatally. Excess GWG contributed more to adverse outcomes than BMI, contributing to 18.2% of PTB and 15.9% of LGA. Although the distribution of BMI and GWG was similar across obstetric groups, their impact was greater among primigravidas and multigravidas without a previous PTB or pregnancy loss. The contributions of BMI and GWG to PTB and SGA exceeded that of prenatal smoking. Conclusions: Maternal weight, and GWG in particular, contributes significantly to the occurrence of adverse neonatal outcomes in Canada. Indeed, this contribution exceeds that of prenatal smoking for PTB and SGA, highlighting its public health importance.

FCS48.5 INTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS OF PREGNANCY AND CANCER, IMMUNE-MEDIATED AND CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES: A POPULATION-BASED COHORT STUDY E.A. Wikström Shemer 1 , O. Stephansson 2,3 , M. Thuresson 4 , M. Thorsell 1 , J. Ludvigsson 5,6 , H.-U. Marschall 7 . 1 Dept. of Obstetrics and Gynaecology and Dept. of Clinical Sciences, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; 2 Dept. of Women’s and Children’s Health, Karolinska Institutet and University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden; 3 Dept. of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska University Hospital and Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; 4 Statisticon AB, Uppsala, Sweden; 5 Clinical Epidemiology Unit, Dept. of Medicine, Solna, Karolinska Institutet and University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden; 6 Dept. of Paediatrics, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden; 7 Sahlgrenska Academy, Institute of Medicine, Dept. of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden Objectives: Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) is the most common liver disease in pregnancy. It is associated with hepatobiliary diseases that might predispose to cancer and also with gestational diabetes and preeclampsia. In this study, we examined associations between ICP and cancer, and immune-mediated and cardiovascular diseases. Method: By linking the Swedish Medical Birth Register and the Swedish Patient Register, we identified 11,388 women with ICP and 113,893 matched women without ICP who gave birth between 1973 and 2009. Diagnoses of cancer and immune-mediated and cardiovascular diseases both before and after delivery were obtained from the Patient Register. The main outcome measures were hazard ratios (HRs), calculated through Cox regression, for the indicated diseases after delivery. Results: ICP was not associated with later overall cancer (HR 1.07, 95% CI: 0.94–1.21), but specifically with later liver and biliary tree cancer (HR 3.61, 95% CI: 1.68–7.77, and 2.62, 95% CI: 1.26–5.46). Later immune-mediated diseases were more common (HR 1.28, 95% CI: 1.19–1.38), specifically diabetes (HR 1.47, 95% CI: 1.26–1.72), thyroid disease (HR 1.30, 95% CI: 1.14–1.47), psoriasis (HR 1.27, 95% CI: 1.07– 1.51), inflammatory polyarthropathies (HR 1.32, 95% CI: 1.11–1.58) Crohn’s disease (HR 1.55, 95% CI: 1.14–2.10) exept ulcerative colitis (HR 1.21, 95% CI: 0.93–1.58). ICP women had a small increased risk of later cardiovascular disease (HR 1.12, 95% CI: 1.06–1.19). Conclusions: This population-based study in women with ICP found increased risks of later hepatobiliary cancer, thus we strongly recommend a follow-up of liver function tests 6–12 weeks after delivery in all women with ICP, with and without persisting pruritus, and if liver enzymes are elevated, further evaluation by a hepatologist. It also showed an increased risk of immune-mediated diseases and a small increased risk of later cardiovascular disease. Cardiovascular disease was particularly prevalent in women with ICP and concomitant preeclampsia, for these women we recommend an annual control of blood pressure. FCS48.6 FETAL ECHO-CARDIOGRAPHIC CHANGES IN PREGNANCIES COMPLICATED BY DIABETES MELLITIUS A. Abdelhamid Youssef, M. Zakhera, A. Ismail, A. Abobakr Nassr, B.C. Brost. Women Health Hospital, Assiut Medical College, Assiut, Egypt Objectives: The study aims to evaluate the performance of Fetal left myocardial performance index (MPI) (Tie Index) in pregnancies complicated by diabetes mellitus and its relation to perinatal outcome. Method: The study included 54 pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus, 20 patients whose diabetes was controlled by diet, 34 patients whose diabetes was controlled by insulin. The control group included 65 healthy preganant women in the same gestational age. All fetuses were examined by using the left myocardial perfor-

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mance index (MPI) to evaluate the function of the left venticle. The perinatal outcome measures used were: Birth weight, 5-minute apgar score,meconium staining of amniotic fluid, cord arterial ph-value, admission to NICU and perinatal death. Results: The mean left fetal MPI was found to be significantly higher among diabetic preganancies with large for gestational age (LGA) and polyhydramnios compared to diabetic patients whose fetuses with average for gestational age and normal amniotic fluid. Also pregnant diabetic women with Abnormal high MPI (>0.59) have worse perinatal outcome as regards the low 5-minute apgar score, NICU admission, cesarean section for intrapartum fetal distress, need for neonatal resuscitation compared to the control group. While no difference was found in the incidence of meconium staining of amniotic fluid or mean duration of NICU stay. Conclusions: The fetal myocardial performance index exhibited some degree of deterioration among diabetic women that require insulin for control especially in the presence of fetal macrosomia and polyhydramnios. Abnormally high MPI in diabetic women was associated with poor perinatal outcome as regards low 5-minute apgar score, intrapartum fetal distress and NICU admission. FCS48.7 ROLE OF POSTPARTUM CURETTAGE IN RECOVERY OF SEVERE PREECLAMPSIA AND ECLAMPSIA PATIENTS – A RANDOMISED CONTROLLED TRIAL A. Mallapur, B. Renuka, G. Katageri, A. Mallapur. S. Nijalingappa Medical College, Bagalkot, Karnataka, India Objectives: 1. To record mean arterial pressure (MAP) and urine output 4th hourly in postpartum curettage (P) and control (C) groups of preeclampsia and eclampsia patients. 2. To estimate the platelet count 12th hourly in the above two groups. 3. To perform renal and liver function tests 24 hourly in the above two groups. 4. To record the duration of hospital stay of the patient. 5. Thereby, to evaluate the role of postpartum curettage in recovery of severe preeclampsia and eclampsia patients. Method: This was randomized controlled trial, done at tertiary care hospital, Bagalkot, India. After institutional ethics committee clearance and informed consent from subjects, women >28 weeks of gestation with severe preeclampsia and eclampsia were included. They were allocated into P or C group by block randomization technique (50 in each). Postpartum curettage of placental site was done in P group by ultrasound guidance (vaginal delivery); or direct observation (caesarean section). Both groups were monitored by recording blood pressure, urine output, platelet count, renal and liver function tests, and hospital stay duration. Data was analysed by Student’s t test (OpenEpi software). Results: The difference in mean arterial pressure and urine output of P and C groups were not statistically significant on admission but were statistically significant from the 4th hour postpartum onwards (MAP (mm of Hg): 116±4.4 and 123.6±6.1 (p<0.001); Urine output (mL): 256±125.92 and 206±116.25 (p<0.04), at 4 hours). Difference in platelet counts (per microlitre) of two groups (230,520±62,946 and 169,826±63,196) was statistically significant (p<0.001) from 24 hour onwards. At 24 hours, liver and renal function parameters were significantly reduced in P group. Mean duration of stay in hospital was 7.26±2.46 and 12.72±3 in P and C groups respectively. Conclusions: Immediate postpartum curettage significantly influences the recovery in severe pre eclampsia and eclampsia patients with no adverse sequelae, reducing the stay of the patient in the hospital and decreasing the rate of complications in them thereby reducing the maternal morbidity and mortality rate. This can prove as one simple method which can be employed to achieve early wellbeing of the hypertensive pregnant patients, especially in countries where poor health care facilities and financial constraints exist.


FCS48.8 ANTICOAGULANT THERAPY DURING PREGNANCY IN WOMEN WITH MECHANICAL HEART VALVES F. Kashfi 1,2 , N. Samiei 1 , S. Hosseini 1 , F. Yazdanian 1 , A. Alizadeh Ghavidel 1 , R. Taheripanah 3 . 1 Heart Valve Disease Research Center, Rajaie Cardiovascular Medical and Research Center, Iran University of Medical Science, Tehran, Iran; 2 Department of Epidemiology and Reproductive Health, Royan Institute for reproductive Biomedical, ACECR, Tehran, Iran; 3 Emam Hossein Hospital Shaheed Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran Objectives: Mechanical heart valves induce risks for both mother and fetus. The aim of present study was to investigate feto-maternal outcomes in women with mechanical heart valve according to type of anticoagulant therapy. Method: In this prospective study, 46 pregnant women with mechanical heart valves who referred to the Maternal Cardiology Service at Shahied Rajaie Heart Hospital were studied between 2010 and 2014. A questionnaire including clinical history and physical exam were completed and a baseline echocardiography was done. According to Anticoagulation regime during pregnancy, women were categorized as: low dose warfarin (less equal to 5 mg; N=27; group 1); high dose warfarin (more than 5 mg; N=16; group 2) and Unfractionated heparin in first trimester continued with warfarin in second and third trimester (N=3; group 3). Results: Twenty - two patients underwent mitral valve replacement, 13 aortic valve replacement, 7 mitral and aortic valves, 3 pulmonary valve replacements and one bentall procedure. In group 1, 18 patients had C/S and 9 patients underwent abortion. There were no fetomaternal complications except one having nasal bone deformity. In group 2, one woman had NVD, 7 underwent C/S while 7 experienced abortion. One woman underwent legal termination due to fetal abnormalities at 26 weeks. Valve thrombosis occurred in 1 woman. Fetal complications found in 4 newborns. In group 3, there was one maternal valve thrombosis and no fetal complication. Conclusions: The women treated with low dose warfarin have fewer complications in comparison to high dose group or Heparin therapy group. Embryopathy is observed more in women who took high dose warfarin. FCS48.9 BLEEDING AFTER CHILDBIRTH: CAN A BLEEDING HISTORY QUESTIONNAIRE HELP IDENTIFY WOMEN AT RISK OF EXCESS BLOOD LOSS POSTPARTUM? J. Durocher 1 , A. Mauer 2 , I. Dzuba 1 , M. Tarnagada 1 , B. Coller 2 , B. Winikoff 1 . 1 Gynuity Health Projects, New York, New York, USA; 2 The Rockefeller University, New York, New York, USA Objectives: Women with inherited bleeding disorders, such as von Willebrand disease (vWd), are at increased risk for developing postpartum hemorrhage (PPH). We aimed to ascertain whether a validated bleeding history questionnaire and scoring instrument, shown to aid in the diagnosis of vWd and other bleeding disorders, could be used as a simple means to assess the likelihood of experiencing excessive bleeding after childbirth. Method: A prospective trial conducted in two hospitals in Vietnam and Turkey enrolled women presenting for vaginal delivery. At admission, women were asked a series of questions about their bleeding histories using the “condensed MCMDM-1 vWd questionnaire”, which included questions about prior bleeding symptoms, their frequency, duration, and treatment. Responses were scored per the standardized instrument and summed to obtain a total bleeding score for each participant (possible score range: −3 to 45). Bleeding scores were then compared between women with and without excessive postpartum bleeding (defined as ≥500 mL). Postpartum blood loss was objectively measured in this study (BRASSS-V drape).


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Results: A total of 653 participants were enrolled. Blood loss ≥500 mL was measured in 13% (n=85); only 1% experienced severe PPH (≥1000 mL). Bleeding scores ranged from −2 to 5 with the majority of women scoring zero. There was no statistical difference between mean bleeding scores for women with postpartum blood loss ≥500 mL (mean −0.12; sd 0.79) versus women with <500 mL (mean −0.04; sd 0.85; p=0.378). Analysis of bleeding scores and other PPH outcomes (i.e. severe PPH ≥1000 mL, Hb fall, and recourse to additional interventions) did not yield any significant findings. Conclusions: Bleeding history scores were low in this population, were not associated with blood loss ≥500 mL, and there were no elevated scores indicative of any bleeding problem. It is possible that the questionnaire was not sensitive enough to detect bleeding issues experienced by women in these settings (the instrument has only been validated in high-income, non-obstetric settings). Furthermore, bleeding scores may only be correlated with the most severe cases of hemorrhage which were infrequent in our study. It is unlikely that validated bleeding scores for specific bleeding disorders will be able to predict risk for PPH in a general population.

FCS49. High Risk Pregnancy FCS49.1 POTENTIAL USE OF A SEMIQUANTITATIVE PREGNANCY TEST FOR FOLLOW-UP IN MEDICAL MANAGEMENT OF ECTOPIC PREGNANCY L. Zimmerman 1 , K. Stempinski 1 , A. Underiner 1 , E. O’Neill 1,2 , A. Patel 1,2 . 1 Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, John H. Stroger Hospital of Cook County, Chicago, IL, USA; 2 Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL, USA Objectives: To apply a theoretic model using a semiquantitative pregnancy test for women who underwent medical management of ectopic pregnancy. Method: We performed a retrospective review of 94 women who underwent management of ectopic pregnancy with a single dose of methotrexate from 2006 to 2011 at the John H. Stroger, Jr., Hospital of Cook County. Available serum BHCG levels were recorded when and if women followed up after methotrexate treatment. BHCGs for women were categorized in accordance with levels the semiquantitative test could differentiate: N10,000, 9999–2000, 1999–500, 499– 100, 99–25 and b25 as thresholds for expected follow-up times. These data points were graphed over time to assess how the test might perform if it served as a replacement for serum level followup. Results: Among the 94 women, 64 presented for day 7 hCG follow-up and 31 were followed until hCG dropped <25 mU/mL. For the three women with hCG 25–99 mU/mL, it took an average of 8.7 days for hCG to drop <25 mU/mL. Thirteen women had a 7-day hCG 100–499 mU/mL. It took an average of 18.9 days for hCG to drop <25 mU/mL. For the women with 7-day hCG 500–1999 mU/mL, it took an average of 21.9 days for hCG to drop <25 mU/mL. Among the four women with hCG 2000–9999 mU/mL, it took an average of 29.0 days for hCG to drop <25 mU/mL. Conclusions: Follow-up for BHCG levels for medical management of ectopic pregnancy can last for many months. Many women do not follow-up as recommended. The use of a home semiquantitative pregnancy test might have utility in ectopic pregnancy management as has been demonstrated for medical abortion. This may increase compliance and safety while decreasing patient inconvenience.

FCS49.2 WOMEN’S EXPERIENCE OF ECTOPIC PREGNANCY – A QUALITATIVE STUDY N. Spillane 1 , S. Meaney 1,2 , K. O’Donoghue 1 . 1 Dept. of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland; 2 National Perinatal Epidemiology Centre, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland Objectives: Ectopic pregnancy is a potentially life threating condition. Due to the specific nature of Ectopic pregnancy the grief experienced may well be overlooked compared to other pregnancy losses. Fertility concerns for the future and recovery from surgical or medical treatment may instead become the focus of care. The aim of this study was to gain insight into women’s experience of Ectopic pregnancy, focusing on the area of emotional recovery. Method: Seven women who had experienced an Ectopic pregnancy in a large tertiary-level Irish maternity hospital partook in in-depth qualitative interviews. This sample was recruited purposively ensuring Ectopic pregnancies which were managed expectantly, medically and surgically were included. In this study an interpretative phenomenological analysis was utilised as it has an ideographic approach which allows us to gain insight into the women’s experiences of Ectopic pregnancy. Results: Interviewing this sample concluded how devastating the experience of Ectopic pregnancy can be. Responses included shock, disbelief and confusion as a consequence to diagnosis. The importance of the scan to confirm diagnosis was evidence of the coping strategy adopted and self protection. Other key findings were the importance of clear information on treatments, the need for bereavement counselling and an appropriate method to complete the outpatient care as these issues enabled closure and recovery for these women. As no forum was made available to discuss future pregnancies, apprehension about their fertility escalated and women were reluctant to conceive again. Conclusions: The findings of this study show that women had difficulty coming to terms with their diagnosis and its implication for treatment. This study found that the lack of follow up had a negative impact on their ability to recover from the Ectopic pregnancy and illustrated women’s reservations to embark on future pregnancies. The results of this study have implications for the care of women who experience Ectopic pregnancy particularly in relation to how they are managed from diagnosis to completion of treatment. FCS49.3 DO HAPO BASED GLYCEMIC TARGETS CHANGE THE ABILITY OF AN ENLARGED FETAL ABDOMINAL CIRCUMFERENCE (AC) AT 28–34 WEEKS GESTATION TO PREDICT OBSTETRIC AND NEONATAL MORBIDITY IN GESTATIONAL DIABETES (GDM)? M. Pavicic, K. Simpson, G. Lee. University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, Kansas, USA Objectives: In 2010, the University of Kansas adopted much stricter glycemic thresholds than currently used based on the HAPO study. This study looks at whether an enlarged abdominal circumference measurement at 28–34 weeks still predicts morbidity when all gestational diabetes patients are instructed to achieve glycemic targets of fasting <85 mg/dL and 2-hour postprandial <110 mg/dL. Method: The charts of 54 patients diagnosed with GDM using the Carpenter-Coustan diagnostic criteria from 2012–2015 were reviewed. Data on abdominal circumference at 28–34 weeks, treatment methods, fetal and maternal outcomes were collected. Patients with an AC ≥70%, ≥80% and ≥90% were compared to those without AC elevation using risk ratios to assess predictive value for large for gestational age infants (LGA ≥90%), macrosomia (birth weight ≥4000 gms), cesarean delivery, and neonatal hypoglycemia (glucose <40 mg/dL). This was then compared to existing data on the ability of abdominal circumference to predict similar outcome measures.

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Results: An enlarged AC was a significant risk factor for LGA and macrosomia at the 70th, 80th, 90th percentile, risk ratios 4.3–10.2. Only an AC ≥90 was significantly associated with neonatal hypoglycemia (RR 2.2, [1.02, 4.84]). An enlarged AC was not associated with a cesarean delivery. Conclusions: The enlarged AC predicts some but not all morbidity in GDM patients universally treated with very strict glycemic targets. An enlarged AC was strongly associated with LGA and macrosomia. However, an enlarged AC was only weakly associated with neonatal hypoglycemia, and not at all for cesarean delivery. The translational impact of an enlarged AC still requires refinement in a practice where all patients are aiming for very strict glycemic targets. FCS49.4 ASSESSMENT OF THERAPEUTIC POSITION TO IMPROVE RENAL VENOUS HEMODYNAMICS IN PREECLAMPSIA D. Reuter 1 , P. Coffey 2 . 1 Seattle Children’s Hospital, Seattle, WA, USA; Seattle, WA, USA


Objectives: The left renal vein is vulnerable to mechanical compression in pregnant women. In women with inadequate ipsilateral collaterals, mechanical compression impedes efferent renal blood flow and increases intra-renal pressure. This increased pressure, which has been shown to acutely increase renin but chronically causes ischemia (endoglin upregulation) and endothelin release, may play an integral role in the pathophysiology of preeclampsia. The objective of this study is to determine whether a therapeutic prone position intended to optimize renal venous flow is associated with reduced intra-renal pressure, reduced renal ischemia, normalization of vasoactive compounds, and reduction in blood pressure. Method: A prospective, randomized, cross-over controlled feasibility trial will test our hypothesis. Thirty women with late-term pregnancy associated hypertension will be enrolled. The intervention involves rest in a therapeutic (prone) position for 2 hours three times a day for 4 days using a custom support surface. Longitudinal assessments will include blood pressure, serum markers of renal injury (e.g.,endoglin), and measures of vasoactive compounds affected by intra-renal pressure (renin, aldosterone, endothelin, and metanephrine). Renal Doppler assessment of arterial and venous flow will assess the affect of an acute change in position on renal perfusion. Results: Interim data relating to the effects of a therapeutic prone position on renal venous hemodynamics (after 4 days of therapeutic positioning), markers of renal injury/ischemia (at baseline, 4 days, and 8 days), and measures of vasoactive compounds (collected during the renal Doppler assessment) will be presented. These measures will be compared between treated and control groups. Conclusions: Interim data will suggest the feasibility of whether a therapeutic position can reduce the physiologic effects of “renal compartment syndrome” in women with late-term pregnancy associated hypertension thereby pointing the way towards a simple, affordable behavioral change intervention to manage late-stage PE/E. FCS49.5 AN INCREASE IN SPOT URINARY PROTEIN-TO-CREATININE RATIO CAN BE AN USEFUL PREDICTOR OF PREECLAMPSIA M. Nishimura, A. Nakashima, N. Komura, S. Komiya, T. Kushimoto, M. Goto, S. Yoshida, O. Sato, K. Shikado, K. Ogita. Rinku General Medical Center, Rinku Orai Kita 2–23, Izumisano City, Osaka, Japan Objectives: Preeclampsia is a major cause of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. Early diagnosis of preeclampsia is important to help patients with preeclampsia, however, 24-hour urine collection is the gold standard at present. Recently, spot urinary protein-to-creatinine ratio (P/C ratio) is used to detect suspected preeclampsia, because P/C ratio can estimate the amount of 24-hour


urinary protein. The aim of this study is to whether an increase in P/C ratio precedes emergence of hypertension among patients with preeclampsia. Method: P/C ratio was obtained from normotensive (systolic blood pressure less than 140mmHg and diastolic blood pressure less than 90mmHg) pregnant women of the regular prenatal checkup and inpatients with preeclampsia between April 1, 2013 and March 31, 2014. Results: 4,074 normotensive pregnant women were included. The 95 percentile value in each trimester was 0.100, 0.157 and 0.195 respectively. The 95 percentile value in each trimester and the gestational age were determined as criterion variable (Y) and predictor variable (X) respectively. In simple regression, a regression line was calculated as Y=0.0035X+0.0849. Twenty-one women were diagnosed with preeclampsia. In 14 patients with preeclampsia, the timing of which P/C ratio exceeded the regression line precede emergence of hypertension. 6 patients had no data of P/C ratio and emergence of hypertension preceded an increase in P/C ratio in 1 patient. Conclusions: An increase in P/C ratio over 95 percentile value can be an useful predictor of preeclampsia. FCS49.6 MATERNAL HEMOGLOBIN CONCENTRATION IN FAVOR OF BEST PREGNANCY OUTCOME IN IRAQI WOMEN T. Alhaidari 1,2 , E. Ali 2,3 . 1 Alkindy College of Medicine, Baghdad, Iraq; 2 Iraqi society of Obstetrics & Gynecology, Baghdad, Iraq; 3 Al Elwiya Maternity Teaching Hospital, Baghdad, Iraq Objectives: To analyze the maternal and perinatal outcome in varying degree of haemoglobin concentration. Method: A cohort study, involved a total of 500 pregnant women at enrolment in the obstetric unit in late second and third trimester at Al Elwiya Maternity Teaching Hospital in Baghdad. They were grouped into five categories (according to the maternal haemoglobin (Hb) and mean corpuscular volume (MCV) levels) based on WHO definition. Those categories named; normal Hb, mild anemia with or without microcytosis, moderate anemia and severe anemia. Then were followed up in labor until delivery and their maternal, obstetrical and perinatal outcomes were correlated with maternal Hb and MCV levels. Results: The overall prevalence of anaemia in this study was 44.6% after adjusting for MCV. The differences in mean birth weight among the five categories was statistically significant, being highest (3699.9 g) in group-II A (mild anemia with normocytosis) and declined with reducing maternal Hb to reach its lowest value (2503.1 g) in group-IV (sever anemia with microcytosis) and also it declined with increasing maternal Hb to group-I (normal Hb level)were the birth weight was 347.9 g after adjusting for maternal age and parity. Adverse maternal outcomes and perinatal outcomes were lowest in group - IIA (mild anemia with normocytosis) and increased with increasing or decreasing of Hb concentration. Conclusions: Pregnant women with mild anaemia Hb=9–10.9g/dl (hypochromic normocytic) fared best in maternal and perinatal outcome and was associated with the highest mean birth weight, for that the trend in Iraq of prescribing iron as prophylactic and treatment of mild anaemia need to be revised. FCS49.7 HIGH RISK FACTORS ANALYSIS OF 305 RURAL POSTPARTUM HEMORRHAGE CASES B. Song, J. Wu, Q. Gao. National Centre for Women and Children’s Health, China CDC, Beijing, China Objectives: To analyze high risk factors of postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) in rural areas and their effect on the severity of PPH.


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Method: From October 2010 to June 2012, cross-sectional study was used to collect information of 305 maternal women who suffered PPH in three counties in central China. Results: 84.3% of the group had high-risk factors of PPH, of which 79.3% had antepartum high risk factors and 54.1% had intrapartum and postpartum high risk factors. The percentage of maternal women who had one, two or three high risk factors of PPH were 26.2%, 28.9% and 29.2% respectively. When the number of high risk factors increased, the incidence rate of severe PPH increased. The difference is statistically significant (P=0.000). Multivariate logistic regression analysis shows that risk factors of severe PPH are three or more times of pregnancy, no antenatal care visit, placental factor, and cesarean delivery. Conclusions: Most PPH cases have antepartum, intrapartum, and postpartum risk factors. It is necessary to conduct in time screening and treatment of high risk factors so as to reduce severe PPH rate. FCS49.8 COLOR DOPPLER ULTRASOUND IN DIAGNOSIS OF PLACENTA ACCRETA Borg 1 ,

El-Dorf 1 ,

Ossman 1 ,

Abo-Elagha 1 ,

Salem 1 ,

H. A. A. A. H. K. El-Shafie 2 , R. El-Arabawy 2 . 1 Tanta University, Faculty of Medicine, Obstetrics and Gynecology department, Tanta, Gharbiah Governorate, Egypt; 2 Tanta University, Faculty of Medicine, Radiology department, Tanta, Gharbiah Governorate, Egypt Objectives: To evaluate the accuracy of Doppler Ultrasonography in the diagnosis of placenta accreta and to compare it with the diagnostic accuracy of both 2D Ultrasonography and MRI. Method: Prospective study done at Obstetrics & Gynecology Department at Tanta University Hospital, Egypt, the study included 100 patients with suspected placenta accreta based on 2D ultrasonography, color Doppler and MRI. The intraoperative findings of each case were compared with the preoperative imaging findings. Results: Sensitivity for the diagnosis of placenta accreta was 100% for color Doppler ultrasound, 93.7% for 2D ultrasound and 75% for MRI. Specificity was 66.6% for color Doppler, 77.7% for 2D ultrasound and 55.5% for MRI. The highest positive predictive value (PPV) was found in 2D ultrasound (88%), MRI had the lowest PPV (75%), while color Doppler had 84% PPV. Negative predictive value (NPV) was 100%, 87.5%, 55.5% for color Doppler, 2D ultrasound and MRI respectively. Conclusions: Color Doppler Ultrasound is most accurate imaging modality in diagnosis of placenta accreta. Its accuracy, when combined with 2D ultrasound, would increases and provides the best available modality for diagnosis of placenta accreta.

FCS50. High Risk Pregnancy FCS50.1 PROGNOSIS OF MOLAR PREGNANCY, A PROSPECTIVE STUDY ABOUT 105 CASES IN LOW DEVELOPED COUNTRY, NIAMEY, NIGER I. Nafiou 1,2 , G. Mahamadou 2 , H. Lazouma 2 , S. Hanatou 2 , H. Soumana 2 . 1 Université Abdou Moumouni, Niamey, Niger; 2 CHR poudrière, Niamey, Niger Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognosis of molar pregnancy in Centre Hospitalier Réginal Poudrière. Method: In this prospective transversal descriptive study in a period of four years January 1st, 2008–December 31st, 2011, we report result of treatment of molar pregnancy. The patients were in 2 groups in 1 group patients were given anti mitotic drug after abortion. All patients followed up one year by clinical exam 2 weeks, one month and all thee months, with oral contraceptive. Results: The frequency of molar pregnancy was 13.78% of 762 abortions. Patients were 24–29 years old 33.33%, Multigravida 38.10%,

with bortion history (20.96% within 4.76% molar pregnancy), The metrorragia was frequent 30.46%, with vesicular expulsion 5.72%. The diagnosis was by ultrasonography in 85.71%. The β hCG blood test realized 3.8%. Complete mole represented 98.10% of all cases. Electrical suction 57.15%, blood transfusion for 2/3 of patients. Antimitotic methotrexate (5mgx3/day) for 5 days 47.62% of patients and sysematic oral contraception for all. recorded 1 case of choriocarcinoma in group1 with no antimitotic treatment. Conclusions: The molar pregnancy is a real problem of public health in our country. A short duration antimitotic preventive treatment may be given after abortion. FCS50.2 STUDY OF BETA HUMAN CHORIONIC GONADOTROPHIN (β-HCG) IN CERVICOVAGINAL SECRETION IN WOMEN WITH PRETERM LABOUR AND NORMAL PREGNANCY U. Singh, S. Mehrotra, S.M. Natu, S. Chauhan. KGMU, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India Objectives: To study the levels of β-HCG in cervicovaginal secretions in normal pregnancy and to evaluate its diagnostic value in women with preterm labour. Method: Total 225 women between 24–36 weeks of gestation with labour pains and without labour pains were enrolled. After obtaining their demographic data, clinical assessment, cervicovaginal secretion sample were obtained during P/S examination, but before P/V examination. All the women were followed till delivery and they were divided into control group (n=150), women with normal pregnancy, delivered at term, and Study Group, women who came with preterm labour. The Study Group was further subdivided into Study Group 1a (n=50), women who delivered preterm and Study Group 1b (n=25), women who came with preterm labour and delivered at term. Results: In this study mean β-HCG levels in the study group 1a was significantly higher than the study group1b and control group (23.55±13.1 mIu/ml vs. 7.19±10.8 vs. 2.86±7.1 mIu/ml) (p=0.000). The mean β-HCG was significantly higher in study group Ib (7.19±10.8 mIU/ml) as compared to control group (2.86±7.1 mIU/ml) (p=0.000). The cut off value of β-HCG ≥14 mIU/ml in study group Ia yielded a positive predictive value 90.91%, negative predictive value 67.74%, sensitivity 80%, specificity 84%, prevalence 66.67%, area under ROC 85%, Accuracy Index 81.33%. Conclusions: The cut off value of β-HCG ≥14 mIU/ml in cervicovaginal secretion, can be used as a predictor for detecting symptomatic and asymptomatic women at risk for preterm birth. FCS50.3 PRIMARY DISORDERS IN HAEMOSTASIS AND MASSIVE OBSTETRIC HAEMORRHAGE A. Makatsarya, V. Bitsadze, E. Zhuravleva, S. Akinshina. I.M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology of Medical Prophylaxis Faculty, Moscow, Russia Objectives: Evaluation of causes of massive obstetric haemorrhage, retrospective analysis of hidden disorders of haemostasis in women with history of massive obstetric haemorrhage and hemorrhagic shock during labor or cesarean section, improvement knowledge of the pathogenesis of massive obstetric haemorrhage. Method: From 1989 to 2014, the authors conducted the retrospective analysis of 140 cases of massive obstetric haemorrhage. Control group – 130 women with physiological pregnancy. Lab methods: Detection of antiphospholipid antibodies circulation, genetic forms of thrombophilia (factor V, II, PAI-1, ect.), factor Von Willebrand, D-dimer, detection of aggregation of platelets, platelet count, inhibitor of FVIII. Results: Based on this studies the following forms of coagulopathy was identified: (1) DIC syndrome (placental abruption, se-

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vere pre-eclampsia, anaphylactoid syndrome, septic shock); (2) lack of adaptive changes in haemostasis during labor (genetic defects of haemostasis predisposing to bleeding, undiagnosed and hidden forms, lack of coagulation factors, act.); (3) thrombocytopenia (particularly miscarriage during pregnancy); (4) iatrogenic violations of haemostasis; (5) liver diseases; (6) the inhibitory forms of haemorrhage. Conclusions: On the basis of this suggested that the vast majority of massive obstetric hemorrhage is the primary coagulopathy that obstetrician-gynecologists do not define. Therefore, of paramount importance acquires prenatal diagnosis, critical analysis of the anamnesis, care and qualification of obstetrician-gynecologist. FCS50.4 DOES AN ENLARGED ABDOMINAL CIRCUMFERENCE PREDICT MORBIDITY FOR PATIENTS DIAGNOSED WITH GESTATIONAL DIABETES (GDM) USING THE IADPSG CRITERIA? K. Simpson, M. Pavicic, G. Lee. University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas CIty, Kansas, USA Objectives: In 2010, the International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Group (IADPSG) published new diagnostic guidelines using a 2-hour glucose tolerance test. The IADPSG guidelines have the potential to identify pregnancies at higher risk for diabetic morbidity, but there is no clear evidence that treatment of these increased numbers of GDM result in improved cohort outcomes. For patients diagnosed with these thresholds, we asked whether an elevated fetal abdominal circumference (>70th percentile) can help identify pregnancies with higher risk for adverse outcomes. Method: A retrospective analysis was performed on 614 KUMC patients diagnosed with GDM from January 2012 through February 2015. Patient outcomes were grouped by a non-elevated abdominal circumference (<70%) and an elevated abdominal circumference of ≥70% or ≤95%. Primary outcomes analyzed were macrosomia (>4000g), large for gestational age (LGA) infants (>90th percentile on growth charts), cesarean delivery, and neonatal hypoglycemia (blood sugar <40 mg/dL). Data was evaluated using risk ratios. Results: Of the 614 charts reviewed, 442 patients were diagnosed using the IADPSG guidelines (71.9%). Of those patients, 253 (57.2%) had an elevated AC ≥70%. An elevated AC any time after 28 weeks was significantly associated with macrosomia and LGA infants using both 70th and 95th percentiles. These risk ratios were between 1.8 and 23.9. Significant associations were found between cesarean delivery and an elevated AC ≥70% (1.4) and AC ≥95% (2.0) during 28–32wk period. Neonatal hypoglycemia was not associated with an elevated abdominal circumference. Conclusions: Among patients diagnosed with GDM with the IADPSG thresholds, an elevated AC is associated with outcomes of macrosomia, LGA infants, and cesarean deliveries when the AC is enlarged between 28–32 weeks. Our findings can help stratify which pregnancies should be most closely followed. FCS50.5 POSTPARTUM FUROSEMIDE FOR ACCELERATING RECOVERY IN WOMEN WITH SEVERE PREECLAMPSIA: A RANDOMIZED CLINICAL TRIAL M. Amorim 1,2 , L. Katz 1 , T. Cursino 1 , I. Coutinho 1 . 1 Instituto de Medicina Integral Prof. Fernando Figueira, Recife, Brazil; 2 Federal University of Campina Grande, Campina Grande, Brazil Objectives: To determine furosemide effectiveness in controlling blood pressure compared to placebo in postpartum period of women with severe preeclampsia. Method: A triple-masked placebo controlled clinical trial, was conducted including 120 postpartum women with severe preeclampsia. Women with chronic hypertension and diuretics users were deleted.


Informed consent was obtained from all participants. Patients were randomized to receive furosemide (40mg orally every twenty four hours) or placebo. The primary outcome were mean blood pressure levels and frequency of hypertensive crises. Secondary outcome were need for maintenance of antihypertensive therapy, number of antihypertensive used to control blood pressure, length of hospital stay, adverse effects and maternal complications. This study was approved by the Research Ethics Committee in humans of the institution. Results: 271 women were screened and 120 were randomized to receive either furosemide or placebo and 118 were analyzed. Most characteristics were similar across groups. Mean arterial systolic and diastolic pressures were lower in the furosemide group (p<0.001). In the furosemide group there were fewer episodes of very high blood pressure in the 2nd (P=0.002) and 5th (P=0.03) days, lower frequency of antihypertensive drugs on the 3rd day of hospital stay (P=0.003), shorter time until control of blood pressure levels (P=0.01) and a smaller amount of antihypertensive agents for control of blood pressure (P=0.004). Conclusions: Compared to placebo, 40mg daily oral furosemide in postpartum period of preeclampsia patients reduces mean arterial blood pressure, hospital stay and number of antihypertensive agents used at discharge. Register: (NCT02163655). FCS50.6 DOES PREECLAMPSIA GIVE BENEFICIAL EFFECT ON NEONATAL OUTCOMES OF PRETERM INFANTS? A.N. Al Fatah, S.A. Susilo, K.N. Pratiwi, R. Irwinda, A. Sungkar, N. Wibowo. Department of Obstetric and Gynecologist Universitias Indonesia, Jakarta, Indonesia Objectives: In utero “stress” exposed to the fetuses of preeclamptic mothers possibly lead to accelerated maturation and a better prognosis of the infants than other preterm infants. However this issue is still controversial. We aim to compare the neonatal outcomes between preterm deliveries with and without preeclampsia. Method: A retrospective cohort was used in this study to compare gestational age at birth, birth-weight, APGAR scores, neonatal death, and mode of delivery between two study groups. We assessed the database of 1020 women who were delivered preterm infants between January 1 2013, and December 30 2013 at Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital, Jakarta, Indonesia. Results: A total of 348 women were fulfilled the criteria. Of these, 143 (41.1%) women were diagnosed as pre-eclampsia, while 205 (58.9%) women were normal. Mean of birth-weight, first and fifth min Apgar score were significantly higher in non-preeclampsia group (2041 grams vs 1729 grams, 7.17 vs 6.33, and 8.50 vs 8.05, p=0.000, respectively). However there was no different of neonatal death rate between two groups. Conclusions: Women with preeclampsia do not have a beneficial effect on neonatal outcomes. FCS50.7 THE FEASIBILITY OF TRANSVAGINAL INTERVAL CERCLAGE IN PATIENTS HAVING DILATED CERVIX DUE TO PRETERM LABOR H. Boo, J. Hoh. Hanyang University Hospital, Seoul, Republic of Korea Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine whether an transvaginal interval cerclage (IC) reduced preterm delivery in those women who had undergone an emergency transvaginal cerclage due to dilated cervix and/or protruding fetal membrane with labor. Method: A retrospective cohort study was conducted on women with a transvaginal cervical cerclage who also went over the IC. Sixteen cases underwent a transvaginal cerclage and composed the 7 cases of IC group, whereas 9 others without IC, only elective cerclage (EC) group due to bad obstetric history. IC was performed


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to patients who previously had emergency cerclage due to symptoms of impending preterm delivery at a distance of time. Antibiotics and prophylactic tocolysis were given to all patients. Neonatal outcomes and perinatal complications were analyzed between two groups. Results: Mean initial cervical length before the first surgery was 0.2cm in IC group and 4.3cm in EC group. Cervical length before second surgery in IC groups was 1.94cm. Of all 16 cases, no fetal loss was found during present pregnancy. Mean delivery weeks was 35+0 weeks in IC group while 35+1 weeks in EC group. Mean birth weight in IC group was 1920 g and 2145 g in EC group. Apgar score (1/5 min) was 6/8 in IC group and 6/8 in EC group. Other neonatal outcomes and perinatal complications were not different between two groups as well. Conclusions: It is thought that IC might be a good emergent surgical procedure that can be used in preventing preterm delivery in patients with dilated cervix and/or protruding fetal membrane due to preterm labor. FCS50.8 A STUDY ON AGREEMENTS AMONG SCREENING TESTS AND RELATED FACTORS WITH POSTPARTUM DEPRESSION H.-S. Yang. Dongguk University Medical college, Kyeongju Kyeongbuk, Republic of Korea Objectives: This study was performed to assess agreements among screening tests, to estimate prevalence, and to identify related factors with postpartum depression. Method: For 323 women at 7 days postpartum, self-administered questionnaires were given including postpartum depression screening test such as EPDS, QIDS-SR16, BDI and questionnaires for their demographic and psycho-social information. Obstetric information were collected from medical records. Simultaneous positive cases in EPDS and BDI were defined as gold standard and used to estimate the prevalence of postpartum depression and agreements between 3 kind of screening test and gold standard. Related factors of postpartum depression were analysed by using SPSS. Results: The prevalence of postpartum depression was 19.8% and the Kappa indices of BDI, EPDS, and QIDS-SR16 were 0.711, 0.803, and 0.395, respectively. Feeding method, smoking history, antenatal anxiety/depression symptoms, residence status, marital satisfaction, relationship with husband’s parents, and postpartum care method in univariate analysis and premature delivery (odds ratio: 2.9), formulated feeding (odds ratio: 3.8), marital dissatisfaction (odds ratio: 4.3), professional husband’s occupation (odds ratio: 4.4), and antenatal anxiety/depression symptoms (odds ratio: 4.4) in the logistic regression analysis were significantly related to postpartum depression (p<0.05). Conclusions: EPDS showed very good agreement among 3-kind screening test for postpartum depression in women at 1-week postpartum and simultaneous tests of BDI and EPDS was very effective in approaching the evaluation of postpartum depression. To establish the findings in this study, further prospective community-based studies are warranted.

FCS51. High Risk Pregnancy FCS51.1 TO STUDY THE IMPACT OF PROGESTERONE (DYDROGESTERONE) ON PROINFLAMMATORY (IL-6 AND TNF-ALPHA) AND ANTIINFLAMMATORY (IL-10) CYTOKINES IN THREATENED ABORTION R. Yadav, S. Yadav, A. Jain. Lady Hardinge Medical College, New Delhi, India Objectives: To study the impact of Progesterone (Dydrogesterone) on

Proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines concentrations in threatened abortion. Method: A randomised interventional study.100 women admitted with threatened abortion were randomly divided in two groupscases and controls. Fifty women in each group. Initial Ultrasonography was done to assess the cardiac activity in all the subjects. Serum levels of IL-6, TNF-alpha and IL-10 were measured in all at the time of admission. Cases were given Tab Dydrogesterone in the dose of 30mg per day and controls were not given any progesterone preparation. Serum levels of IL-6, TNF-Alpha and IL-10 were again measured after 10 days and also at 14 weeks of gestation in both groups and the values were compared. Results: Values of IL-6 showed fall after 10 days and at 14 weeks of gestation in both groups. Mean value in cases at admission, 10 days and 14 completed weeks were 44.69±24.69, 39.71±18.75 and 29.26±8.48 respectively. Values for controls were 50.76±25.16, 36.82±12.46 and 32.51±5.26respectively. Mean concentration of IL10 at admission, 10 days and 14 weeks of gestation in cases were 66.68±24.46, 59.31±11.62 and 44.76±9.90. Values for control groups were 61.25±23.34, 56.52±10.53 and 59.04±13.14 respectively. when compared, the p value was not significant. TNF-Alpha was not detectable in bot groups. 19/50 women aborted in case group and 15/50 women aborted in control groups. Conclusions: It is concluded that Dydrogesterone has no effect on Proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines levels in threatened abortion. The number of women who aborted in cases and control group were comparable thereby indicating that there is no role of Dydrogesterone in Threatened abortion. FCS51.2 AN EVALUATION OF INTRODUCTION OF RAPID HIV TESTING IN A PERINATAL SERVICE S. Saunders 1 , K. Tulloch 1,2 , E. Maan 1 , J. van Schalkwyk 1,2 , D. Money 1,2 . 1 BC Women’s Hospital and Health Centre, Vancouver, BC, Canada; 2 The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada Objectives: This study was conducted to evaluate the roll-out of rapid HIV testing as part of the provincial emergency Prevention of Perinatal HIV Transmission Program in British Columbia, which aims to identify HIV infection accurately and to prevent perinatal transmission among high-risk pregnant women. Specifically, HIV prevalence in this population, the reason(s) for performing the rapid HIV test, and compliance with recommendations for antiretroviral prophylaxis were assessed. Method: Since November 2011, women presenting to BC Women’s Hospital (a tertiary referral hospital with approximately 7,000 births per year) with unknown or undocumented HIV status or ongoing risk of HIV infection are offered rapid HIV testing. The bioLytical 24 INSTI HIV-1/2 Antibody Test Kit was used in 78 women between November 2011 and December 2014. Through retrospective chart review, demographic data, HIV risk and prior testing history, and antiretroviral prophylaxis data were collected and descriptive statistics were performed. Results: All rapid HIV tests were non-reactive as was confirmatory testing. Seventy percent were in cases with previous negative prenatal HIV antibody results but ongoing risk. Seventy-three percent of women had multiple risk factors, including: IVDU (53%), HCV infection (38%), non-IVDU (36%), and STI in pregnancy (34%). The timing of last high-risk activity was available in 44 cases. The median time between potential exposure and the rapid test was 1 day, and 89% of women were within the 4-week seroconversion window period at the time of delivery. Of these, 28% of mothers and 51% of infants received some prophylactic antiretroviral therapy. Conclusions: This program identified a subgroup of pregnant women at increased risk of HIV infection. Most women had appropriate early pregnancy HIV antibody test screening, but had ongoing risk factors,

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predominantly substance use. When the timing of potential exposure was documented, the majority of women were within the four-week seroconversion window period highlighting the risk of false reassurance from the rapid test. FCS51.3 PREGNANCY OUTCOME IN WOMEN WITH MITRAL VALVE STENOSIS F. Kashfi 1,2 , N. Samiei 1 , A. Firoozi 1 , Z. Totonchi 1 , R. Taheripanah 3 , H. Ghaderian 1 . 1 Heart Valve Disease Research Center, Rajaie Cardiovascular Medical & Research Center, Iran University of medical science, Tehran, Iran; 2 Department of Epidemiology and Reproductive Health, Royan Institute for reproductive Biomedical, ACECR, Tehran, Iran; 3 Emam Hossein Hospital, Shaheed Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran Objectives: Rheumatic Mitral Stenosis (MS) is still prevalent in developing countries. As It involves mostly young women, it is important to study the natural course and result of Pregnancy in the presence of MS. Method: We have followed up 29 patients with MS who referred to our Clinic from 2010 to 2014. Patients were studied prospectively for their NYHA functional class (FC), echocardiography data including Ejection Fraction (EF), pulmonary hypertension (PH), Mitral valve area (MVA); gravidity (G), and various types of delivery and fetal outcome. Results: The EF was 40–55% with mean=52.7±5.06%. Twenty-six patients were in NYHA I and II, and 3 in NYHA III and IV. PH was 30 to 100 mmHg, 50%had normal PH, 25%had mild and 25%had moderate to severe PH. Mean MVA was about 1.04±0.27 cm2 . Severe MS was found in 39.3%. Six patients underwent percutaneous Mitral Balloon Valvotomy during pregnancy and 14 patients had PMBV before conception. Twenty-eight patients had live birth (23 C/S & 5 NVD), and one underwent abortion. There were no maternal death but one maternal emboli and 1 neonatal died. Conclusions: Patients with significant MS can tolerate pregnancy with close follow up and surveillance. FCS51.4 A STUDY OF COAGULATION PARAMETERS, MEAN PLATLET VOLUME AND UMBILICAL ARTERY DOPPLER FOR PREDICTION OF PERINATAL OUTCOME IN OBSTETRIC CHOLESTASIS N. Pruthi, A. Barta, A. Batra, P. Mittal. VMMC & Safdarjung Hospital, New Delhi, Delhi, India Objectives: 1. To study the coagulation parameters (PT, aPTT, D-dimer), mean platlet volume (MPV) and umbilical artery systolic/diastolic ratio (UASDR) in women with Obstetric Cholestasis and to correlate them with symptomatology and liver enzyme levels. 2. To assess the predictive value of liver enzymes, coagulation parameters, mean platlet volume and umbilical artery systolic/diastolic ratio in determining the pregnancy outcome in Obstetric Cholestasis. Method: A cross-sectional study was conducted in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology at VMMC and Safdarjung Hospital, New Delhi comprising a study group of 60 women with obstetric cholestasis and contol group of 60 (age, parity and gestation matched). Biochemical/haematological (LFT, Coagulation Profile, MPV) tests and USG were done in both groups with weekly follow up till delivery. The study group received Ursodeoxycholic Acid 300mg BD, and had pregnancy terminated at 38 weeks or earlier in case of deteriorating LFT/fetal compromise. Student t test and Mann whitney U test used for continous data. Binary logistic regression model was used to study relationship between variables. Results: In the study group 56.7% (34/60) women had D-dimer levels (>400ng/ml), 41.7% (25/60) had mean platlet volume levels >13fL while none in control group had such high levels. 45% (27/60) women


in study group had umbilical artery systolic/diastolic ratio more than 3 as compared to 1.7% in control group.D-dimer levels (>400ng/ml), MPV >13fL and UASDR were significantly associated with more cases of meconium, non-reassuring fetal heart pattern, low 5 minute APGAR and NICU admissions. MPV, D- dimmer and UASDR were found to be better predictors of fetal outcome than LFT. MPV was the best predictor of low 5 minute APGAR (OR16; 95% CI: 1.3–185.4; p=0.027). Conclusions: 1. Women with obstetric cholestasis had significantly higher levels of MPV, D-dimer and UASDR when compared with normal antenatal patients. 2. Liver enzymes though helpful in diagnosing a case of obstetric cholestasis could not accurately predict fetal outcome. MPV, D-dimer and UASDR were better predictors of fetal outcome. 3. Estimation of D-dimer, MPV and UASDR which are readily avalible, economical and easy to perform should be considered besides deteriorating liver enzymes in appropriate management of Obstetric Cholestasis. FCS51.5 EFFECT OF ADVANCED MATERNAL AGE ON THE COURSE AND OUTCOMES OF PREGNANCY AMONG LIBYAN POPULATION A. Elbareg 1 , F. Essadi 1 , I. Elarbah 1 , K. Anwar 2 . 1 Misurata Central Hospital, Misurata, Libya; 2 Iben-Sina Teaching Hospital, Sirt, Libya Objectives: During past three decades, proportion of women in Libya who gave birth after age of 35 years for the first time increased significantly mainly due to late marriage because of educational and economic factors, whereas in previous generations women might be having their last child in their forties. As a result of that, there is growing interest in pregnancy-related complications and outcome of pregnant women at older age. Aim of this study was to investigate the impact of advanced maternal age on obstetric outcomes in Libyan women of middle and majority of western parts of the country. Method: Prospective controlled study included deliveries of >24 weeks of gestation at Misurata and Sirt University Hospitals, over a period of five years. Women divided according to age: (A) 20–34 years at delivery as referent group, (B) 35–39 years, (C) ≥40 years at the time of delivery. Pregnancies <20 years of age and multiple pregnancies were excluded. Data collected: parity, delivery gestational age, medical & obstetric histories, diabetes, hypertension or anemia, IUFD, mode of delivery, birth weight (BW): (>4000g, <2500g & <1500g),Apgar score, admission to neonatal ICU, postpartum course. Outcomes compared for nulliparous (NP) and multiparous (MP). Statistical analysis using SPSS package. P-value considered to be significant if <0.05. Results: The study included 6865 patients: 68.4% 20–34 years, 31.6% ≥35 years, and 11.9% ≥40 years of age, birth at ≥35 carried a 2.9fold increased risk (FIR) for pregnancy complications, and 3.5- FIR for adverse perinatal outcomes. (B) and (C) at IR for pregnancy-induced hypertension and diabetes; significantly higher than (A) (P<0.0034), operative vaginal delivery, CS (P<0.01), preterm (PT)and early PT (<34 weeks) deliveries, low BW, stillbirth (SB) and neonatal death in NP, but only with PT birth <37 weeks and CS deliveries in MP. Relative risk of SB was 1.89 for (B) and 2.8 for (C). Conclusions: Advanced maternal age is significantly associated with specific adverse pregnancy outcomes. As the number of this group is increasing, every effort should be made to reduce associated morbidity. FCS51.6 PROGNOSIS SCORE AND MATERNAL OUTCOME OF ECLAMPSIA IN A TEACHING HOSPITAL Z. Jesmin. Khulna Medical College, Khulna, Bangladesh Objectives: Eclampsia is a poorly understand disorder characterized by seizure or coma in settings of Gestational Hypertension. Applica-


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tion of monitoring strategies in many areas of world is not possible owing to the cost and non availability during emergency. Objective of this study is to assess each patient of eclampsia by pre graded scoring scale on subjective examination and with minimum investigation.,Documentation of patients scoring and ultimate out come helps to reduce the lapses of care. Another utility is unification of patients condition, treatment strategy and provide feedback to care givers regarding clinical condition. Method: This cross sectional case study was done in eclampsia ward in Khulna medical college hospital during period of January 2014February 2015 in 200 women. All types of presentation with eclampsia were included for study. Scores were 0, 1, 2 and 4. with increasing graveness where applicable. Para meters were age, para, number of convulsion and time to reach treatment, level of consciousness, Hypretension, Protinuria,Haematuria, platelet count, Clinical signs and symptoms of organ failure and, duration of gestation and delivery status.We computed total score and Maternal outcome. Results: A score of 15 to 20 and above included all critically ill mother including maternal death cases. No maternal death occurred with Lower score. Conclusions: Clinical prognosis score scale can be helpful making clinical scenario in objectively reproducible one at a glance, it can also be used with existing management protocol. Can help to update any intervention and research study. FCS51.7 ROLE OF GENETIC FORMS OF THROMBOPHILIA IN PATHOGENESIS OF PREECLAMPSIA A. Vorobev, K. Atabaeva. The First Moscow State Medical Sechenov University, Moscow, Russia Objectives: To estimate patogenetic value of genetic forms of thrombophilia in pathogenesis of preeclampsia. Method: 65 women was divided in two groups: group I – 35 pregnant women with recurrent pre-eclampsia in present pregnancy. group II – 30 primigravida women with severe pre-eclampsia. Control group – 20 women with noncomplicated pregnancy. Results: More frequent in group I has been detected PAI-1 polymorphism 34 (97.14%), group II – 24 (80%), control – 3 (15%). t-PA polymorphism 23 (67.1%) group I, group II – 24 (80%), control – 2 (10%). Fibrinogen “455 G/A” polymorphism group I – 20 (57.1%), group II – 13 (43.34%), control heterozygous form – 3 (15%). Gene MTHFR C677T mutation group I 18 (52.86%), group II – 3 (10%), control – 4 (20%). More frequent has been detected interleukin-1β “31 T/C” gene polymorphism: group I – 33 (95.72%) patients, group II – 15 (50%), control – 18 (90%) cases. Gene TNF-α “308G/A” polymorphism: group I – 9 (27.14%) patients, group II – 5 (16.67%), control was not found. Conclusions: Pathogenetic prophylaxis of recurrent pre-eclampsia should be based on prophylaxis of manifestations of genetic forms of thrombophilia and proinflammatory status. FCS51.8 PREGNANCY OUTCOMES IN ADVANCED MATERNAL AGE: A REPORT ON PREGNANCY OUTCOMES OF 226 WOMEN OVER 40 FROM A HIGH RISK URBAN UK POPULATION R. Flint, R. Townsend, B. Sharma. University Hospital Lewisham, London, UK Objectives: As maternal age increases, many complications of pregnancy including gestational diabetes, pre-eclampsia and small for gestational age babies also increase. Maternal age is also thought to be a risk factor for delivery by Caesarean section. The objective of this study was to assess pregnancy outcomes in an urban district general hospital in the UK. Method: This was a retrospective cross sectional cohort study of 226 women who delivered 230 babies between January 2014 and January

2015 in a single urban district general hospital. Data were collected from the electronic birth summary records and supplemented by a case notes review. Results: 226 women over the age of 40 delivered 230 babies in the study period. The age range was 40–51 with a mean age of 41.4. The overall Caesarean section rate was 41.15% compared to 28% of all deliveries in the same hospital. 42.6% of women had a BMI >30, 30.5% were nulliparous. 11.3% of deliveries took place at less than 37 weeks gestation. The stillbirth rate was 1.3%, admission to SCBU was 3.47% and 3% of babies had Apgars <7 at 5 minutes. The incidence of post partum haemorrhage >500ml was 34% and greater than 1000ml was 6.2%. Conclusions: Increasing maternal age was associated with an increased risk of Caesarean section (both elective and emergency) but not with an increase in instrumental deliveries. The risk of stillbirth was slightly increased and the risk of pre-eclampsia and gestational diabetes was markedly increased. This cohort had a high incidence of obesity (BMI>30) and this may have contributed to some of the outcomes. FCS51.9 STUDY OF MATERNAL AND FETAL OUTCOME IN SUBSEQUENT PREGNANCY FOLLOWING PREVIOUS CAESAREAN SECTION H.P. Gupta, S. Kunwar. Era’s Lucknow medical colllege, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India Objectives: Globally the Caesarean Section rate has increased due to modern technology. This study was aimed to evaluate the maternal and neonatal outcome of pregnancies following the caesarean Section so that the caesarean rate can be reduced. Method: Study was conducted at Era’s Lucknow Medical College, Lucknow. It was prospective Observational study Eighty pregnant women were included and were observed during Antenatal period and Labour. The intervention was done inform of operative or instrumental delivery. The data was analyzed by using SPSS version 17.0 method. Results: Out of 80 Women maximum number of women (56%) had vaginal delivery including instrumental delivery. While 39% of total number had Caesarean Section. The difference was statistically significant P value was less than 0.05. Only one woman had scar rupture and had still birth. Number of Neonatal complications was higher in vaginal deliveries, more so in the instrumental deliveries. Conclusions: In Post Caesarean pregnancy vaginal/instrumental delivery should be encouraged, ensuring the availability of senior obstetrician and pediatrician with NICU facilities.

FCS52. High Risk Pregnancy FCS52.1 BILE ACID PROMOTES PLACENTA THROMBOSIS VIA INDUCING VASCULAR ENDOTHELIUM AUTOPHAGY IN WOMEN WITH INTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS OF PREGNANCY Y. Yu, C. Zhou, X. Yang, M. Miao, Y. Lu, J. Shen, C. Han, H. Huang. Women hospital, School of medical, Zhejiang University, HangZhou, China Objectives: Fetal sudden death is often found in women with Intrahepatic Cholestasis of Pregnancy (ICP) in late trimester, and the mechanism is still unknown. In this study, we observe increasing of placenta infarction, thrombosis and recanalization in placentas from ICP with stillbirth. So we hypothesize that placental vascular endothelium were impaired by elevated bile acid, which may explain etiology of fetal sudden death in ICP. To verify above hypothesis, we observe pathological and ultrastructural changes of placental vascular endothelium from ICP, detect re-

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lated protein in placentas by immunehistochemical method, observe the effects of bile acid to HUVEC by in vitro study. Method: 1. In vivo studies: • Total 53 placentas were collected from ICP with stillbirth (n=13), ICP with liveborn (n=20) and normal pregnant women (n=20) in our hospital between January 2000 and September 2013. The pathological changes of placentas were observed. • Autophagy related protein LC3A/B and vWF were detected by immunehistochemical method. Correlational analyses were conducted. • Ultrastructure of vascular endothelium from ICP placenta were observed. 2. In vitro study: • HUVEC was stimulated by different concentration of bile acid and harvested for ultrastructural observation, then analyze expression of LC3-II and beclin-1 by western blotting. Results: Compare to normal, more infarction, thrombosis and recanalization were found in placentas from ICP. The location of LC3A/B and vWF were stained in placental vascular endothelium in stem villus. The expression of LC3A/B and vWF increased significantly in ICP placenta compared to normal, the comparison of H-score level between three groups was statistically significant (P<0.01). Kendall rank correlation coefficient of LC3A/B and vWF is 0.65 (P<0.001). Autophagic vacuoles were significantly increasing in vascular endothelium from ICP placenta and HUVEC treated with bile acid compare to normal. Bile acid display concentration-dependent up-regulation on expression of LC3B-II and beclin-1 in HUVEC. Conclusions: 1. Compare to normal, more infarction, thrombosis and recanalization of thrombus were found in placentas from ICP with stillbirth. That show thrombosis may be one of the important pathological changes of placenta when ICP fetal distress and even stillbirth occur. 2. We observed increasing autophagic vacuoles in ICP placental vascular endothelium as well as HUVEC treated with bile acid, identify elevated autophagy may be one of the pathophysiology mechanism of ICP. Elevated autophagy induced by high bile acid may be associated with microvascular thrombosis in human placenta which may explain etiology of fetal sudden death in ICP. FCS52.2 THE CARDIOVASCULAR BYPASS UNDER NORMOTHERMIA DURING PREGNANCY MAY CONTRIBUTE TO BETTER NEONATAL OUTCOME S. Nakagawa 1,2 , C. Kamiya 2 , C. Horiuchi 2 , T. Kimura 1 , J. Yoshimatsu 2 . 1 Osaka University Graduate School, Suita, Osaka, Japan; 2 National Cardiocerebral Vasculara Center, Suita, Osaka, Japan Objectives: Maternal cardiovascular operation under cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) during pregnancy is associated to high embryofetal mortality rate. Although they are rare cases, we sometimes find out patients with dissecting aortic aneurysm or annuloaortic ectasia (AAE) such as Marfan syndrome (MFS) patients during pregnancy.We investigate these cases to consider the risk of CPB during pregnancy and when and how to treat. Method: Retrospective review of the patients who underwent cardiovascular operation under CPB in our hospital since 2004. Results: There were threee cases underwent CPB during her pregnancy. The gestational age were 19w6d, 16w0d and 12w4d. Preoperative diagnosis were acute aortic dissection in a case and AAE in the two cases. Hemiarch replacement and aortic root replacement were done. To maintain uterine blood flow, we kept high-flow, highpressure perfusion. Normothermic perfusion were done not to induce uterine contraction and fetal bradycardia. Fetal heart rate were monitored by transesophageal echocardiography attached on the pa-


tients’ abdomen. Their delivery methods were vaginal with epidural anesthesia in two cases (37w,38w) and selective C/S (37w) in a case. The neonatal body weight were appropriate and they have grown without problems. Conclusions: It is very important that all patients with cardiovascular disease are well assessed before getting pregnant and informed of their condition and prognosis.When the patient is determined to continue pregnancy and the fetus is immature, conservative therapy is preferred. But if the risk for mother is too high, operations under normothermia and high flow high pressure CPB may have better outcome of pregnancy. FCS52.3 THE PSYCHOSOCIAL IMPACT OF STILLBIRTH – A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW AND META-ANALYSIS OF MIXED-METHODS RESEARCH C. Burden 1,2 , C. Storey 3 , S. Bradley 2 , A. Ellis 2 , D. Siassakos 1,2 . of Bristol, Bristol, UK; 2 North Bristol Trust, Bristol, UK; 3 International Stillbirth Alliance, London, UK 1 University

Objectives: To undertake a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the psychosocial impact of stillbirth on parents and the immediate family. No previous research has systematically analysed the available evidence on, and the extent of the psychosocial impact of stillbirth. The study was commissioned by the Lancet Stillbirth Series and involved a team with multidisciplinary expertise. The data will be used to improve awareness worldwide and inform the development of national Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists (RCOG) and international guidance on care of parents and their family after the death of a baby. Method: Relevant databases, together with conference abstracts were searched from January 2000 to February 2015, using the SPIDER framework and following the PRISMA guidelines. Qualitative, quantitative and mixed methods studies were included assessing the psychosocial effects of stillbirth on parents, grandparents and siblings. All languages and countries (high income countries- HIC & low/middle income countries- LMIC) were included. Studies assessing impact after a lethal fetal diagnosis, miscarriage or neonatal death only were excluded. Meta-summary was used to extract findings and calculate frequency effect sizes (FES) for each theme. More than 1500 abstracts were searched, and 127 studies were included in the analysis. Results: Main themes with FES included: Psychological: Isolation, guilt, lack of normality, and depression/psychological symptoms (95%) including in subsequent pregnancies (54%), Parental pride (4%), Affected QoL (1%), Decision making at time of stillbirth (7%), Affect on relationships/incongruent grief (17%), Altered body image (4%), Sexual relationships (17%), Approach to life and death, self esteem, own identity (7%), Grief suppression (12%), Anxiety with siblings and subsequent children (14%), Avoidance of memories (5%). Social: Disenfranchised grief (37%), Stigmatisation (8%), Impact on siblings/subsequent children (28%), Use of therapeutic activities (9%), healthcare services (3%), and motivation for engagement in healthcare improvement (3%), Pressures to prioritise or delay conception (5%), Impact on the wider family (3%), Employment difficulties and financial debt (1%). Physical: Chronic pain & fatigue (3%), Increased substance use (3%). Conclusions: The data demonstrates that stillbirth can have devastating psychological, physical and social consequences; including stigmatisation, with ongoing effects on relationships, future pregnancies and subsequent children. Interestingly, findings such as changes in approach to life and death were also identified. Loss of identity, rejection and abuse were especially prevalent in LMIC. Disenfranchised grief was found in studies worldwide, highlighting the need for greater awareness for health-


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care professionals and wider society of the impact of stillbirth and the need for improved care provision for parents and their families. Future research should focus on assessing interventions that reduce the psychosocial effects of stillbirth. FCS52.4 GESTATIONAL SURROGACY: AN OBSTETRIC CHALLENGE A. Soni, S. Garg. Dr L H Hiranandani Hospital, Mumbai, India Objectives: 1. To identify the incidence of various obstetrical and medical complications in gestational carriers and normal biological pregnancies in a tertiary care and academic centre. 2. To identify the high risk factors in surrogates as compared to normal biological pregnancies and study the obstetric and perinatal outcomes and help improve the outcomes in terms of morbidity and mortality. Method: A retrospective analysis of 400 surrogate mothers and 400 biological mothers selected at random who delivered at Dr. L H Hiranandani Hospital over a period of 4 years from July 2010 to June 2014 was done. The obstetric and medical complications with the obstetric and perinatal outcomes in both the groups were analysed. Results: Among surrogates there were large number of twin pregnancies with 232 singleton pregnancies (58%) and 168 twin pregnancies (42%) whereas in biological mothers there were 40 (10%) twin pregnancies. 288 surrogate mothers underwent caesarean section (72%) and 112 had vaginal delivery (28%) whereas the incidence of caesarean section in normal biological pregnancies was 51%. There was very high incidence of postpartum haemorrhage, seen in 51 cases out of which 25 required blood transfusion and Caesarean hysterectomy was needed in 4 cases. 76 (19%) of surrogates had a preterm delivery and 28 (7%) of biological mothers had a preterm delivery. Conclusions: Surrogate mothers hail from a lower socio-economic class. Poor nutrition, pre-existing anaemia and repeated pregnancies predispose to poor reserves. Complications like anaemia, multiple gestation, preterm delivery, operative delivery, postpartum haemorrhage and infection are major obstetric challenges in these patients. Gestational surrogacy is a high risk pregnancy which needs more attention to catch such complications in early stage and rectify them, hence should be managed with vigilance. FCS52.5 IMPLEMENTATION OF A CLINICAL PRACTICE GUIDELINES FOR ANTENATAL MAGNESIUM SULPHATE NEUROPROTECTION IN TERTIARY OBSTETRIC UNIT V. Stefanovic. Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology & Fetomaternal Medical Center Helsinki University Hospital and University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland Objectives: Antenatal magnesium sulfate (MgSO4) may reduce the excessive rates of cerebral palsy in survivors of very preterm birth. To analyse the success of implementation of MgSO4 for fetal neuroprotection in Tertiary Obstetric Unit. Method: This retrospective cohort study included women admitted at 23–31+6 weeks gestation in the first 18 months. a single loading dose of 4g MgSO4. The maintenance treatment was of 2g/12h or until birth. Results: There were altogether 201 pregnancies eligible for fetal neuroprotection.MgSO4 was used in 158 pregnancies with 179 live born infants (132 singletons, 25 twins, 1 triplets) at an average gestational age 28+3 . Delivery occurred at an average gestational age 29+2 . MgS04 was not administered in 43 pregnancies (33 women at second stage of labour at admission and in 10 cases unknown reason). The full course of MgSO4 was administered in 63% of pregnancies and delivery occurred within 6 hours of MgSO4 treatment termination in 56% cases. The average bleeding was 680 ml. There were no severe maternal side effects attributed to the treatment.

Conclusions: Antenatal MgSO4 neuroprotection was successfully implemented with only 5% of pregnancies with violation of guidelines, all of which having an audit. FCS52.6 PRETERM BIRTH AND SOCIAL SUPPORT DURING PREGNANCY: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW AND META-ANALYSIS E. Hetherington, C. Doktorchick, S. Premji, S. McDonald, S. Tough, R. Sauve. University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada Objectives: Additional social support is often recommended for women during the prenatal period to optimize birth outcomes, specifically preterm birth. Social support is thought to act in one of two ways; by reducing stress and anxiety, or by providing coping mechanisms for women with high stress. However, evidence in this area is mixed. The purpose of this meta-analysis is to determine if low levels of social support are associated with an increased risk for preterm birth. Method: Five databases were searched for RCTs and cohort studies regarding social support and preterm birth with no limits set on date or language. Inclusion criteria included use of a validated instrument to measure social support, and studies conducted in high income or high-middle income countries. Results: 3467 records were retrieved, 16 of which met the inclusion criteria. Nine studies (n=14,750) demonstrated a pooled OR of 1.11 [95%, 0.89, 1.39] for preterm birth in women with low social support compared to high social support. Among women with high stress levels, two studies (n=6,374) yielded a pooled OR of 1.52 [95% CI 1.18, 1.97]. The results of five studies could not be pooled due to incompatibility of outcome measures. Conclusions: There is no evidence for a direct association between social support and preterm birth. Social support, however, may provide a buffering mechanism between stress and preterm birth. FCS52.7 PREGNANCY OUTCOME IN EXTREME GRANDMULTIPARAE F. Elrishi. Misurata Teaching Hospital, Misurata, Libya Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate pregnancy outcome among extreme grandmultiparae and impact of advanced maternal age on the outcome in a population still has high incidence of grandmultiparity (GMP). Method: A retrospective study of 3615 grandmultiparous deliveries during one year period (1993) at Jamhoria Hospital of Obstetrics & Gynecology in Benghazi. GMP who were giving their seventh or more births at or later 28 weeks of gestation and have birth >1000gm. Advanced maternal age those aged ≥35. They divide into 2 groups, first para 6–8 (2220) and second para ≥9 (extreme GMP 1395). The analysis carried out reviewing the reported medical reports which were examined for pregnancy outcome in 3 categories maternal diseases complicating pregnancy, obstetrical complications and perinatal outcome. Statistical comparison have assessed using Z-score test. Results: A high incidence of extreme GMP (9.2%) was reported. Significantly higher incidence of hypertensive disorders (P=0.0006), diabetes (P=0.023) among extreme GMP who were older (37.5±3.9 years old) compared to first group (33.6±4.2 years old), P<0.0001. Also had a significant increase of placental abruption (P=0.035), preterm labor. They had significantly prolonged second stage and increased cesarean section rate. Perinatal outcome showed a significant higher incidence of macrosomia, low Apgar score among extreme GMP. Advanced maternal age was associated with increased incidence of hypertension, placenta praevia (P=0.0005) and obstructed labor, prematurity (P=0.018) and low birth weight (P=0.034) in both groups. Conclusions: Extreme grandmultiparae are at higher risk during pregnancy and labor. Advanced maternal age appears to be a cofactor of high parity playing an important role to increase the risk fac-

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tor for poor pregnancy outcome. These patients need special medical care, increase their awareness of health also is of great importance through women’s reproductive programs including effective family planning and health education. FCS52.8 SECOND TRIMESTER DELIVERY AND SUBSEQUENT PREGNANCY OUTCOME – THE EFFECT OF PROPHYLACTIC CERCLAGE. A NATIONAL COHORT STUDY K. Sneider 1,2 , O.B. Christiansen 2,3 , I. Sundtoft 4 , J. Langhoff-Roos 5 . 1 Vendsyssel Hospital, Hjoerring, Denmark; 2 Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark; 3 Aalborg University Hospital, Aalborg, Denmark; 4 Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark; 5 Copenhagen University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark Objectives: To analyze the outcome of a subsequent pregnancy and use of prophylactic cerclage by clinical phenotype of a first spontaneous second trimester delivery (16+0–27+6 weeks). Method: A cohort of 5919 women with a first second trimester delivery in 1997–2012 and a second delivery was identified by combined use of two Danish national registries - the Birth Registry and the Patient Registry. Ten different clinical phenotypes were identified using a conceptual model with explicit criteria on maternal conditions (preeclampsia, uterine anomaly, thrombophilia), fetal conditions (multiple pregnancies, major anomalies) and placental conditions (abruption, previa, insufficiency), as well as pathway to delivery (spontaneous or induced). For each phenotype we analyzed the outcome of a subsequent pregnancy and use of prophylactic cerclage. In a validated subgroup of 621 cases of spontaneous extreme preterm deliveries, we analyzed clinical signs at hospital admission. Results: The most common phenotype (54% of total cases) was not associated with any specific diagnoses in the registries. Spontaneous second trimester delivery occurred in 1971 cases (50%), and the recurrence rate was 9.7% with considerable variations by clinical phenotype of the first delivery. Women presenting with cervical dilation had the highest recurrence risk (35%). Both prophylactic vaginal cerclage and abdominal cerclage significantly reduced the risk of extreme preterm delivery in next pregnancy. Conclusions: Clinical phenotype was highly associated with recurrence risk of a spontaneous second trimester delivery. Women presenting with cervical dilation (cervical insufficiency) were at the highest risk of recurrence. After prophylactic vaginal cerclage in women with cervical shortening, 28% (12/42) had a second spontaneous second trimester delivery. Classification of phenotype including signs at admission identifies women at high risk of recurrence and should be part of the classification system and reported to national registries. FCS52.9 STRIKING THE BALANCE BETWEEN MATERNAL AND PERINATAL OUTCOMES FOR PREGNANT WOMEN WITH GASTRIC BANDING: NATIONAL COHORT STUDY (UKOSS) A. Jefferys 1,2 , E. Lenguerrand 1,2 , K. Cornthwaite 1,2 , A. Johnson 1 , M. Lynch 1 , J. Hyde 1 , T. Draycott 1,2 , D. Siassakos 1,2 . 1 North Bristol NHS Trust, Bristol, UK; 2 University of Bristol, Bristol, UK Objectives: Obesity is a huge burden to healthcare services worldwide and increasingly, women of reproductive age are undergoing Laparoscopic Adjustable Gastric Banding (LAGB) to aid weight loss. However, there is no guidance on band management in pregnancy. Our objectives were to: – Estimate the prevalence of pregnancies following LAGB. – Establish the management of gastric bands in pregnancy. – Compare outcomes according to band management (inflation vs deflation). Method: In this national cohort study, we collected data on all preg-


nancies following LAGB in the UK (November 2011-October 2012) using the UKOSS data collection system. Outcomes were compared according to band management (inflation vs deflation), and with non-LAGB controls and national data. Multivariable regression analysis was used to control for confounders. Results: There were 127 pregnancies following LAGB (prevalence approximately 18.0 per 100,000). Band management was variable; inflation maintained in 49.5% and deflation in 39%. There was strong evidence of reduced gestational weight gain (inflation:7.6kg, deflation:15.4kg, p<0.05) and weak evidence of reduced risk of gestational hypertension (inflation:0%, deflation:10.5%, p<0.07) in the inflation group compared with the deflation group. Regardless of band management, adverse maternal outcomes were more likely in LAGB groups compared with controls and national data. Inflation was associated with lower mean birthweight (inflation:3380g, deflation:3712g, p<0.002) and increased risk of low birth weight infants (inflation:13.2%, deflation:6.2%, p<0.05). Conclusions: Pregnancy following LAGB was rare and band management variable. Whilst inflation was associated with better maternal outcomes, it may be at the expense of fetal growth. Band inflation for part of pregnancy with close monitoring of maternal and fetal wellbeing may be appropriate.

FCS53. Human Sexuality/Imaging in Obstetrics and Gynecology FCS53.1 SEXUALITY, SAFE SEX PRACTICES AND ATTITUDE TO PREMARITAL HIV SCREENING AMONG UNDERGRADUATES IN A DEVELOPING COUNTRY H.O. Raji 1,2 , B.S. Okesina 3 , S. Isiaka-Lawal 3 . 1 University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Kwara State, Nigeria; 2 University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital, Ilorin, Kwara State, Nigeria; 3 Sobi Specialist Hospital, Ilorin, Kwara State, Nigeria Objectives: This study was conducted to determine. 1. The sexual behavior of undergraduates including condom use, 2. Knowledge of HIV transmission among undergraduates, 3. Knowledge of, and previous use of emergency contraception. 4. Attitude of undergraduate students towards pre-marital HIV screening. Method: This study was a cross-sectional descriptive questionnairebased study. Structured closed ended questionnaires were selfadministered to undergraduates of a tertiary institution in Nigeria who consented to participate in the study. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 17. Results: Of the 200 questionnaires administered, 140 were returned, giving a response rate of 70%. The mean age was 21.4 with a standard deviation of 2.4. Majority of respondents (97.1%) were single. About 1/3rd (34.3%) did not have correct knowledge about possible ways of getting infected with HIV. More than half (52.9%) were sexually active and 11.4% of these had never used a condom. Most (67.1%) of them had heard about emergency contraception though only 12.9% admitted to ever using it. Premarital HIV screening was viewed favourably by 90% of respondents. Conclusions: Although all respondents were aware of the HIV virus, there is a need to improve the understanding of adolescents and young adults regarding safe sex practices in order to reduce the burden of unwanted pregnancy, unsafe abortiion and HIV infection among youths.


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FCS53.2 REHABILITATION AND SOCIAL ACCEPTANCE OF PATIENTS WITH VAGINAL ATRESIA K. Hymavathi Reddy. Narayana Medical College & Superspecility Hospital, Nellore, Andhra Pradesh, India Objectives: Vaginal atresia is by far the most upsetting to a girl,young adolescent, or adult woman, and her family. The aim of this article is to discuss in detail about the involved problems. Method: In a five year peroiod about six cases of Vaginal atresia were seen. Their physical & mental challenges could be sorted out mainly by counselling in addition to specific indicated treatment. Results: Following treatment & councelling most of them are able to lead happy life.One case could conceive. Conclusions: Counseling by an experienced team including nurses, social workers, psychologists and/or psychiatrists is recommended and should be strongly reinforced by the treating health care provider when interacting with patients and families. FCS53.3 FEMALE SEXUAL DYSFUNCTION (FSD) – INDIAN SCENARIO V. Mishra, R. Aggarwal, S. Choudhary, N. Dharaiya, U. Sharma, K. Gandhi, R. Agarwal. IKDRC, Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India Objectives: Talking about FSD is still considered a taboo due to prevalent social, cultural and religious myths in India. The objective of this study was to detect the prevalence of sexual dysfunction and also to investigate possible risk factors associated with sexual dysfunction in Indian women. Method: The prospective study consisted of 500 women between ages 18 and 66 years from different sociocultural areas. The women were divided into five groups according to their ages <24 years (n=129), 24–30 years (n=182), 31–37 years (n=125), 38–42 years (n=22), >42 years (n=42). Female sexual function was assessed with a detailed 19-item Female sexual function index (FSFI) questionnaire to evaluate five domains of sexual dysfunction, i.e. desire, arousal, lubrication, orgasm and pain. Demographic characteristics and medical risk factors were evaluated and findings were compared between the women with and without sexual dysfunction. Results: Based on total sexual function score, 278 (55.6%) of total 500 patients had sexual dysfunction. The commonest dysfunction was orgasmic (91.7%) followed by lubrication (89.2%). Out of 278 patients in the FSD group, 53 patients (19%) were more than 38 years. Female sexual dysfunction was more prevalent in illiterate women. In the FSD group,7.19% patients were illiterate as compared to 3.15% patients in the group with no FSD (p=0.04). The prevalence of female sexual dysfunction was significantly higher in the older age group and in illiterate patients in the study. Conclusions: The prevalence of female sexual dysfunction rises with age, illiteracy, chronic disease and menopausal status. FCS53.4 HIV, ANTIRETROVIRAL DRUG USE AND SEXUAL FUNCTION IN NIGERIAN WOMEN O.C. Ezechi, A.G. Ohihoin, I.E. Idigbe, I.A.O. Ujah. Division of Clinical Sciences, Nigerian Institute of Medical Research, Yaba, Lagos, Nigeria Objectives: Recent studies have demonstrated the impact of HIV infection on female sexual function, with only few addressing the effect of antiretroviral drug (ARV) use on sexual function. Sub-Saharan African is home to over 80% of women living with HIV, yet only limited number of published studies addressed the association between HIV, ARV use and female sexual function. In this study the effect of HIV infection and antiretroviral drug use on female sexual function were evaluated. Method: Two thousand nine hundred and seven women (1086 HIV

positive; 1821 HIV negative) seen between May 2013, and December 2015 at various community outreaches and clinics of the Nigerian Institute of Medical Research Lagos, were interviewed using the General health (GHQ) and Female sexual function index (FSFI) questionnaires. Obtained information was coded and managed using SPSS for windows version 20. Multiple logistic regressions was used to determine the relationship between HIV infection, antiretroviral drug use and FSFI scores. P<0.05 was considered as statistically significant at 95% confidence interval (CI). Results: Female sexual dysfunction (FSD) was found to be higher in HIV positives (71.4%) compared to 60.9% in HIV negative women (P<0.05; OR: 3.5; CI: 2.1–6.9). The rate of FSD among HIV positive women on ARVs was significantly (P<0.03; OR: 3.2; CI: 1.9–5.6) lower (64.9%) compared to women not ARV (77.9%). Low FSFI scores were noted among women with severe HIV diseases, menopausal and depressive illness. Among respondents on ARVs, those on protease inhibitor (PI) based regimen (68.3%) had significantly lower FSFI scores compared to those not on PI (61.7%) based regimen (P<0.05; OR: 2.1; CI: 1.2–4.7). Conclusions: Female sexual dysfunction is common among our cohort. HIV infection, none use of ARV drug, menopausal state and lower GHQ score were found to be associated with FSD. This finding highlights the importance of sexual health care in the management of women living with HIV. FCS53.5 FEMALE SEXUAL DYSFUNCTION AMONG WOMEN ATTENDING A GYNAECOLOGICAL OUT-PATIENTS CLINIC IN NIGERIA O. Ogunbode 1 , C. Aimakhu 1 , A. Ogunbode 2 , L. Adebusoye 2 , K. Owonikoko 3 . 1 Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria; 2 Department of Family Medicine, University College Hospital, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria; 3 Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso, Oyo State, Nigeria Objectives: To identify the patterns and predictors of female sexual dysfunction among female patients attending gynaecological outpatients department. And also to assess the sexual quality of life of the respondents. Method: It was a cross-sectional descriptive study among married women attending the gynaecological out-patients clinic of the University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria. Participants were selected using systematic sampling technique and all consenting married participants who attended the clinic during the study period were recruited. The survey instrument was a self-administered questionnaire using previously validated tools such as Female Sexual Function Questionnaire (SFQ28), Sexual quality of life- female questionnaire (SQOL-F) and the Family APGAR score. The results were analyzed using statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) version 16. Results: One hundred and forty six (146) women participated in this study. Majority (85.6%) of the respondents had at least one form of reported sexual dysfunction. Of the 8 domains, the commonest dysfunction was arousal (sensation) (62.4%) while the least was pain (3.4%). The mean SFQ28 and SQOL-F scores were 58.0±12.57 and 28.0±11.94 respectively. There were no statistical significant differences in the SFQ28 scores across socio-demographic factors like age groups, parity, number of children alive, monthly income, and years married. Women classified as dysfunctional family on Family APGAR score similarly had poorer scores for sexual dysfunction (100%, p=0.016). Conclusions: Female sexual dysfunction is under-reported and common among women attending out-patients clinic. Managing clinicians should be aware of this condition and proffer appropriate care in addition to the main presenting complaint.

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FCS53.6 COLOR DOPPLER ULTRASOUND TO IMPROVE THE DIAGNOSTIC ACCURACY OF THE TRANSVAGINAL ULTRASOUND IN DIAGNOSIS OF ADENOMYOSIS: A CROSS SECTIONAL STUDY D.E. Abd El Aal, M. Ali, O. Shaaban, A. Sabra. Women’s Health Hospital, Faculty of Medicine, Assiut University, Assiut, Egypt Objectives: To measure the accuracy of combined two dimensional (2D) trans-vaginal ultrasound (TVS) and color Doppler in diagnosis of adenomyosis and to assess the role of Doppler indices of the uterine artery and the intramyometrial blood vessels in diagnosis of adenomyosis. Materials and methods: One hundred consecutive women complaining of pelvic pain and or uterine bleeding and were clinically and sonographically diagnosed to have adenomyosis and scheduled for hysterectomy. Eighty patients were recruited and subjected to color Doppler examination in a trial to reach more accurate diagnosis of adenomyosis. Additionally, uterine artery and intramyometrial Doppler studies were measured prior to the scheduled hysterectomy to detect its role in diagnosis. The finding of 2D-TVS and color Doppler were compared to a gold standard of histopathology of the retrieved uterine specimens. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values and overall accuracy were measured. Results: Fifty specimens out of 80 uteri histologically confirmed to have adenomyosis by histopathology. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and overall accuracy of the 2D-TVS in the diagnosis of adenomyosis were 76.0%, 83.3%, 88.4%, 67.6% and 78.8%, respectively. However, for combined 2D-TVS and the color-Doppler ultrasound the figures were 86.0%, 86.67%, 91.5%, 78.8% and 86.3%, respectively. Myometrial cysts were the most commonly diagnosed (53.8%) ultrasonographic criteria. Neither uterine artery nor intramyometrial vessels S/D, RI and PI showed significant association with adenomyosis. Conclusions: Combined 2D-TVS and color Doppler ultrasound is superior to 2D-TVS alone in diagnosis of adenomyosis. Uterine artery and intramyometrial Doppler studies were of no diagnostic value in adenomyosis. FCS53.7 ASSESSMENT OF FETAL HEART IN THE FIRST TRIMESTER TO DIAGNOSE MAJOR CARDIAC ANOMALIES M. Eldarawi, A. Ebrashy, M. Aboulghar, S. Sheta. Fetal Medicine Unit, Cairo, Egypt Objectives: To assess role of ultrasound during first trimester to diagnose cardiac anomalies. Method: Ultrasound done during first then second trimester then post natal exam. Results: First trimester fetal echocardiography detects major anomalies. Conclusions: First trimester fetal echocardiography is possible. FCS53.8 MATERNAL PERCEPTION OF PRENATAL SONOGRAPHY IN A SOUTH-EASTERN POPULATION IN NIGERIA A. Ugwu 1 , H. Elugwu 1 , O. Onyegbule 2 . 1 Department Of Radiography & Radiological Sciences, Faculty Of Health Sciences And Technology, College Of Health Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nnewi Campus, Nnewi, Anambra State, Nigeria; 2 Federal Medical Centre, Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria Objectives: The study was designed to assess maternal perception of prenatal sonography in South-Eastern Nigeria. Method: It was carried out on a convenience sample of 150 patients by administering semi-structured questionnaires. The questionnaire contained a total of 17 questions consisting of 16 close ended ques-


tions and 1 open ended question. The questionnaire was divided into 3 sections: section A obtains information about sociodemographic characteristics, B obtains information about patient’s perception, and C obtains information about patient’s opinion. The respondents were pregnant women who presented for obstetric sonography in Federal Teaching Hospitals and Federal Medical Centers in South-Eastern Nigeria. The data was analysed descriptively using frequency tables and percentages. Results: There was high indication of clinical use of obstetric ultrasound such as health and well-being of the foetus (35.3%), foetal age determination and expected date of delivery (24.7%) rather than the non-clinical usage like determination of foetal number (4.7%). Most respondents (84.6%) perceived prenatal sonography as being necessary and 66.7% of the patients considered the result of obstetric sonography to be reliable. Majority of the respondents (88.7%) considered the services rendered during their sonographic scan to be satisfactory. Conclusions: Good patient-staff interaction, availability of more trained personnel, provision of an improved ultrasound machine, provision of waiting facilities, appropriate feedback, and standardization of a fixed cost of service, the satisfaction and perceptive of prenatal sonography could be improved.

FCS54. Imaging in Obstetrics and Gynecology/Infections in Obstetrics and Gynecology FCS54.1 HYSTEROSALPINGOGRAPHY IN EVALUATION OF GENITAL TUBERCULOSIS S.N. Tripathy, S. Tripathy. SCB Medical College, Cuttack, Odisha, India Objectives: Tubal assessment is an integral part of female fertility evaluation. Despite of recent advances in imaging tools like computerized tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasongraphy, hysterosalpingography is still the standard screening test for evaluation of tubal infertility and a valuable tool for diagnosis of female genital tuberculosis. Genital tuberculosis is a very elusive disease. and is very difficult to diagnose. Tuberculosis gives rise to various appearances on hysterosalpingography (HSG) from non-specific changes to specific findings As hysterosalpingography is a diagnostic procedure, the aim of the study is to know the definitive signs of tuberculosis in hysterosalpingography. Method: A retrospective study of 135 cases of genital tuberculosis who underwent hysterosalpingography for investigation of infertility and were subsequently diagnosed with genital tuberculosis histopathologically are taken into the study. The duration of the study is from 1970 to December 2014. The places of the study are, VSS Medical College, Burla, SCB Medical College. Cuttack, both are tertiary care hospitals and the private clinics of the authors. Results: Tubal occlusion is present in 87% cases. Hydrosalpinx with a “golf club like appearance” is found in 35% cases. “Beaded tube”, (16%), “pipestem tube” (25%), Cornual block 7%., Intravasation and extravasation of dye (21%) are other findings. Normal uterine cavity (59%), irregular cavity (23%), shrunken cavity (3%), and synechiae (15%) are observed in Uterus. Other findings are “dwarfed” uterus with lymphatic intravasation and “T-shaped” uterus, “Pseudo sunray unicornuate” uterus is observed in. Cervical findings are elongated tubes (6%) and sun ray appearances (4%). Conclusions: Most of the patients are in their third decade of life, 110 vs 25. Primary infertility more common than secondary infertility 99 vs 36. The duration of infertility, more than 5 years in majority. Hydrosalpinx may be specific or nonspecific, and moderate or slight is found in 35% cases. HSG is a simple outpatient investigation, is relatively affordable, has well established therapeutic advantages and is associated with low frequency of complications. The characteristic


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radiographic appearances on HSG are reliable indicators of genital tuberculosis. However, hysterosalpingograpphy should never be done once the disease is diagnosed. FCS54.2 THREE-DIMENSIONAL ULTRASOUND OF RECTOSIGMOID ENDOMETRIOSIS: INTRA- AND INTEROBSERVER VARIATION OF LESION SIZE A.G. Egekvist, U.S. Kesmodel, A. Forman, M. Seyer-Hansen. Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the variation within and between observers measuring volume of rectosigmoid endometriosis, by the use of transvaginal three-dimensional ultrasound. This knowledge is a prerequisite before trying to apply the method in the clinical setting. An ongoing study from our group relates growth of rectosigmoid endometriosis to the patient’s symptoms of disease. The study implies a good intra-and interobserver variation when measuring the volume of rectosigmoid endometriosis. In addition, no research has been found that investigated the intra- and interobservariation when measuring volume of rectosigmoid endometriosis in detail. Method: The study was conducted at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Aarhus University Hospital, Denmark. Threedimensional ultrasound scans of rectosigmoid endometriosis were collected using a Voluson® E8 machine (GE Healthcare, Wauwatosa, WI, USA) with a 6–12 MHz vaginal probe. Scans were chosen for analysis, on the basis of quality of the scan and demarcation of the rectosigmoid lesion. Virtual Organ Computer-aided analysis within the software of 4D View® was used to measure the volume of each lesion. Only the growth into the muscularis propria in the rectosigmoid wall was evaluated. Testing for systematic difference was done using paired t-test. Results: Thirty three-dimensional ultrasound scans were measured. In Bland Altman plots we found that the differences between and within observers were not related to the average size of the lesion. The average volume of rectosigmoid endometriosis was 1.71 cm3 . The mean difference between observers was 0.10 cm3 (95% CI: 0.02; 0.19), which was statistically significant. Ninety-five percent limits of agreements for the interobservervariation were −0.35 to 0.58 cm3 . The difference within one observer measuring the same volume twice was 0.15 cm3 (0.07; 0.23) cm3 and statistically significant. Ninety-five percent limits of agreements for the intraobserver variation was −0.27 to 0.58 cm3 . Conclusions: This study shows small variability within and between observers measuring volume of rectosigmoid endometriosis. Volume measurement of a three-dimensional ultrasound scan can be applied in the clinical setting. Earlier we have found less satisfying values for interobserver variation with two-dimensional ultrasound. Based on the average size of rectosigmoid endometriosis and the difference between and within observers, we believe that a 10% change of the size or more is clinically relevant. There is a statistically significant difference between and within observers, but the absolute magnitude is so small that it is not considered to be of clinical importance. FCS54.3 PREVALENCE OF TRICHOMONAS VAGINALIS INFECTION IN EGYPTIAN WOMEN: CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY N. Sherif. Kasr Al Ainy Medical School, Cairo, Egypt Objectives: The aim of this study is to detect T. vaginalis infection in Egyptian women attending. Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinic in Kasr Al Ainy Hospitals, and determine its prevalence, using conventional diagnostic techniques as wet mount, stain, culture and Latex agglutination test.

Method: 1000 patients from OBGYN dept Kasr El -Aini were included. they are complaining of vaginal discharge, no douching or intercourse for at least 2–3 days, no use of antibiotics, anti-protozoal or steroids. Three vaginal swabs were collected from the posterior fornix of the vagina by a sterile cotton wool swab sticks with wooden shafts to be examined as follows: The first swab was kept, for wet mount microscopy and Giemsa staining. The second swab was kept in one of the Kalon TV latex tubes and The third swab was inoculated immediately into the culture tube containing modified Diamond’s medium. Results: Table 1 the Modified Diamond culture was considered a reference, and so we compared it to the other tests, Table 2 shows the validity of the Other tests in comparison to Diamond test. Table 3 shows that there is a strong correlation between the nature of the discharge and the diagnosis of trichomonal infection, p value: 0.0001. Out of the total 50 positive cases, 30 cases were using IUD (4.3%), 10 cases pills (14.3%) and 10 cases no contraception (5.3%). These results show that, in our study, there is no correlation between the IUD use and trichomonal infection. (p value:0.669). Conclusions: Latex agglutination is a rapid commercially available kit for detection of T. vaginalis antigens It will be an important addition to the techniques available for T. vaginalis detection. It requires less technical expertise and it could be used to diagnose trichomoniasis when there is difficult access to a microscope and when culture media are not available. Therefore, it could be used as a screening test when rapid diagnostic results are required. It is also recommended to increase the health awareness of females in public health units to seek medical advice if there is any excess discharge or any abnormal symptoms. FCS54.4 PREVALENCE OF ABNORMAL PAP SMEAR AMONG WOMEN WITH SYSTEMIC LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS: CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY H. Al Sherbini, N. Sherif, H. El Ashmawy, A. Fahmy. Kasr Al Ainy Medical School, Cairo, Egypt Objectives: The aim of this cross-sectional study was to measure the prevalence of abnormal Pap smears in women with SLE and to evaluate the associations between HPV infection, the use of immunosuppressant and abnormal Pap smears among women with SLE. Method: 52patients having SLE were recruited in this study. Pap smear and HPV testing using Immunostaining analysis of the specimen was done using labeled streptavidin biotin (LSAB Kit, Dako). The smear slides were fixed overnight in absolute alcohol. After blocking. Endogenous perioxidase, (HPV) ab-3 monoclonal antibody, ready to use (thermo scientific, USA) was applied and incubated for 30 minutes, followed by secondary biotinylated antibody for 30 minutes. 3, 3’diaminobenzidine tetrahydrochloride (DAB) solution was used as the final chromoge. Negative controls for nonspecific binding; incubated with secondary antibodies only; were processed and revealed no signals. Results: According to SLEDAI scoring, 62.5% had mild disease; 31.25% had moderate and 6.25%had severe activity. Pap smear examination: all cases showed adequate cellular smears with a mixture of superficial, intermediate and parabasal epithelial cells (Fig. 1a). Neutrophilic infiltration ranged from mild to marked infiltration with no evidence of specific genital infection in any of the cases. 12.5% (4.0/32) showed ASCUS cells (Fig. 1c) and one case showed LSIL with koilocytic changes. This was confirmed by positive nuclear Immunostaining for HPV type 16 (Fig. 1d). On the other side, no cases of the control group had abnormal Pap smear findings. Conclusions: This study provides further evidence that women having SLE are at increased risk of developing cervical changes than their equivalent and highlight the importance of careful screening of those women with lupus. Thus, prospective studies are needed to ascertain the natural history of cervical atypia and HPV infection in SLE women.

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FCS54.5 SURGICAL SITE INFECTION IN OBSTETRICS, DGH EXPERIENCE F. Ajibade, P. Street, M. Nelson, L. Wallbank. Royal Berkshire Hospital, Reading, UK Objectives: The two commonest surgical procedures in obstetrics are caesarean and instrumental operative deliveries involving different surgical sites. Inadequate healing of both perineal and abdominal wound have both psychological and financial implication for all. Postoperative morbidity like wound breakdown associated with surgical site infections (SSI) can affect post-natal quality of life of patient & may also affect future maternal choice of delivery. The factors affecting wound healing in pregnancy may be totally different from other gynaecological operations. As part of clinical governance strategy a continuous audit of our practise and outcome in areas of abdominal and perineal wound is undertaken in Royal Berkshire Hospital, Reading, UK. Method: A retrospective audit are undertaken reviewing the maternity cases that return with problems relating to perineal repair & Caesarean section wound break down from December 2012 to July 2013. A list of women seen in hospital with breakdown perineum and abdominal wound was provided by the Maternity Risk Manager. Results: 1. The percentage to mode of delivery is as follows: Emergency Csection – 30%, Forceps – 30%, Elective C-section – 24%, Ventouse – 10%, SVD – 6%. 2. There is no strong correlation with BMI for both abdominal and perineal breakdown. 3. Medical conditions that affect wound break downs were Gestational Diabetes – 10%, Diabetes Type II – 3%, Induction of Labour – 10%, Pyrexia in Labour Tx with antibiotics – 6% Hx of STI – 10%. 4. The incidence of SSI for both abdominal & perineal in obstetrics showed sessional variation since the audit began with peak toward the warm months. Conclusions: The audit did not show any relationship between abdominal & perineal wound breakdown with increasing BMI. Both forceps delivery and emergency C-section have equal association with SSI infection in obstetrics however the location of infection may be different. While both sites may have different morbidity both may have equal postnatal psychological impact on the patients. Gestational diabetes and pyrexia in labour have associated risk with abdominal wound SSI and breakdown but does not show any significant association with perineal SSI. Induction of labour and history of STI has strong association with perineal wound breakdown or SSI. FCS54.6 SEROPREVALENCE OF HEPATITIS B VIRUS INFECTION AND INFECTIVITY STATUS AMONG PREGNANT WOMEN IN UMUAHIA, SOUTH-EAST NIGERIA N. Ojiegbe 1 , G. Eleje 2 , G. Nkwocha 3 , A. Igwebe 2 . 1 Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Federal Medical Centre, Umuahia, Abia State, Nigeria; 2 Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital„ Nnewi, Anambra State, Nigeria; 3 Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University College Hospital, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria Objectives: To determine the seroprevalence of Hepatitis B Surface antigen (HBsAg) and infectivity status among pregnant women. Method: A cross sectional study carried out among pregnant women attending antenatal clinic or delivering at Federal Medical Center (FMC) Umuahia was done by simple random sampling using a computer generated table of random numbers. HBsAg screening was done using an immunochromatographic test kit. The main outcome measure was detection of Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) carriage and infectivity by detecting the presence of HBsAg and HBeAg respectively in the sera. Statistical analysis was done using Epi Info 2008 version


3.5.1 and statistical significance was set at p<0.05 at 95% confidence interval. Results: A total of 300 pregnant women were recruited into the study. Of these, 5 tested positive to HBsAg, giving a seroprevalence of 1.7%. None of the five HBsAg positive pregnant women tested positive to HBeAg. The HBV/HIV co-infection rate was 0.7%. Although 40% of HBsAg positive women were in the upper socio-economic class, no bio-social characteristic was found to be associated with hepatitis B serostatus. Forty percent of the HBsAg positive pregnant women were nulliparous. Of the expected risk factors, only a previous history of contact with one with jaundice was statistically significant (p=0.003, df=1). Conclusions: The prevalence of the hepatitis B virus among the pregnant women in the study area is low and transmission is predominantly horizontal. Universal Infant Immunization with emphasis on a Birth Dose Programme and immunization of the population at risk is recommended. FCS54.7 PERINATAL TRANSMISSION OF HEPATITIS B VIRUS INFECTION IN ILE-IFE, SOUTH WESTERN NIGERIA A. Olaleye 1 , O. Kuti 2 , O. Badejoko 2 , I. Ujah 3 , A. Akintayo 4 . 1 Babcock University Teaching Hospital, Ilishan-Remo, Ogun State, Nigeria; 2 Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Osun State, Nigeria; 3 Nigeria Institute of Medical Research, Lagos State, Nigeria; 4 Ekiti State University Teaching Hospital, Ekiti State, Nigeria Objectives: To determine the perinatal transmission risk of HBV, and the maternal characteristics influencing it in Ile-Ife, Nigeria. Method: This cross-sectional study was conducted at the Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospital, Ile-Ife, Nigeria. HBsAgpositive pregnant women identified through routine antenatal screening were followed-up till delivery. Maternal and cord blood samples were obtained at delivery. The sera of each mother-baby pair were analyzed for HBsAg, HBeAg, HBeAb, HBsAb and HBcAb using an immunochromatographic 5-in-1 panel kit. Quantitative HBV-DNA was assessed using a PCR based technique. Intrauterine infection was defined as HBsAg positivity and/or HBV-DNA in neonatal blood. Confidence level was set at 95% (p<0.05). Results: Of the 716 pregnant women screened 73 (10.2%) were HBsAg-positive. Fifty of these HBsAg-positive women completed the study. Twelve (24%) of their newborns were HBsAg-positive and 36 (72%) had detectable HBV-DNA (>100 copies/ml). Overall, HBV perinatal transmission risk was 72%. High maternal HBV-DNA titre was associated with increased neonatal HBV-DNA titre (p=0.001). Parity, maternal age, and mode of delivery showed no association with perinatal transmission. Conclusions: The risk of perinatal HBV transmission in Ile-Ife is high. Perinatal transmission is increased in the presence of high maternal viremia. Appropriate prophylaxis for HBsAg-positive mothers and their newborns is advocated. FCS54.8 LOGIC MODEL EVALUATION OF MAKING VACCINATION PAINLESS IN OBSTETRICAL/GYNECOLOGICAL PRACTICE J.A. McGregor 1 , M. Perhach 2 , J. Jones 2 , J.I. French 3 . 1 University of Colorado Denver, Denver, CO, USA; 2 Group B Strep International, Pomona, CA, USA; 3 LA Best Babies Network, Los Angeles, CA, USA Objectives: Identify medical means to reduce or eliminate vaccination injection fear and/or discomfort in an effort to avoid vaccinepreventable causes of stillbirth and damaged babies at birth. Method: We performed Medline and PubMed English-language searches for controlled or uncontrolled evidence for prevention of vaccination injection pain. We hierarchically categorized recommendations according to U.S. Public Health Service (USPHS) criteria.


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Results: (1) Our review of current (FIGO/ACOG) publications showed no mention of vaccine injection pain and no means to prevent injection pain. (2) Recommendations supported by USPHS class I or II evidence include: (a) medical providers can provide distractions at the time of injection; (b) use of cold or vibration at skin site contralateral to the proposed injection site; (c) inject the most painful shot last; and (d) do not invoke “man up” imprecations or false reassurances. Conclusions: (1) Evidence from non-reproductive medicine literature demonstrates effective means to reduce vaccination injection pain. (2) The listed USPHS recommended suggestions can be utilized without cost or difficulty in clinical OB/GYN practice.

FCS55. Infections in Obstetrics and Gynecology FCS55.1 PRIMARY BEHAVIORAL PREVENTION OF FETAL DEATH AND CONGENITAL INFECTION CAUSED BY MATERNAL INFECTION USING A CHECKLIST-ENABLED ACRONYM PROMPT “LESS BABY TORCHES” J.A. McGregor 1 , M. Perhach 2 , J. Jones 2 , J.I. French 3 , J. Christian 4 . 1 University of Colorado Denver, Denver, CO, USA; 2 Group B Strep International, Pomona, CA, USA; 3 LA Best Babies Network, Los Angeles, CA, USA; 4 PHCC, LP, Pueblo, CO, USA Objectives: Using established microbiologic, epidemiologic, and systems-based pregnancy care knowledge, we collaboratively modified a widely-known medical-teaching mnemonic “TORCHES” for 1) recognizing/remembering important and preventable “textbook” causes of vertical infections which may lead to fetal death (FD) (including stillbirth) or congenital infection (CI), and 2) enabling a novel teaching device for both pregnancy providers and patients to enable locally practicable evidence-based, behavioral prevention strategies. Method: We employed “Logic Analysis” systematic literature review and responded to parent enquiries via crowdsourcing. Results: We propose “LESS BABY TORCHES” as follows to enable, inform, and guide primary behavioral prevention of FD or CIs: L for Listeria (food selection/preparation) and Leishmaniasis (bug bite avoidance); E for Enteroviruses (hygiene, food preparation, handwashing); S for Syphilis (avoid new sex contacts, use condoms); S for Seasonal infections such as influenza (immunization) and West Nile Virus (avoid mosquito bites); B for Group B streptococcus (ensure CDC/ACOG recommendations); A for Asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB/Urinary tract infection screening); B for Borrelia species (Lyme disease/tick precautions); Y for Barnyard leptospirosis (hygiene); T for Toxoplasma gondii (food selection/preparation) and Tuberculosis (vaccination); others to follow. Conclusions: 1) We derived an expanded behavior-oriented checklist that may be individualized on the basis of location, season, environment, lifestyle, food style, and personal factor (immunization status) evidence-based prevention strategies. 2) Individually generated checklists can enable behavior change and generate patient problem lists for providers, payors, and policy makers. 3) Generated checklists may be incorporated into electronic medical records (EMRs) and be adapted to become quality performance standards (HEDIS, USPHS, WHO) which may also lessen morbidity costs and liabilities.

FCS55.2 REDUCING PERINATAL INFECTION RISKS FROM SEXUALLY TRANSMISSIBLE COMPONENTS OF THE REPRODUCTIVE TRACT MICROBIOME THROUGH PARENTAL BEHAVIOR CHANGES: A CROWDSOURCED-INSPIRED ANALYSIS J.A. McGregor 1 , M. Perhach 2 , J. Jones 2 , J.I. French 3 . 1 University of Colorado Denver, Denver, CO, USA; 2 Group B Strep International, Pomona, CA, USA; 3 LA Best Babies Network, Los Angeles, CA, USA Objectives: Devise biologically-based primary prevention behavioral strategies to reduce risks of potentially lethal or damaging vertical infections caused by genito-urinary/reproductive microbiome microorganisms. Method: We agglomerated questions and answers regarding microbiologic and infectious disease (ID) into action-oriented responses. Results: 1) Enquiring parents readily comprehended (microbe-host) pathophysiological principles including necessity to “screen and treat” commonly accepted STDs (or venereal disease [VD]) which are recommended to be screened during pregnancy by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG), or other bodies. 2) Parents frequently express frustration and dismay that pregnant women are not screened for recognized bacterial, viral, fungal, or pathologic vaginal microflora such as “bacterial vaginosis (BV)” or dysbiosis. 3) Once informed, parents readily understood that various microbes (e.g., GBS, CMV, and HSV) may be transmitted or inoculated during sexual contact. Conclusions: Understanding of possible transmission methods may lead to new research initiatives to reduce the risk of GBS disease. FCS55.3 PRIMARY PREVENTION OF PRETERM BIRTH ASSOCIATED WITH PREVALENT REPRODUCTIVE TRACT INFECTION: A CRITICAL TIME AND TREATMENT ANALYSIS FOCUSING ON BACTERIAL VAGINOSIS AND ABNORMAL VAGINAL MICROFLORA J.A. McGregor 1 , M. Perhach 2 , J. Jones 2 , J.I. French 3 . 1 University of Colorado Denver, Denver, CO, United States of America; 2 Group B Strep International, Pomona, CA, United States of America; 3 LA Best Babies Network, Los Angeles, CA, United States of America Objectives: Analyze selected prospective controlled trials evaluating primary prevention of preterm birth (PTB) or late miscarriage (LM) associated with bacterial vaginosis (BV) and/or related abnormal vaginal microflora for factors associated with clinical success. Method: Searches in Medline, PubMed and Cochrane Database indexes were conducted to identify English language studies published which reported experimental trials of antibiotic treatment intended to reduce risk of PTB, LM, and related other outcomes among asymptomatic women with BV or related abnormal vaginal bacteria. Results: Ten studies met evaluation criteria. Four study characteristics associated with ≥0.50 reduction in PTB or LM were identified: 1) early (<20 weeks gestation) screening and completed treatment; 2) clindamycin (macrolide/lincosamide) oral or topical treatment; 3) comprehensive “screen and treat” study designs in which prevalent reproductive tract infections (RTIs) were systematically identified and treated; and 4) timely “test of cure” (TOC) with indicated re-treatment. Overall, populations at highest risk of idiopathic/unexplained PTB benefitted most, as did African-American women. Metronidazole treatment was observed to be beneficial when given early in pregnancy. Conclusions: Trials evaluating prevention of PTB and/or LM demonstrated biologically plausible and clinically practicable features that were associated with improved outcomes: 1) early gestation screening and treatment of BV and/or abnormal microflora followed by TOC with indicated re-treatment; 2) use of oral or vaginal clindamycin for

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treatment at ≤20 weeks gestation; and 3) comprehensive screening and treatment of prevalent genito-urinary infections and BV. Benefits tended to be greatest in populations with higher rates of PTB. These findings can inform both future research design and clinical care strategies designed to prevent PTB and associated sequelae caused by susceptible infections/BV and inflammation. FCS55.4 RELAPAROTOMY AFTER GYNECOLOGICAL & OBSTETRICAL OPERATION IN DEPARTMENT OF OBSTETRICS & GYNECOLOGY OF RAJSHAHI MEDICAL COLLEGE HOSPITAL, BANGLADESH – EXPERIENCE OF ONE YEAR S. Razzaque, S. Jesmin. Rajshahi Medical College Hospital, Rajshahi, Bangladesh Objectives: Relaparotomy is a life saving measure where early abdominal second interventions have advocated for various complications arising from primary surgery. Now a days with the rising trend of caesarian section in Bangladesh, the rate of post operative complications are also gradually increasing. Among the gynecological operations total abdominal hysterectomy accounted for majority of surgery with significant morbidity. Objective of this study is analysis of cases requiring relaparotomy following primary surgery in obstetrics and gynecology, its incidence, indications, risk factors and outcome of patients in a tertiary referral hospital. So that measures can be taken to prevent these dreadful emergency situations. Method: A cross-sectional observational study during a period of one year from July 2013 to June 2014 in the department of Obstetrics and Gynecology of Rajshahi Medical College Hospital (RMCH) of Bangladesh was performed. All the cases among which relaparotomy were done after primary surgery were recorded following a prepared questionnaire protocol. The data were collected from patients and attendants history, operation theater records, discharge and referral notes of the primary operations. Demographic profile, indications of primary operations, indications of relaparotomy and outcome were assessed in 66 patients who underwent a relaparotomy after the initial obstetric or gynecological surgery. Results: Total 17,452 patients were admitted in department of Obs & Gynae, RMCH during the study period, about 6721 patients needed emergency operations, among them 66 patients underwent relaparotomy. Incidence was 0.98%. Indications of relaparotomy included intraperitoneal haemorrhage (26%), pyoperitoneum (26%), postpartum haemorrhage (29%), rectus sheath haematoma (12%), burst abdomen (5%) and retained foreign body (2%). Often more than one procedure was needed to manage the cases. Total 12 patients died after relaparotomy. Death occurs due to renal failure in 7 patients, in haemorragic shock 3 and DIC in 2 cases. Conclusions: Relaparotomy causes much morbidity & mortality with increase in hospital stay and cost. Though many cases required reoperations after gynecological surgeries but mortality was more in reoperations done after primary obstetrical surgeries. Careful selection of cases for primary operation, expertise of the surgeon, good surgical technique and careful postoperative follow-up can reduce the need for relaparotomy. FCS55.5 TYPE OF CAUSATIVE ORGANISM, ITS CLINICAL CORRELATION AND ANTIBIOTIC SENSITIVITY IN CASE OF SEPTIC ABORTION F. Bayeskakan. Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University, Dhaka, Bangladesh Objectives: Abortion is a sensitive and contentious issue with religious, moral, culture and political dimensions. It is also a public health concern in many parts of the world. Infected abortion is the one of the major cause of maternal mortality in developing countries. To perform a correlation analysis between bacterial pattern and


antibiotic sensitivity for buildup standard antibiotic schedule for the treatment. Method: This cross sectional study was done in admitted patients with infected abortion in dept. of Obs & Gynae of Dhaka Medical College Hospital from January - December 2007, without antibiotics for last two weeks. high vaginal swab was taken from posterior fornix of vagina. Specimens were inoculated in to three Medias (Blood Brain Agar, Mac Conkey’s Ager, and Muller Hinton Ager) at 37°c temperature for 48 hours. Then injectable antibiotic was used empirically and changed according to culture sensitivity report. Data was analyzed by SPSSV 12. Measures of dispersion (mean, standard deviation), test of significance (χ2 test), t test was performed. Results: Total 56 patients were enrolled by purposive sampling. 82% were clinically presented with vaginal bleeding, 62% with pain abdomen and 14% with abdominal distension. Anaerobic culture was unavailable. Organisms were E coli (75.4%), Klebsiolla (56.4%), Proteus (17%), Pseudomonas (31.2%), Staphylococcus (3%) which were sensitive to Cephalosporin, 4-Amino Quinolones and Penicillin. Causative organisms are multiple in varieties. No growth was found in 8.5%. After antibiotic and blood transfusion, surgery was needed in 85.72% cases, includes evacuation, dilatation & curettage, repair, laparotomy followed by total abdominal hysterectomy. One Patient was died of septic shock in study period. Conclusions: Proper antibiotic should be applied to prevent the untoward consequence of septic abortion, as well as contraceptive practice should be improved. FCS55.6 PARTNER DISCLOSURE OF HIV STATUS IN PREVENTION OF MOTHER TO CHILD TRANSMISSION PROGRAMME IN NIGERIA P. Odusolu 1 , S. Ochejele 2 , J. Ekabua 1 . 1 University of Calabar Teaching Hospital, Calabar, Nigeria; 2 Federal Medical Center, Markudi, Nigeria Objectives: Male partner involvement is an effective intervention in Prevention of Mother to Child transmission (PMTCT) programmes. The objective of this study was to determine the effectiveness of male partner notification by HIV positive women in the PMTCT programme and to identify gaps that can be improved upon to facilitate the successful implementation of PMTCT programme. Method: The PMTCT registers from January to December, 2008 at the UNICEF supported PMTCT facilities of six states (Akwa Ibom, Bayelsa, Benue, Ebonyi, Enugu and Rivers) were reviewed retrospectively. The states are among those with the highest HIV prevalence in Nigeria. Results: During the one year study period a total of 94,579 pregnant women accessed PMTCT services and 86,069 (91%) of them accepted HIV counseling and testing. Out of those women tested, 13,773 (16%) were HIV Positive and 7,255 (52.3%) of them agreed to partner notification. A total of 1,315 (18.3%) of the partners responded and 87.6% of them accepted HIV testing. Six hundred and three (52.3%) were HIV positive, giving a sero discordant status rate of 47.3%. Conclusions: Appropriate counseling of all women who register for antenatal should be explored to achieve universal HIV testing. The number of male partners who responded and had HIV Counseling and Testing was low compared to the number of women who agreed to partner notification. It is not known if all the male partners were actually notified. However, strategies should be developed to ensure direct male partner participation.


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FCS55.7 UPTAKE AND OUTCOME OF PREVENTION OF MOTHER TO CHILD TRANSMISSION OF HUMAN IMMUNO-DEFICIENCY VIRUS PROGRAMME IN FEDERAL TEACHING HOSPITAL ABAKALIKI IN NIGERIA – 2013 P. Ezeonu, J. Agboeze, R. Onoh, N. Matthew, O. Agboeze. Federal Teaching Hospital, Abakaliki, Nigeria, Nigeria Objectives: Mother-to-child transmission of HIV constitutes a substantial burden of new HIV infections in sub-Saharan Africa. Prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) faces the challenges of access to and utilisation of ante-natal clinic (ANC) services. Loss to follow-up continues to undermine the effectives PMTCT. Method: We conducted a descriptive cross-sectional study of 269 mother-infant pairs enrolled into the PMTCT programme of the Hospital between January and December 2013. We obtain information on socio-demographic characteristics, parity, HAART use by the mother, Gestational age at booking, prophylaxis given at birth and feeding options. We screened all newborns based on national PMTCT guidelines.We conducted bivariate and multivariate analyses to determine factors associated with effective PMTCT. Results: A total 64 (23.6%) women had at least four antenatal visits, 144 (53.5%) delivered in the hospital. Only 64 (23.6%) were on HAART during pregnancy. All the 15 (5.5%) transmission had occurred by 6 weeks postpartum, the mothers were not on HAART and 12 (80%) practiced exclusive breast feeding. Reasons for not attending ANC regularly was long distance from home 104 (50.7%), for delivering at home was lack of efficient means of transportation 69 (55.2%) and for exclusive breastfeeding was cost 198 (73.6%). Most 133 ((64.9%) of those not on HAART during pregnancy had poor knowledge of PMTCT. Conclusions: Exclusive breastfeeding and non use of HAART were associated with increased risk of HIV transmission. Community sensitization on the importance of PMTCT, Provision of wider access to HAART and support for safer infant feeding practices are recommended. FCS55.8 GYNECOLOGICAL INFECTION OF HUMAN PAPILLOMA VIRUS GENOTYPES IN MORELIA MICHOACÁN I.-N. Maria Ayumi, J.-G. Irvin, S.-G. Beatriz. Star Medica, Morelia, Mexico Objectives: Identify the various gynecologic manifestations of the human papilloma virus genotypes. Method: We studied 64 patients with positive PCR result for human papilloma virus, determining viral type, cytology, colposcopy and histopathologic confirmation of the clinical manifestation as well as search for other associated infections. Results: Only 9% (6/64) has coinfection, i.e. more than a viral type. Between 28 to 38 years, is the most affected age group 52% (33/64). The viral types, more frequent were 31.33, 51, 39, 16 and 59 among others. The 11% (7/64) is a carrier of the infection. The 14% (9/64) condylomata. 41% (26/64) presence of Koilocytes. 16% (19/64) CIN 1. 1 9% (6/64) CIN 2. 8% (5/64) CERVICAL CANCER in situ and 1% adenocarcinoma. In the high-grade lesions were detected various viral types 33, 51, 16, 39, 45 and 59. Conclusions: Starting from the local incidence of HPV infection that is 9% of the population. In this study, the coinfection, did not determine the severity of the injury. The 18% of the patients affected by human papilloma virus presented high-grade lesions and cancer in situ. The vast majority 71% studying with gynecological manifestation of low grade. The 11% is asymptomatic carrier. In the high-grade lesions, the viral types were frequent, 33, 51, 16, 39, 45 and 59. This study provides an understanding of the variability of viral types as well as its presentation gynecological in our population.

FCS56. Infections in Obstetrics and Gynecology FCS56.1 HOW REAL IS THE THREAT OF FATAL CLOSTRIDIAL INFECTION? VAGINAL AND RECTAL CLOSTRIDIUM SORDELLII AND CLOSTRIDIUM PERFRINGENS PRESENCE AMONG WOMEN IN THE UNITED STATES E. Chong 1 , D. Charles 1 , K. Agnew 2 , B. Limbago 3 , D. Citron 4 , B. Winikoff 1 . 1 Gynuity Health Projects, New York, NY, USA; 2 University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA; 3 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA; 4 RM Alden Research Laboratory, Culver City, CA, USA Objectives: Obstetric and gynecologic infections with Clostridium sordellii and Clostridium perfringens have resulted in a toxic shocklike syndrome with a very high fatality rate. This study aimed to characterize the presence of these bacteria in the vagina and rectum, identify correlates of presence and presence of key toxins, and describe antimicrobial susceptibility. Method: A quasi-representative sample of reproductive-age women in the U.S. were screened at up to three time points using vaginal and rectal swabs analyzed by PCR and culture methods. We used multivariate regression models to explore predictors of presence. Isolate identification was confirmed through MALDI-TOF, strains were characterized by PFGE, and PCR assays tested for toxins. We tested 90 isolates of each species for susceptibility to 10 antimicrobials by the CLSI reference agar dilution method. Results: Of 4152 participants, 3% were positive for C. sordellii and 10% for C. perfringens at baseline. Presence of the bacteria was not associated with any adverse outcomes, and the vast majority who had positive results for the bacteria had negative results at the following visit. Pregnancy status, antibiotic usage, and undergoing an abortion were not associated with presence. Two of 238 C. sordellii isolates contained the lethal toxin gene and none contained the hemorrhagic toxin gene. Both species were 100% susceptible to seven antimicrobials, with highest rates of resistance seen for doxycycline. Conclusions: The relatively rare and transient nature of C. sordellii and C. perfringens presence in the vagina and rectum make it inadvisable to use any screening or prophylactic approach to try to prevent clostridial infection. FCS56.2 CLINICAL APPLICATION OF NEXT-GENERATION SEQUENCING AND DRUG RESISTANCE MARKERS TO INFORM TREATMENT FOR BACTERIAL VAGINOSIS D. Bostwick, W. Budd, G. Meyers, D. Li, M. Harwich, L. Leslie, T. Reynolds. American International Biotechnology, Richmond, VA, USA Objectives: Clinical management of bacterial vaginosis (BV) is difficult owing to inaccurate diagnostic tests and limited drug choices. The result is a rate of high recurrence. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) provides a complete and accurate description of the composition of the polymicrobial vaginal microbiome as well as related drug (antibiotic) resistance mutations, and may assist with the clinical challenge of BV. Method: A case: control study (1:1 age-matched with and without BV) was undertaken in a community setting of 326 non-gravid women of reproductive age with symptoms of BV to determine the prevalence of drug resistance mutations. NGS was used to describe the complete vaginal microbiota and identify bacterial mutations associated with resistance, including macrolides and/or lincosamides: ermA, ermB, ermC, erM, ermTR, and mefA; tetracyclines, beta lactams, streptomycin, gentamicin, and/or tobramycin: AcrA, AcrB, Mec A, tet, tetA, TolC, and aac2; 5-nitroimadazoles: NIM and NIMB; and triazoles: CDR1 and mdr1. An evidence base was created to inform treatment decisions applicable to individual patients.

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Results: Antibiotic resistance mutations were identified in all drug classes: macrolides, 35.2%; lincosamides, 35.6%; tetracyclines, 21.8%; aminoglycosides (streptomycin, gentamicin, and tobramycin), 5.2% each; 5-nitroimidazoles, 0.3%; and triazoles, 18.7%. There was more than a four-fold higher frequency of drug resistance mutations in pathogens from BV than non-BV patients for macrolides (58.2% vs. 12.3%, respectively); lincosamides (58.9% vs. 12.3%); and tetracyclines (35.6% vs. 8.0%) (Fisher’s exact tests; all p<0.000001). For each patient with BV, the spectrum of resistance markers in their personal microbiomes was matched to the pathogens present as well as to the non-pathogenic lactobacilli. Conclusions: Antibiotic resistance is a common finding in patients, especially those with bacterial vaginosis. NGS allows rapid assessment without culturing of all organisms present (bacteria, fungi, parasites, and viruses), supporting personalized clinical management of BV by: (1) separating vaginitis caused by candidiasis, trichomonas, or sexually-transmitted infections from BV; (2) revealing the complete spectrum of pathogens (and non-pathogens) present, allowing full drug coverage; (3) documenting multiple drug resistance mutations at the same time, recognizing the polymicrobial nature of BV and other forms of vaginitis; (4) ensuring optimal antibiotic stewardship by avoiding antibiotic resistance; and (5) identifying alternative drugs unencumbered by resistance mutations. FCS56.3 THE EFFECTS OF LACTOBACILLI ON GARDNERELLA VAGINALIS BIOFILM R. Na 1 , X. Niu 1 , B. Wang 2 , B. Xiao 1 , R. Zhang 1 , Q. Liao 2 . 1 Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Peking University First Hospital, Beijing, China; 2 Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Beijing tsingha changgung hospital, Beijing, China Objectives: To observe the growth of Gardnerella vaginalis biofilm in vitro and the effects of lactobacilli on the formation of Gardnerella vaginalis biofilm. Method: We cultivated Gardnerella vaginalis ATCC14018 in vitro to form the biofilm and assessed the amount and the morphology of biofilm at 4h, 8h, 12h, 16h, 20h, 24h, 48h, 72h, 96h and 7th day respectively. Then, we added equal amount of lactobacilli at 0h, 24h, 48h after the biofilm had formed and co-cultivateed these bacteria for another 24h to observe the formation of Gardnerella vaginalis biofilm with LIVE/DEAD BacLight Bacterial Viability Kit. The five strains of lactobacilli were isolated, purified and identified by the laboratory of gynecology in Peking University First Hospital from the vaginal secretes of health women. Results: The OD values were significantly different at various time points by micro-quantitative analysis. Scanning electron microscope images showed that the scattered single colony existed at 4–20h and began to aggregate at 24h. The images also showed that the colonies attached mutually were surrounded by extracellular polymeric substance at 48h, but there were no changes after 48h. By fluorescent staining, we observed that biofilm became thinned and dispersed at 0h, 24h after adding Lactobacilli. However, there were no differences in density of the colonies. The number of dead bacteria increased and Lactobacilli were the major live bacteria at 48h. Conclusions: Our results suggest that the process of biofilm formation is relatively slow. Gardnerella vaginalis begin to form biofilm at 24h after cultivation and the biofilm come to be mature after 48h approximately. Lactobacilli can also interfere the formation of biofilm, and different species of lactobacilli have various effects on the biofilm when in different periods of formation.


FCS56.4 GENITAL TUBERCULOSIS SERIAL CASE A DILEMMATIC DIAGNOSTIC M. Dewita, B. Budiman, Y. Lisnawati. Faculty of Medicine University of Indonesia, Jakarta, Indonesia Objectives: Genital tuberculosis of women is part of extra pulmonary forms of tuberculosis. The causative agent is, in most cases, Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Genital tract is commonly affected secondary to a primary lession via peritoneal, hematogenous or lympatic spread. Most patients with genital tuberculosis present with infertility, abdominopelvic pain, or menstrual irregularity. The definitive diagnosis is made by microbiology and histology. Bec